Grammarhandbook semester 2 sp3h

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Grammarhandbook semester 2 sp3h

  1. 1. Grammar Handbook Zorro Sanchez
  2. 2. Table of Contents Slide Numbers 3. Nationalities 4. Stem Changer 5. Para 6. IOP 7. Pronoun Placement 8. Gustar 9. Affirmative and Negative Words 10. Superlatives 11. Affirmative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement 12. Negative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement 13. Sequencing events 14. Preterite 15. Trigger Words 16. Car, -Gar, Zar 17. Deber + Infinitivo 18. Modal Verbs 19. Present Progressives 20. Adverbs 21. Preterite 22. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns 23. Ordinal Numbers 24. Prepositions 25. Future 26. Imperfect 27. Reflexives 28. Por vs. Para 29. Possesive Adjectives and Pronouns 30. Usted and Ustedes Commands 31. Present Subjective 32. Verbs of Will and Influence 33. Verbs of Emotion (Subjunctive) 34. Subjunctive Doubt vs. Certainty 35. Conjunctions 36. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses 37. Tú Commands 38. Nosotros Commands 39. Past Participle Used as Adjectives 40. Present Perfect 41. Past Perfect 42. Future Tense 43. Conditional Tense 44. Past Subjunctive
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Stem Changer • Servir • Decir • Despedir Pedir ( to ask for) E > i • Querer • Tener • Preferir Pensar ( to think) E > ie • Almorzar • Contar • Costar Dormir ( to sleep) O > ue Pido Piden Pides Pide Piensa Piensas Pienso Piensan Pedimos Pensáis Pensamos Pedís DuermenDuerme Duermes Duermo Dormís Dormimos
  5. 5. Para To indicate destination To show the use or purposes of a thing To mean “in order to” or “for the purpose of” To indicate a recipient To express a deadline or specific time To express a contrast from what is expected “Estar para” to epress an action that will soon be completed
  6. 6. IOP Singular Le (you formal, him, her) Te (you familiar) Me (me) Plural Les (you, them) Os (you familiar) Nos (us) IOPs are nouns that tell to whom/what or for whom/what
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement • Attach the pronoun to the infinitive • Attach the pronoun to progressive tense • Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command • Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  8. 8. Gustar Gusta/ Gustan Me (I) Te (You) Le (Him/ Her/It) Nos (We) Os (You all) Les (They/ Them) • Negative phrase • No ___ gusta • Gusta singular • me gusta la comida • Gusta antes de un infinitive • me gusta hablar español • Gustan • me gustan las enchiladas
  9. 9. Affirmative and Negative Words Affirmative Words Algo Alguien Algún/ Alguno(a) Siempre También Negative Words Nada Nadie Ningún/ Ninguno(a ) Nunca Tampoco When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, you use an affirmative or negative word. If a verb is proceeded by a no, word that follow must be a negative and a double negative is required when no proceeds the verb
  10. 10. Superlatives Suffix added to adjective and adverb ísimo ísimos ísima ísimas Equivalent to extremely or very Adjective and adverb ending in c, g, and z change spelling to qu, go, and c respectively Adjective that end in n or r form by adding císimo/a
  11. 11. Affirmative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement Irregular commands Di Haz Ve Pon Sal Sé Ten Ven Put into the tú form and drop the s
  12. 12. Negative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement T •No tengas V •No vengas D •No des/ digas I •(Ir)No vayas S •No seas H •No hagas E •No estés S •No sepas
  13. 13. Sequencing events Por la tarde Luego Después de
  14. 14. Preterite
  15. 15. Trigger Words English Spanish
  16. 16. Car, -Gar, Zar • Car, gar, and zar forms only have the yo form changed
  17. 17. Deber + Infinitivo Debo Deben Debéis Debemos Debe Debes Infinitive Proper Spanish Grammar
  18. 18. Modal Verbs
  19. 19. Present Progressives Ar= -ando Er/ir = -iendo When the verb stem ends in a vowel = -yendo •pasando •moviendo •leyendo
  20. 20. Adverbs Adjective •Feliz •Cuidadoso •Frecuente Plus –mente •Changes the masculine ending to feminine if ending letter is “o” •Adds mente to end if first rule doesn’t apply Adverb •Felizmente •Cuidadosametne •Frecuentemente
  21. 21. Preterite English Spanish • Car, gar, and zar forms only have the yo form changed Repetí Repitieron - Repetimos Repítío Repitiste Construí Construyeron - Construimos Construyo Construiste Spock Verbs ir/ser- fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron hacer-hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos. Hicieron dar/ver- di/vi, diste/viste, dio/vio, dimos/vimos, dieron/vieron
  22. 22. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns To make it a demonstrative pronoun, just add an accent mark to the last vowel. Use a neuter pronoun like esto, eso, and aquello when the gender of the noun is unidentified.
