Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk:
opportunities and constraints
Team:
• Egor Zadereev, SFU (Russia) – supervisor
• Hanna Skryhan, BRU (Belarus)
• Irina Shilova, BRU (Belarus)
• Shailendr...
Research question
• What are the weaknesses in existing
governance of spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk
city and how can the...
Objectives
1. To understand existing problems associated with
spatial planning.
2. To identify causes of existing problems...
Methodology
• Case-study approach
• Problem analysis (STEEPL and SWOT analysis)
• Stakeholder analysis
• Institutional ana...
Data and sources
• Legislative documents (federal, regional, local);
• Master plan and supplementary materials;
• Scheme o...
List of interviews
Person Time
1 Anton Shatalov, chief architect “Krasnoyarskgrazhdanproekt” 07-22-2013
2 Igor Veriovkin, ...
Person Function
1 Anton Shatalov Architect: development of architectural image of the city.
2 Igor Veriovkin
Aleksander Ts...
Introduction:
Historical and physical background
XVII-XVIII centuries
The colonization of Siberia by Russians
Major city functions and
properties:
• to control the territo...
XIX century
The Siberian Golden Fever, Trans-Siberian Railway
City – The Capital
30,000 inhabitants,
30 factories, the cit...
XX century (first half)
The reallocation of industry during the WorldWar2
City – The Factory
300,000 inhabitants,
develope...
XX century (second half)
Mega projects to “extract” Siberia
City – The Mega Factory
900,000 inhabitants,
A lot of industry...
Krasnoyarsk now –
is a mixture of
different
styles, different
ages, different
functions built-up
areas
Modern spatial stru...
Cottage housing
“Old” Krasnoyarsk
Modern elite cottage
villages
“Stalin” and “Hruschov” housing
Modern housing blocks
Business, public and commercial spaces
Industrial areas
Infrastructural areas
Green areas
The legacy of the past
Industrial zones along the banks of Enisey. Mixture of
industrial and housing zones (legacy of Worl...
Separate districts (“villages”) around huge plants which make
the city sprawling (legacy of XX century)
Additional costs t...
Problem analysis:
Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk:
opportunities and constraints
Problem analysis
STEEPL analysis (I)
Social aspects Technological aspects Political aspects
- positive growth of
populatio...
Problem analysis
STEEPL analysis (II)
Economic aspects Environmental aspects Legislative aspects
- investment attractivene...
Problem analysis
SWOT-analysis (I)
STRENTH WEAKNESS
Krasnoyarsk is a large industrial center in
Siberia with huge industri...
Problem analysis
SWOT-analysis (II)
Opportunities Threats
- growing population (“developing
city”);
- geomorphological con...
Stakeholder analysis:
Actors in a spatial planning play
Levels of actors
1. Federal: Parliament, Ministries, Agencies
2. Federal district (Okrug): Presidential
representative, de...
Functions of actors: Federal and Okrug levels
Federal – legislature, executive bodies:
1. Ministry of Natural Resources an...
Actor analysis: Regional level
1. Legislative assembly
Rule-making
2. Executive bodies
• Ministry of Energy and Housing
Ov...
Actor analysis: City and District levels
City (Municipal)
1. City Council
Rule-making
2. City administration
• Department ...
Actor analysis: Across the levels
1. Business
• Industrial companies
• Construction companies
• Investing companies
2. NGO...
Area of
administrative
units (km2):
• Federation –
17,098,246
• Okrug – 5,114,800
• Krai – 2,366,797
• City – 380
• Distri...
City districts
District
Area
(km2) Population
Zhelezno-
dorozhnyj 18 95 000
Kirov 46 115 000
Lenin 58 150 000
October 86 1...
Scales of Planning Interests
Federal authorities
Federal district
authorities
Krai authorities
City authorities
District
a...
Power grid
Legitimacy is acceptance of group’s authority by other groups, power is an ability to
influence the actions of ...
Local officials
Planners,
architects
Investors,
developers
Vulnerable and
marginal groups
of citizens
Civil self-
organize...
Description
A conflicts caused by contradicting visions on spatial urban planning and city architecture
B conflicts based ...
