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A FIVE-PART STRATEGY TO CAP AND CUT CHINA'S COAL CONSUMPTION ...

A FIVE-PART STRATEGY TO CAP AND CUT CHINA'S COAL CONSUMPTION
"It is hard to miss the staggering statistics when it comes to coal in China, which now consumes nearly as much coal as the rest of the world combined."
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http://www.shelfari.com/groups/101394/discussions/478364/Crown-Capital-Management-Environmental-News

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Crown Eco Capital Management - Gas Boiler Technology Crown Eco Capital Management - Gas Boiler Technology Presentation Transcript

  • CROWN CAPITAL ECOMANAGEMENTGas Boiler TechnologyA Five-Part Strategy to Capand Cut Chinas CoalConsumptionORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • It is hard to miss the staggering statistics when it comes to coal in China, which nowconsumes nearly as much coal as the rest of the world combined. Unrestricted growth incoal consumption in the last decade has led to the worst air pollution in recent memory,with citizens in northern and central China breathing in higher levels of hazardous airpollution this past winter than if they were living in an airport smoking lounge. Coalmining and combustion also cause serious water and soil pollution, including the releaseof toxic metals like mercury and arsenic. Unless things change, there are plans to buildeven more coal-fired power plants in the future -- some 558 GW worth, which would be a73% increase over China’s 2011 thermal power plant capacity.The impacts of coal mining and consumption on China’s environment, public health andthe economy are already astronomical: from January’s “airpocalypse” to the existence of“cancer villages” and 3.5% in GDP losses (in 2010 alone), this dirty and unsustainableenergy source has catapulted to the center of attention among Chinese citizens andleaders alike. Given coal’s heavy costs, China’s leaders are paying close attention to coaland have sought now seek to reduce coal consumption and pollution by introducing asuite of policy measures, including:ORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • • Establishing pilot carbon emissions trading programs in five cities (Shanghai,Beijing, Shenzhen, Tianjin, and Chongqing) and two provinces (Guangdong andHubei). Shenzhen’s carbon trading program starts June 17 and will cover 638companies responsible for 38% of the city’s emissions. China is also continuingto develop its low carbon pilot cities and provinces program.• Capping total energy consumption at 4 billion tons of coal equivalent by 2015,although this is a non-binding target and no penalties are in place yet for non-compliance.• Considering a tax on resources, including coal, in order to account for theenvironmental costs of coal and shift investment towards clean energy.• Finalizing new emissions control limits for six heavily-polluting industries.China’s power sector accounts for about 50 percent of its coal consumption andemissions, and heavy industries such as iron and steel, cement and coalchemicals also constitute a large share, causing major climate and air pollution.ORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • • Planning regional coal consumption cap pilots in key regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and the Shandong citycluster as part of China’s “Twelfth Five Year Plan for Air Pollution Prevention andControl in Key Areas (in Chinese).” The pilots are aimed at bringing much-neededregional cooperation and coordination to reduce key air pollutants by 2015,including cutting PM 2.5 by 5-6 percent. But as with the total energy consumptioncap, the details and penalties for non-compliance are still unclear.While these are all critically important policy measures, the underlying challengeremains that China consumes too much coal overall, and much more needs to bedone to reduce coal consumption to a level compatible with China’s and the world’slong-term sustainable development. Global carbon dioxide levels have now passed400 ppm and will continue to grow rapidly if countries do not wean off fossil fuelsand scale up cleaner energy sources. And as the world’s biggest emitter of carbondioxide—spewing out 10 billion out of the global total of 38.2 billion tons in 2011—China is a key player in the future of sustainable development.Although scaling up alternatives to coal may seem a formidable task, we believe Chinacan develop the policies and technologies needed to cap and then cut its coalORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • consumption in the next decade. We are working with government researchers,academics, NGOs and others to develop an effective and enforceable coal cap policythat will address the severe pollution and health impacts from coal while providingcleaner energy sources for China’s economy. Such a program could begin at the cityand regional levels, where coal consumption cap policies are already being developed,and ultimately scale up to a national binding target that is incorporated into China’sfuture Five Year Plans.Here are five key components of NRDC’s coal cap strategy:1. Work with the largest coal consuming sectors and regions to help them developintegrated plans for capping coal use through more efficient technologies, fuelswitching and closing outdated production capacity. In order to address coalconsumption, it will be important to work with the largest coal-consuming sectors(power, iron and steel, cement, and chemicals) to find ways to scale up more efficienttechnologies such as combined heat and power that can reduce coal consumption.These sectors should be required to install and operate pollution control and emissionsmonitoring equipment when consuming coal, and should be incentivized to switch fromcoal to natural gas and renewables in order to reduce their emissions.ORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • Plants with smaller and less efficient boilers and other equipment should be phasedout or required to use natural gas. Similarly, those cities and regions that face theworst air pollution from coal should be the focus of efforts to pilot coal consumptioncaps and to develop plans and policies for capping and reducing coal