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  1. 1. Grammar Handbook Zorro Sanchez
  2. 2. Table of Contents 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Slide Numbers Nationalities Stem Changer Para IOP Pronoun Placement Gustar Affirmative and Negative Words Superlatives Affirmative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement Negative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement Sequencing events Preterite Trigger Words Car, -Gar, Zar Deber + Infinitivo Modal Verbs Present Progressives 20. 21. 22. Adverbs Preterite Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns 23. Ordinal Numbers 24. Prepositions 25. Future 26. Imperfect 27. Reflexives 28. Por vs. Para 29. Possesive Adjectives and Pronouns 30. Usted and Ustedes Commands 31. Present Subjective 32. Verbs of Will and Influence 33. Verbs of Emotion (Subjunctive) 34. Subjunctive Doubt vs. Certainty 35. Conjunctions
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Stem Changer E>i • Servir • Decir • Despedir Pedimos Pides Pedir ( to ask for) Pido Pedís Pide Piden • Querer E > ie • Preferir Dormir ( to sleep) O > ue • Tener • Almorzar • Contar Pensamos Piensas Pensáis Piensa Piensan Duermo Pensar ( to think) Pienso Dormimos Duermes Dormís Duerme Duermen • Costar
  5. 5. “Estar para” to epress an action that will soon be completed To indicate destination To express a contrast from what is expected Para To express a deadline or specific time To show the use or purposes of a thing To mean “in order to” or “for the purpose of” To indicate a recipient
  6. 6. IOP Te (you familiar) Me (me) Le (you formal, him, her) Singular Os (you familiar) IOPs are nouns that tell to whom/what or for whom/what Nos (us) Les (you, them) Plural
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement • Attach the pronoun to the infinitive • Attach the pronoun to progressive tense • Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command • Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  8. 8. Gustar • Negative phrase • No ___ gusta • Gusta singular • me gusta la comida • Gusta antes de un infinitive • me gusta hablar español • Gustan • me gustan enchiladas Me (I) las Te (You) Le (Him/ Her/It) Gusta/ Gustan Nos (We) Os (You all) Les (They/ Them)
  9. 9. Affirmative and Negative Words Algo Nada Alguien También Tampoco Negative Words Affirmative Words Siempre Nadie Algún/ Alguno(a) Nunca Ningún/ Ninguno(a ) When you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, you use an affirmative or negative word. If a verb is proceeded by a no, word that follow must be a negative and a double negative is required when no proceeds the verb
  10. 10. ísimo ísimos ísima Suffix added to adjective and adverb Superlatives ísimas Equivalent to extremely or very Adjective and adverb ending in c, g, and z change spelling to qu, go, and c respectively Adjective that end in n or r form by adding císimo/a
  11. 11. Affirmative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement Di Ven Haz Irregular commands Ten Sé Ve Pon Sal Put into the tú form and drop the s
  12. 12. Negative tú commands/ irregulars/ pronoun placement T • No tengas V • No vengas D • No des/ digas I • (Ir)No vayas S • No seas H • No hagas E • No estés S • No sepas
  13. 13. Sequencing events Después de Por la tarde Luego
  14. 14. Preterite
  15. 15. Trigger Words English Spanish
  16. 16. Car, -Gar, Zar • Car, gar, and zar forms only have the yo form changed
  17. 17. Deber + Infinitivo Debo Debemos Debes Debéis Debe Deben Proper Spanish Grammar Infinitive
  18. 18. Modal Verbs
  19. 19. Present Progressives Ar= -ando Er/ir = -iendo When the verb stem ends in a vowel = -yendo •pasando •moviendo •leyendo
  20. 20. Adverbs Adjective Plus –mente Adverb •Feliz •Changes the masculine ending to feminine if ending letter is “o” •Felizmente •Cuidadoso •Frecuente •Adds mente to end if first rule doesn’t apply •Cuidadosametne •Frecuentemente
  21. 21. Preterite English • Car, gar, and zar forms only have the yo form changed Spanish Construí Construimos Repetí Repetimos Construiste - Repitiste - Construyo Construyeron Repítío Repitieron Spock Verbs ir/ser- fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron hacer-hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos. Hicieron dar/ver- di/vi, diste/viste, dio/vio, dimos/vimos, dieron/vieron
  22. 22. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns To make it a demonstrative pronoun, just add an accent mark to the last vowel. Use a neuter pronoun like esto, eso, and aquello when the gender of the noun is unidentified.
  23. 23. Ordinal Numbers • Notice that the words for 1st (primer, primero, primera) and 3rd (tercer, tercero, tercera) both drop the final "O" if they come before a masculine singular noun - for example: • Es el primer libro que ha escrito • Ellos están en el tercer coche • When used before a feminine or plural noun, either the "A" or "O" endings are used. • La fiesta es el primero de Agosto • Vamos en los primeros días de Agosto • Es la sexta casa allí a la derecha • El boleto es para segunda clase
  24. 24. Prepositions
  25. 25. Future
  26. 26. Imperfect Ser Ir Ver Era Íba Veía Eras Íbas Ar Verbs Er verbs Ir verbs Veías Salía Tenías Salías Hablaba Íba Tenía Hablabas Era Hablaba Tenía Salía Hablábamos Teníamos Salíamos Hablabais Teníais Salíais hablaban Tenían Salían Veía Erámos Íbamos Veíamos Erais Íbaís Veíais Eran Íban Veían
  27. 27. Reflexives Me Nos Te Os Se Se Located in front of the conjugated verb, attached to a gerund, attached to an infinitive, or attached to an affirmative command Used when the subject receives the action Reflexive verbs will have se attached at the end like acostarse
  28. 28. Por vs. Para
  29. 29. Possesive Adjectives and Pronouns
  30. 30. Usted and Ustedes Commands
  31. 31. Present Subjective Regulars Irregulars
  32. 32. Verbs of Will and Influence Aconsejar •To advise Importar Sugerir (e>ie) •To be important •To matter •To suggest Verbs of Will and Influence Rogar (o>ue) •To beg, to plead Recomendar (e->ie) Insistir (en) •To insist on Mandar •To order •To recommend Prohibir •To prohibit
  33. 33. Verbs of Emotion (Subjunctive)
  34. 34. Subjunctive Doubt vs. Certainty
  35. 35. Conjunctions