Description
L conflicts between legislative and executive agencies, lobby groups, etc.
M conflicts within the community of...
Actors: opportunities and constraints (I)
opportunitiesconstraints
Participation strongly
depends on the leadership
within...
Actors: opportunities and constraints (II)
opportunitiesconstraints
Large number of governance
levels with actors of highe...
Institutional analysis:
Spatial planning: decision making
process and public participation
Level /
scale
Legislation (Codes, laws) Regulation (rules,
norms)
Programs, Instructions
Federal - Urban development Code;...
Level /
scale
Legislation
(Codes, laws)
Regulation (rules, norms) Programs, Instructions
Local
(city &
district)
- Statute...
Informal institutions for spatial planning process
Lobbying of interests by business groups in City Council, City
Administ...
Institutions: opportunities and constraints (I)
opportunitiesconstraints
Absence of regional urban
development norms
Appro...
Institutions: opportunities and constraints (II)
opportunitiesconstraints
Lack of information about public
hearings
Inform...
Institutions: opportunities and constraints (III)
opportunitiesconstraints
There is no specialized department
responsible ...
How far from good governance? (I)
Indicator Definition Score Explanations
Participation Participation by both men and wome...
How far from good governance? (II)
Indicator Definition Score Explanations
Consensus
oriented
Mediation of the different i...
Conclusions: Focal issues
• Making people believe in use of deliberation /
cooperation with other groups
• Nurturing leade...
Conclusions: Solutions /
suggestions (I)
Solving the trust issue:
• Better coverage by media of
governmental initiatives, ...
Conclusions: Solutions /
suggestions (II)
Solving communication problem:
• Creating ‘communication loop’ of planning,
desi...
Thank you for your attention
Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints

759

Published on

Case-study performed by the international team of mid-career professionals during the summer school

Published in: Education, Technology, Real Estate
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
759
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
32
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints"

  1. 1. Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints
  2. 2. Team: • Egor Zadereev, SFU (Russia) – supervisor • Hanna Skryhan, BRU (Belarus) • Irina Shilova, BRU (Belarus) • Shailendra Kumar Mandal, NIT Patna (India) • Viktar Kireyeu, CNIIKIWR (Belarus) • Wanyu Shih, UNU-IAS (Japan)
  3. 3. Research question • What are the weaknesses in existing governance of spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk city and how can they be mitigated?
  4. 4. Objectives 1. To understand existing problems associated with spatial planning. 2. To identify causes of existing problems. – Natural constraints – Infrastructure constraints – Social context – Historical legacies – Institutional constraints 3. To explore potential governance mechanisms to mitigate these problems. 4. To develop governance strategies to improve spatial planning process in the city.
  5. 5. Methodology • Case-study approach • Problem analysis (STEEPL and SWOT analysis) • Stakeholder analysis • Institutional analysis • Interviewing • Participation observation • Historical review • Documentary analysis • Field trip
  6. 6. Data and sources • Legislative documents (federal, regional, local); • Master plan and supplementary materials; • Scheme of spatial planning of Krasnoyarsk krai; • Web-pages of Krai Government, City Administration; Union of builders and developers; • Interviews; • Observations
  7. 7. List of interviews Person Time 1 Anton Shatalov, chief architect “Krasnoyarskgrazhdanproekt” 07-22-2013 2 Igor Veriovkin, deputy head of economical department of the city; Aleksander Tsaplin, deputy head of economical department of the city 07-23-2013 3 Anton Lukin, head of protect environmental office of municipal services department; Nataliya Morosova, deputy head of protect environmental office of municipal services department 07-23-2013 07-24-2013 4 Olga Kovalenko, head of office of spatial planning documents preparation and landuse rules (urban development department) 07-23-2013 5 Aleksander Gliskov, City Council deputy 07-23-2013 6 Yulia Ivanova, researcher of of Institute of Biophysics (Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences) 07-23-2013 7 Nikolai Diadechkin, architect, senior lecturer of SFU 07-23-2013 8 Yurii Podoprigora, former Executive Chief of the Builder Union of Krasnoyarsk Krai, member of Public Council of Krasnoyarsk Krai Ministry of construction and architecture 07-24-2013