consumption inthe next five years by scaling up clean energy sources and developing lower carboneconomies that do not rely as much on heavy industry for development.Focusing on these key sectors and regions and showing that they can begin to limittheir coal consumption will help to develop the policies and experience needed toreach a national coal cap policy.2. Strengthen enforcement of coal consumption and emissions targets and standardsthrough improved data and enforcement tools. Strengthening data on coal productionand consumption and emissions from coal consuming facilities is key to providing afoundation for implementing a coal consumption cap and related policies such as aresource tax or carbon trading, and for enforcing emissions standards. Onlineemissions monitoring systems should be installed on all power plants and industrialfacilities over a minimum size, with public reporting of data and penalties for false orinadequate reporting.ORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • It is also important to strengthen the use of pollution permits and environmental impactassessments to manage the impacts of high coal-consuming projects. These toolsshould provide a way for the government and the public to supervise emitters’compliance with coal consumption targets and pollution standards, pushing them tofind ways during project planning to reduce emissions and health impacts to the lowestextent possible, including by reducing consumption of coal and increasing use ofcleaner energy sources.3. Continue to scale up energy efficiency and renewable energy: China has madesignificant progress in energy efficiency but still requires about twice as much energyas the world’s average to produce one unit of GDP. We have been working to scale updemand side management programs to improve efficiency in industry, and have alsobeen promoted policies and standards to improve building energy efficiency in China.Meanwhile, China is already the world’s largest investor in renewable energy, leads theworld in wind power capacity and solar hot water heating, and plans to increase its useof non-fossil energy (nuclear and renewables) to 15 percent of primary energyconsumption by 2020 (including 200 GW of wind power and 50 GW of solar power).However, China still faces technical, economic and regulatory challenges that areORIGINAL SOURCE: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/alin/a_five-part_strategy_to_cap_an.html
  • preventing it from fully utilizing its efficiency and renewable resources, which willrequire cooperation and support from international partners to help develop bestpractices for market transformation.4. Develop responsible standards and best practices for shale gas and nuclear powerdevelopment: China reportedly has nearly 50 percent more “technically recoverable”reserves of shale gas than the U.S., and has ambitious plans to develop itsunconventional gas resources. While natural gas is much less polluting duringcombustion than coal, unregulated hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) consumes asignificant amount of water and has the potential to cause water pollution, highmethane emissions, and other environmental damage. We’re working withpolicymakers in China to learn from best practices for environmental protection in theU.S., so that China can develop this resource as safely as possible. Similarly, we areproviding policy recommendations to help strengthen China’s nuclear safety regulatorysystem post-Fukushima.5. Help to implement carbon trading and carbon tax pilot programs: In addition tomandatory coal consumption cap targets for local governments and enterprises, it willbe important to begin to develop market and fiscal mechanisms such as carbon tradingRELATED ARTICLES: http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/crown%20capital%20management%20jakarta%20indonesia
  • and/or a carbon tax, in order to price carbon to send a signal to the market to shiftinvestment from fossil fuels to low-carbon energy sources. Developing these marketand fiscal measures to price carbon will depend on accurate data on coal consumptionand regulation of emitters. It will also be important that government revenues frompricing carbon through either carbon trading or a carbon tax be used to provideincentives for energy efficiency and renewable energy in order to spur the investmentsneeded to scale up low-carbon energy.Establishing a binding coal consumption cap policy adds a critically important lever toexisting climate and energy policies in China. Capping coal will not be an easy task,and will require both applying pressure and providing incentives for both industry andgovernment officials to act. Doing so will not only clean up China’s air but alsoconserve water and land resources, reduce water pollution, and alleviate transportationpressures, all of which will help secure a healthier future for China’s citizens,environment and economic growth.**END OF SLIDE**VISIT: http://www.shelfari.com/groups/101394/discussions/478364/Crown-Capital-Management-Environmental-News
  • and/or a carbon tax, in order to price carbon to send a signal to the market to shiftinvestment from fossil fuels to low-carbon energy sources. Developing these marketand fiscal measures to price carbon will depend on accurate data on coal consumptionand regulation of emitters. It will also be important that government revenues frompricing carbon through either carbon trading or a carbon tax be used to provideincentives for energy efficiency and renewable energy in order to spur the investmentsneeded to scale up low-carbon energy.Establishing a binding coal consumption cap policy adds a critically important lever toexisting climate and energy policies in China. Capping coal will not be an easy task,and will require both applying pressure and providing incentives for both industry andgovernment officials to act. Doing so will not only clean up China’s air but alsoconserve water and land resources, reduce water pollution, and alleviate transportationpressures, all of which will help secure a healthier future for China’s citizens,environment and economic growth.**END OF SLIDE**VISIT: http://www.shelfari.com/groups/101394/discussions/478364/Crown-Capital-Management-Environmental-News