1 distributed-systems-template-modified


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1 distributed-systems-template-modified

  1. 1. EEDC 34330ExecutionEnvironments for Distributed SystemsDistributedComputingMaster in Computer Architecture,Networks and Systems - CANS Homework number: 1 Group number: 51, 52, 53 Group members: Hui Shang – shanghui89@gmail.com Malik Adnan – malikadnan78@gmail.com Zafar Gilani – zafargilani@gmail.com
  2. 2. Outline What are Distributed Systems (DS)? Why do we need Distributed Systems? Different types and applications Advantages and Disadvantages An example of DS - Space Shuttle Challenges and Future perspective Questions? 2
  3. 3. What are Distributed Systems? Many inter-communicating autonomous entities scattered over a region. - Solar system, earth-moon system,ecosystem… A collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single coherent system - world wide web, network of stations… “ you know you have a distributed system when the crash of a computer you have never heard of stops you from getting any work done.” – Leslie Lamport The World is distributed! 3
  4. 4. Why do we need Distributed Systems? Collaboration among specialized entities works more efficiently. ex: How five senses of your brain work? Deciding what to eat: – aroma (how it smells) – texture (how it looks) – … Availability of powerful yet cheap microprocessors and continuing advances in communication technology. 4
  5. 5. DS in the nature Solar system: relevance to inner planets and their motion. Earth-moon system: relevance to how water currents move over the surface of the earth. Ecosystem: Insects and amphibians,Trees and crops, Vegetables and fruits… 5
  6. 6. Some examples of DS applications The world wide web Network of branch office computers- information system to handle automatic processing of orders. - Banking systems, ebay … Telephone and cellular networks Sensor networks. Aircraft systems. manufacturing systems - automated assembly line .. and more! 6
  7. 7. Organization of DS A distributed system organized as middleware. The middleware layer extends over multiputle machines. 7
  8. 8. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages - Economics cost effective way to increase computing power - Speed more computing power than mainframe - Reliability (fault tolerance) If one machine crashes, the system as a whole can survive - Inherent distribution many applications involve, by their nature, spatially separated machines - Incremental growth Computing power grow by adding new machines - Sharing of resources banking, reservation systems, printers… 8
  9. 9. Advantages and Disadvantages Disadvantages - Software What kind of operating system, programming language and applications ? - Network Problems are created by network infrastructure, loss of messages, overloading… - Security Sharing generate the problem of data security - More points of failure 9
  10. 10. Example:DS in space shuttleWhy DS? Major components: – Orbiters, – Recoverable boosters, – External tanks, – Payloads, – Supporting infrastructure These components are controlled by multiple custom made supercomputers during the launch and re-entry procedures. Too complex for the humans to control!! DS can balance the workload. 10
  11. 11. How DS makes it work? Each shuttle had five supercomputers. Each was fed by measurements from thousands of sensors installed all over the shuttle. The computers then voted for the most optimal solution. 11
  12. 12. Challenges of Distributed System Secure communication over public networks - anyone else see or change the message? Build fault-tolerant system - building reliable system for unreliable components - nodes fail independently Replication, caching ,naming - placing data and computation for effective resource sharing Coordination and shared state - how to make agreement? 12
  13. 13. The future Internet is going to get bigger and bigger! Inter-planetary internet before the advent of humans on other planets? 13
  14. 14. DS application in the futureMore applications on the following: Cloud computing. Online distributed file repository: – Hadoop Wireless energy transfer And more… 14
  15. 15. The future .. 15
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