  8. 8. Person Function 1 Anton Shatalov Architect: development of architectural image of the city. 2 Igor Veriovkin Aleksander Tsaplin Local officials: social-economical analysis of the city. Definition of socio-economic city policy direction and priority; definition of forms and methods of effective use of city potential and financial resources to purpose of city life activity normal working. Economical planning. 3 Anton Lukin Nataliya Morosova Local official: organize and control of street cleaning; Local official: collection, treatment and burial of solid waste. Definition of perfect landfills. 4 Olga Kovalenko Local official: development of architectural image of the city, development of target specification for master plan, land use control by architectural activity 5 Aleksander Gliskov Deputy, legislative authority 6 Yulia Ivanova Researcher: collection and processing of environmental information, mapping of environmental state of the city. 7 Nikolai Diadechkin Teaching, planer / architect. 8 Yurii Podoprigora Developer, member of civil self-organized group
  9. 9. Introduction: Historical and physical background
  10. 10. XVII-XVIII centuries The colonization of Siberia by Russians Major city functions and properties: • to control the territory • to establish and control trade with indigenous people and nomads • to provide the flow of goods to “metropolis” The quality of life is not an issue City – The Fortress Taiga (forest) (hunters, fisherman, in digenous people) Steppe Nomad tribes (Mongolians, Kyrgyz) Kazaks 2000 inhabitants, 200-300 houses, practically burned out in 1773
  11. 11. XIX century The Siberian Golden Fever, Trans-Siberian Railway City – The Capital 30,000 inhabitants, 30 factories, the city was almost burned out in 1881 Major city functions and properties: • the railway station (the integrity of the country) • the capital of the Enisey Guberniya • to control trade and resource extraction over the huge area • to provide the flow of goods and money to “metropolis” - The quality of life was for the first time considered as an issue - City center is established
  12. 12. XX century (first half) The reallocation of industry during the WorldWar2 City – The Factory 300,000 inhabitants, developed machinery and other industry Major city functions and properties: • to enhance industrial production • to provide the flow of industrial output to save country - The quality of life is not an issue - The districts around the factories are established (city is a batch of “villages”) - The quality of environment abruptly decreased
  13. 13. XX century (second half) Mega projects to “extract” Siberia City – The Mega Factory 900,000 inhabitants, A lot of industry Major city functions and properties: • to control, operate and support mega projects of natural resource extraction over the huge area • to provide the flow of resources and industrial output to the country - The quality of life is minor issue - The city is a batch of districts around factories - The quality of environment continuous to decrease
  14. 14. Krasnoyarsk now – is a mixture of different styles, different ages, different functions built-up areas Modern spatial structure of the city
  15. 15. Cottage housing “Old” Krasnoyarsk Modern elite cottage villages
  16. 16. “Stalin” and “Hruschov” housing
  17. 17. Modern housing blocks
  18. 18. Business, public and commercial spaces
  19. 19. Industrial areas
  20. 20. Infrastructural areas
  21. 21. Green areas
  22. 22. The legacy of the past Industrial zones along the banks of Enisey. Mixture of industrial and housing zones (legacy of WorldWar2) Can be used as a historical core Make the development more difficult and costly Territories to demolish completely and make a new good city A lot of old housing, “ghetto”, requires a lot of investments and planning to decrease patchiness constraintsopportunities Regular planning of city center and historical buildings (legacy of XIX century)
  23. 23. Separate districts (“villages”) around huge plants which make the city sprawling (legacy of XX century) Additional costs to support and develop transportation system and engineering infrastructure, to insure the social equity Huge areas with low density of built-up territories, a lot of “free” spaces which could be used for renovation and revitalization of housing and creation of a green network constraintsopportunities The Enisey river, geomorphological and relief conditions Can be used for landscape design and creation of city green network Limitation of the transportation system development