  23. 23. Ordinal Numbers • Notice that the words for 1st (primer, primero, primera) and 3rd (tercer, tercero, tercera) both drop the final "O" if they come before a masculine singular noun - for example: • Es el primer libro que ha escrito • Ellos están en el tercer coche • When used before a feminine or plural noun, either the "A" or "O" endings are used. • La fiesta es el primero de Agosto • Vamos en los primeros días de Agosto • Es la sexta casa allí a la derecha • El boleto es para segunda clase
  24. 24. Prepositions
  25. 25. Future
  26. 26. Imperfect Ar Verbs Hablaba Hablabas Hablaba Hablábamos Hablabais hablaban Er verbs Tenía Tenías Tenía Teníamos Teníais Tenían Ir verbs Salía Salías Salía Salíamos Salíais Salían Ser Era Eras Era Erámos Erais Eran Ir Íba Íbas Íba Íbamos Íbaís Íban Ver Veía Veías Veía Veíamos Veíais Veían
  27. 27. Reflexives Me Nos Te Os Se Se Used when the subject receives the action Reflexive verbs will have se attached at the end like acostarse Located in front of the conjugated verb, attached to a gerund, attached to an infinitive, or attached to an affirmative command
  28. 28. Por vs. Para
  29. 29. Possesive Adjectives and Pronouns
  30. 30. Usted and Ustedes Commands
  31. 31. Present Subjective Regulars Irregulars
  32. 32. Verbs of Will and Influence Verbs of Will and Influence Aconsejar •To advise Importar •To be important •To matter Insistir (en) •To insist on Mandar •To order Prohibir •To prohibit Recomendar (e->ie) •To recommend Rogar (o- >ue) •To beg, to plead Sugerir (e- >ie) •To suggest
  33. 33. Verbs of Emotion (Subjunctive)
  34. 34. Subjunctive Doubt vs. Certainty
  35. 35. Conjunctions
  36. 36. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses • Adjectival clauses function as adjectives modifying a noun or pronoun, which is known as the antecedent. These clauses are most frequently introduced by the relative pronouns que (which/that/who) quien/quienes (who), el que, la que, los que, los que (which/that/who), or el/la cual, los/las cuales(which/that/who). • If the noun or pronoun modified is negated, nonexistent, vague, or indefinite, then the verb in the modifying clause will be in the subjunctive. • Example – Have you found someone who can help us? ¿ Has encontrado a alguien que nos pueda ayudar? / ¿ Has encontrado a alguien que pueda ayudarnos?
  37. 37. Tú Commands
  38. 38. Nosotros Commands
  39. 39. Past Participle Used as Adjectives • Most past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify. – La puerta está cerrada. The door is closed. – Las puertas están cerradas. The doors are closed. – El restaurante está abierto. The restaurant is open. – Los restaurantes están abiertos. The restaurants are open.
  40. 40. Present Perfect • In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows: – he has ha hemos habéis han • When you studied the past participle, you practiced using it as an adjective. When used as an adjective, the past participle changes to agree with the noun it modifies. However, when used in the perfect tenses, the past participle never changes. – Past participle used as an adjective: La cuenta está pagada. The bill is paid. – Past participle used in the present perfect tense: He pagado la cuenta. I have paid the bill.
  41. 41. Past Perfect • In Spanish, the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows: – había habías había habíamos habíais habían • When you studied the past participle, you practiced using it as an adjective. When used as an adjective, the past participle changes to agree with the noun it modifies. However, when used in the perfect tenses, the past participle never changes.
  42. 42. Future Tense
  43. 43. Conditional Tense
  44. 44. Past Subjunctive • The imperfect/past subjunctive follows all the same rules as the present subjunctive for when to use it. The only difference is timing. Use the imperfect subjunctive when theWEIRDO verb (independent clause) is in the imperfect or the preterite or refers to a previous experience. • To conjugate a verb in the imperfect subjunctive, you must first remember the 3rd person plural of the preterit. Instead of using the infinitive for a stem, the imperfect subjunctive uses the 3rd person plural of the preterit (without the -ron). infinitive 3rd person preterite imperfect subjunctiv e stem infinitive 3rd person preterite imperfect subjunctiv e stem caber cupieron cupie- pedir pidieron pidie- dar dieron die- poder pudieron pudie- decir dijeron dije- poner pusieron pusie- dormir durmieron durmie- preferir prefiriero n prefirie- estar estuvieron estuvie querer quisieron quisie- haber hubieron hubie- saber supieron supie- hacer hicieron hicie- sentir sintieron sintie- ir fueron fue- ser fueron fue- leer leyeron leye- traducir tradujeron traduje- tener tuvieron tuvie- traer trajeron traje- yo -ra tú -ras usted, él, ella -ra nosotros -ramos vosotros -rais ustedes, ellos, ellas -ran

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