  24. 24. Problem analysis: Spatial planning in Krasnoyarsk: opportunities and constraints
  25. 25. Problem analysis STEEPL analysis (I) Social aspects Technological aspects Political aspects - positive growth of population (“developing city”); - high employability; - segregation of population based on incomes, social status, nationality and etc.; - “boom” of housing construction; - underdevelopment of social infrastructure; - absence of social equity; - growth of social / public involvement in societal processes, active citizenship in regard to city development; - corruption - outdated technologies and approaches in construction industry; - low level of energy efficiency in housing sector; - old systems of water supplying, sewerage, heating and other infrastructural elements; - narrow streets and problems with traffic; - mix of industrial and housing built-up areas; - a lot of old housing (baraki, hruschevki, brezhnevki); - geomorphological conditions and relief of the city, the Enisei river - capital of the region Krasnoayrsk krai; - good interrelations between krai and municipal political powers; - political stability; - city self-governmental bodies are not a part of state government; - city officials are accountable to local people, they are elected on the five years; - results of decision-making process and some legislative documents are accessible on the official web-page; - lobby of transnational companies and oligarchs in Krai government and parliament
  26. 26. Problem analysis STEEPL analysis (II) Economic aspects Environmental aspects Legislative aspects - investment attractiveness; - economic growth as the main goal of city development; - huge industrial potential; - natural resources including energy resources; - low costs of energy resources; - sale and lease of municipal lands, local taxes are main financial source for city budget; - outflow of finance (profit of industrial enterprises) to the transnational companies located in European part of Russia - high level of air pollution; - soil contamination with oil and point river pollution; - municipal solid waste; - location of industrial enterprises in the center of the city, lack of buffer zones between industries and housing in the center of Krasnoyarsk; - poor greenery in the center of Krasnoyarsk - sale and lease of municipal lands regulate by Land Code of RF, Rules of land use and urban development of Krasnoyarsk city; - urban development regulates by Urban development Code of RF, Rules of land use and urban development of Krasnoyarsk city, Norms for urban development of Krasnoyarsk city, Master plan; - building construction and infrastructure construction regulate by construction standards; - environmental protection in the city regulate by environmental legislation of RF
  27. 27. Problem analysis SWOT-analysis (I) STRENTH WEAKNESS Krasnoyarsk is a large industrial center in Siberia with huge industrial potential, high investment attractiveness and different opportunities for employability. City has huge potential for development, increasing of livability and competitiveness. “Boom” of housing construction attracts new residents and gives more opportunities for further development. Local officials are accountable to citizens, results of decision-making process and some legislative documents are accessible on the official web-page. During last years could be observed growth of social / public involvement in societal processes, active citizenship in regard to city development. These factors could insure openness and transparency decision-making process in regard to city planning process. As a soviet industrial city Krasnoyarsk is characterized by underdevelopment of social infrastructure which could limit city development in future. In spite of “boom” of housing construction usually in construction industry is used outdated technologies and approaches. There is a low level of energy efficiency in housing sector. These are decrease adaptiveness and livability of the housing sector in future. Main infrastructural elements (systems of water supplying, sewerage, heating system, roads and streets) were built about 30-40 years ago. At present time these factors impact negatively on urban planning and development. There are forest parks and city parks in Krasnoyarsk, but the center of the city is characterized by poor greenery.
  28. 28. Problem analysis SWOT-analysis (II) Opportunities Threats - growing population (“developing city”); - geomorphological conditions and relief of the city, the Enisey river; - capital of the region Krasnoayrsk krai; - good interrelations between krai and municipal political powers; - political stability; - city self-government bodies are not a part of state government; - Industrial growth as the main goal of city development; - natural resources (including energy resources); - low costs of energy resources - segregation of population based on incomes, social status, nationality and etc.; - absence of social equity; - mixture of industrial and housing built-up areas; - a lot of old housing (baraki, hruschevki, brezhnevki); - geomorphological conditions and relief of the city, the Enisey river; - lobby of transnational companies and oligarchs in Krai government and parliament; - corruption; - sale and rent of municipal lands, local taxes are main financial source for city budget; - outflow of finance (profit of industrial enterprises) to the transnational companies located in European part of Russia- high level of air pollution; - soil contamination with oil and point river pollution; - municipal solid waste; - location of industrial enterprises in the center of the city, lack of buffer zones between industries and housing in the center of Krasnoyarsk
  29. 29. Stakeholder analysis: Actors in a spatial planning play
  30. 30. Levels of actors 1. Federal: Parliament, Ministries, Agencies 2. Federal district (Okrug): Presidential representative, departments of federal agencies 3. Regional level: legislative assembly, ministries, regional units of federal agencies 4. City level: council, administration, department s 5. District level: administrations of 7 districts 6. Actors operating across the levels: business, NGOS
  31. 31. Functions of actors: Federal and Okrug levels Federal – legislature, executive bodies: 1. Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (Minprirody) Development of state policy in the field of environmental protection and safety, water resources, geology and mineral resources, hydrometeorology and environmental monitoring, forest resources, hunting and wildlife • Federal Agency for the Control of Natural Resources (Rosprirodnadzor) • Federal Forestry Agency • Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring 2. Ministry of Regional Development (MinRegion) Strategic planning and development of state policies in spatial planning, evaluation of regions and local self-government, constructions, architecture, and housing 3. Ministry of Economic Development Regulates property relations, land-related transactions (except for agricultural lands), the State Register of Real Estate, state cadastral record-keeping and cadastral activity, state cadastral valuation of land, state monitoring of land (except for agricultural lands which is under the Russian Ministry of Agriculture), state registration of rights to real estate, geodesy and cartography • Federal Agency for State Property Management (Rosimushchestvo) Okrug (District) 1. Presidential representative for Siberian Federal Okrug (SFO) 2. Rosprirodnadzor Department for SFO
  32. 32. Actor analysis: Regional level 1. Legislative assembly Rule-making 2. Executive bodies • Ministry of Energy and Housing Overall maintenance of communal infrastructure, implementation of state policies • Ministry of Construction and Architecture Implementation of state policies in the field of constructions and architecture • Ministry of Natural Resources and Forests Implementation of state policies in the field of natural resources and forests • Agency for Control in Construction and Housing Implementation and enforcement of legislation on urban planning, fire safety, ​​sanitary and epidemiological welfare, environmental protection, participation in the joint construction of apartment buildings and (or) other real estate and housing laws • Agency for Control of Natural Resources Implementation and enforcement of legislation on environmental protection, air protection, radiation protection, forest law, water law, legislation on environmental reviews, subsoil legislation 3. Regional units of federal agencies 1. Rosprirodnadzor agency for Krasnoyarsk Krai
  33. 33. Actor analysis: City and District levels City (Municipal) 1. City Council Rule-making 2. City administration • Department Communal Services Rule implementation and development and maintenance of infrastructure • Department of Architecture Making of assignments for planning documentation, drafting proposals, issuing permits • Department of Urban Planning Implementation of policies, drafting proposals, issuing permits District 1. Administrations of 7 districts Implementation and enforcement of regulations and norms
  34. 34. Actor analysis: Across the levels 1. Business • Industrial companies • Construction companies • Investing companies 2. NGOs • Union of Architects Expertise, monitoring in the field of architecture and planning • Union of Construction workers Expertise, monitoring in the field of quality of constructions • Environmental NGOs Expertise, monitoring in the field of environmental quality 3. Educational and Research organizations • Siberian Federal university Educating architects and designers, providing expertise in ecology, landscape and urban planning • Academy of Sciences Providing expertise in forest ecology and landscapes
  35. 35. Area of administrative units (km2): • Federation – 17,098,246 • Okrug – 5,114,800 • Krai – 2,366,797 • City – 380 • Districts ≈ 60 • Microdistricts ≈ 6
  36. 36. City districts District Area (km2) Population Zhelezno- dorozhnyj 18 95 000 Kirov 46 115 000 Lenin 58 150 000 October 86 160 000 Sverdlovsk 72 131 000 Soviet 94 300 000 Central 36 59 000
  37. 37. Scales of Planning Interests Federal authorities Federal district authorities Krai authorities City authorities District authorities Business NGOs DaysWeeksYearsDecades Metes Kilometers 100 kilometers 10000 kilometers
  38. 38. Power grid Legitimacy is acceptance of group’s authority by other groups, power is an ability to influence the actions of other stakeholders, urgency is the ability to impress the critical and pressing character of one's claims or interests. Stakeholder group Power Legitimacy Urgency Local officials +++ +++ ++ Planners, architects +++ ++ + Investors, developers +++ + +++ Vulnerable and marginal groups of citizens + + + Civil self-organized groups + ++ ++ State env. agencies + +++ + Municipal services int. ++ ++ +
  39. 39. Local officials Planners, architects Investors, developers Vulnerable and marginal groups of citizens Civil self- organized groups State env. agencies Municipal services int. Local officials L Planners, architects A M Investors, developers B C N Vulnerable and marginal groups of citizens D E Civil self- organized groups F G H State env. agencies I O Municipal services int. J K Conflicts between stakeholder’s groups
  40. 40. Description A conflicts caused by contradicting visions on spatial urban planning and city architecture B conflicts based on land property rights, construction and land use permissions, lobbying of interests, and implementation of Master plan C selection of simple architectural projects by investors and developers based on cost of construction D conflicts between the people living in a tumbledown housing and city administration about replacement to new apartments E conflicts between people living in a tumbledown housing and investors/developers interested in the land F conflicts between civil self-organized groups and local officials caused by different views on urban development, city planning, and economic growth G conflicts between civil self-organized groups and planners / architects caused by lack of agreement about urban development and city planning strategies H conflicts between civil self-organized groups and investors / developers resulting from discussions on urban development, city architecture , and location of industrial enterprises I conflicts about locations of "dirty industries" J conflicts between investors / developers and municipal services stemming from underdeveloped engineering infrastructure K conflicts based on proper compliance with legislative requirements Conflicts between different stakeholder’s group
  41. 41. Description L conflicts between legislative and executive agencies, lobby groups, etc. M conflicts within the community of planners / architects based on different vision of urban development N conflicts among investors / developers based on competition O misfits and gaps in collection, storage and transfer of data Conflicts inside stakeholder group
  42. 42. Actors: opportunities and constraints (I) opportunitiesconstraints Participation strongly depends on the leadership within the city administration City administration and Mayor are accountable to public and mechanisms for close collaboration are in place Lack of expertise in integrated planning and management Establishing of new educational programs at SFU Interplays between monitoring agencies Revising the structure and responsibilities of actors Actor groups do not trust each other Establish and maintain public- private partnership
  43. 43. Actors: opportunities and constraints (II) opportunitiesconstraints Large number of governance levels with actors of higher rank with their stated and unstated goals Overlapping jurisdictions in policy-making More space for lobbying of interests for industrial and business groups Conflicts can be solved by engaging actors from one of the higher levels More thorough monitoring
  44. 44. Institutional analysis: Spatial planning: decision making process and public participation
  45. 45. Level / scale Legislation (Codes, laws) Regulation (rules, norms) Programs, Instructions Federal - Urban development Code; - Land Code; - General principles of organization of local self- government; - Other federal laws - Construction standards; - Norms of env. quality; - Standards for social services - Development strategies for different sectors of national economy; - Long-term strategies and programs of social- economic development of Russia; - National projects Regional Laws: - Regulation of land relations in Krasnoyarsk krai; - About 4th auto-bridge over the river of Enisey in Krasnoyarsk; - Laws about cities borders in the Krai; - About combating corruption - etc. - Scheme of spatial planning of Krasnoyarsk krai; - Statute of Krasnoyarsk krai; - Investment standard for Krasnoyarsk krai; - Statute of Agency for control in constructions and housing - Regional program of social-economic development; - Regional programs and strategies for different sectors of economy; - Regional economic, social, env. and etc. projects Formal institutions for urban planning (I)
  46. 46. Level / scale Legislation (Codes, laws) Regulation (rules, norms) Programs, Instructions Local (city & district) - Statute of Krasnoyarsk city; - Master plan; - Rules for land use and urban development; - Urban development norms; - Rules for improvement, arrangement of green spaces, maintenance of territory and buildings of Krasnoyarsk city; - Decrees on - Changing Master plan; - Changing urban development norms; - Permissions for constructions, principal renewal, reconstruction and renovation; - Permissions for the - Strategy for city development; - Investment programs; - City programs; - City investment projects; - Instructions about collection, removal, utilization and treatment of domestic and industrial wastes in Krasnoyarsk city; Formal institutions for urban planning (II)
  47. 47. Informal institutions for spatial planning process Lobbying of interests by business groups in City Council, City Administration Fake participation in public hearings of residents/experts supporting the decisions in favor of developers / investors / administrators Shadow schemes for sale and rent of land for constructions Bribes (in different forms) Information companies in mass-media Social networking (tweeter, facebook and etc.) Establishing civil self-organized groups Integration of business and governmental bodies
  48. 48. Institutions: opportunities and constraints (I) opportunitiesconstraints Absence of regional urban development norms Approval of regional norms can reduce constant change in city urban development norms and stop unjustified increase in housing density There are no mechanisms for submitting, approving / rejecting proposals from stakeholders to spatial planning documents in Federal Code These mechanisms can be codified in regional and local regulations Federal Code does not provide a procedure for public hearings and inform local residents about the projects of federal and regional levels in neighboring areas
  49. 49. Institutions: opportunities and constraints (II) opportunitiesconstraints Lack of information about public hearings Information campaign for increasing public awareness and involving public in decision-making process Public is hardly involved in public hearings and decision-making process on spatial planning There are a lot of different forms of public participation which can be combined for better results City administration may collaborate more closely with regional agency for constructions and housing control City administration lacks power to control / to punish inadequate development activities
  50. 50. Institutions: opportunities and constraints (III) opportunitiesconstraints There is no specialized department responsible for the development of green network City administration may appoint a department responsible for development of green space system A lack of procedure for periodical revision of Master plan City administration may establish such a procedure Complex pattern of land ownership undermining comprehensive land management schemes Using functional and urban zoning to reduce unnecessary complexity
  51. 51. How far from good governance? (I) Indicator Definition Score Explanations Participation Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation needs to be informed and organized. 3 Legislation supports different forms of participation, but awareness about participation is low. There is no tradition of participation Rule of law Fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially, full protection of human rights, independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force 3 Corruption is a “Russian way of life”, sometimes human rights are not fully protected. Transparency Decisions are taken and their enforcement is done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. Information is freely available and directly accessible 3 Some information is accessible directly, but is not enough information, and sometimes it is not understandable for general public Responsiveness Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe 3 Spatial planning process doesn’t meet interests of all stakeholder groups http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/gg/governance.asp
  52. 52. How far from good governance? (II) Indicator Definition Score Explanations Consensus oriented Mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society 4 Different forms to reach a broad consensus in society are in place Equity and inclusiveness All members of community feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society 3 Vulnerable and marginal groups can improve their well-being in theory, but in practice their participation in societal processes is limited Effectiveness and efficiency Processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal (including sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment) 2 Krasnoyarsk is one of the most dirty cities in Russia. However, environmental protection is not a main goal for city development now Accountability Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders 3 Local officials are accountable to local people, but private sector and civil society are not sufficiently accountable to stakeholders http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/gg/governance.asp
  53. 53. Conclusions: Focal issues • Making people believe in use of deliberation / cooperation with other groups • Nurturing leadership in local authorities • Increasing the efficiency of communication • Changing “Vremenschik” mindset • Brining landscape into picture
  54. 54. Conclusions: Solutions / suggestions (I) Solving the trust issue: • Better coverage by media of governmental initiatives, pilot projects encouraging social learning Solving the leadership issue: • Information campaigns to increase involvement of local people, development of non-governmental centres of governance Solving the mindset issue: • Information campaigns to increase city attractiveness online, hosting international events, pilot projects on state-of-the-art housing and landscaping
  55. 55. Conclusions: Solutions / suggestions (II) Solving communication problem: • Creating ‘communication loop’ of planning, design, management and maintenance to ensure that each part of the process informs the others Pilot projects for the landscape issue: • Integrated Planning and Management: Design with nature • Planning multifunctional green spaces at multiple scale levels • Urban Micro-climate Management (Stuttgart, Germany) • Bus Rapid Transportation (BRT) • Revitalization / gentrification of brownfields
  56. 56. Thank you for your attention
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×