Comfort women draft #2
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Comfort women draft #2 Comfort women draft #2 Presentation Transcript

  • Comfort Women
  • Tessa Castellani
    Defining Comfort Women:Japan Focus
  • Introduction: History of Comfort Women
    Comfort Women (JugunIanfu) were the victims of sex slavery by the Japanese military troops before and during World War II (1942-1945)
    Women were kidnapped, forced, and/or tricked into becoming prostitutes for Japanese troops
    Earlier comfort women were Japanese prostitutes who volunteered for such a service
    The military found itself short of these women as Japan continued military expansion
    Turned to the local population to coerce women to serve the troops
    Soon the search was expanded to controlled territories:
    China, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Korea.
  • Comfort Station: Shanghai, China
    • The first "comfort station" was established in the Japanese concession in Shanghai in 1932.
    • Many women responded to calls for work as factory workers or nurses – unaware of the military’s true intentions.
    • Women were shipped all over the territories and many lost track of where they were and where their home was in relation.
  • Who Are Comfort Women?
    Comfort Women, Military Sex Slaves, MSS, JugunIanfu
    There was no one specific type of “comfort woman”
    They ranged from all walks of life – from the very young and prepubescent (11) to the middle-aged (35) – and were from all over Southeast Asia – Japan, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Korea.
    It’s difficult to determine just how many women were involved in this mass military sex slavery. Most have sworn themselves to secrecy, too ashamed to ever speak of the atrocities they faced
    Remaining survivors are well into their eighties and do not have very long to tell their tale.
  • What was Involved?
    According to the House of Sharing, a human rights museum and a safe house for former comfort women, when a woman was captured or lured into comfort stations, she was given a medical examination to determine if she was a virgin or diseased
    She was then raped by the medical examiner and sent to her station
    Her identity was quickly stripped of her as she was given a Japanese flower name by the first person to rape her.
    The women's names were written on wooden blocks and hung up much like menus are at restaurants in Japan.
  • On average, comfort women served 30 men daily on weekdays
    Served up to 50 men daily on weekends
    The days leading up to the soldiers shipping out to the front lines were the worst times
    Having sex before going into battle was a sign of good luck and vitality
    Some men would even take pubic hair for good luck
  • Women were beaten if they failed to act as if they enjoyed it or showed resistance
    Extremely sore after just a few men with dozens still left until the day’s end
    Some were given a few minutes to a half hour in-between to rest, but most were given only a jar of cotton swabs soaked in disinfectant and told to quickly clean before the next man
    Sometimes they were given a single condom which had to be washed in between uses
  • Medical Maladies
    Women were checked biweekly for STIs/STDs
    Contracting one or becoming pregnant would lead to punishment
    If given a “clean” bill of health, the woman would be raped by her physician(s) after check-up
    To combat STIs
    Injections of Mercury 606
    Their internal organs including their uterus were mostly destroyed through this method
    Forced hysterectomies
  • Pregnancy: The Worst Offense
    The most brutal punishment was reserved for women who had “let” themselves become pregnant
    Babies were forcibly aborted:
    Kicking or knifing by a group of soldiers
    Raped with hot irons until the baby died
    Babies were subsequently chopped up and fed to dogs in front of the women to serve as an everlasting reminder
  • The Aftermath
    • After the Japanese were defeated, most comfort women were abandoned on site
    • Comfort women who survived and were discovered by the Allied forces were not returned to their homelands; there was just too many of them
    • There is evidence supporting that American and European military personnel "recycled" many of the women for their own sexual use
    • Many were considered prostitutes rather than victims
  • Kim Hak Sun
    In 1991, former Korean comfort women Kim Hak Sun filed the first-ever lawsuit against the Japanese Government for its war crimes against women. Many others began to end their own silence and demands justice be brought before them.
  • Kim Hak Sun
  • Motivations & Reasoning
  • Statistics: War crimes in Numbers
  • Adam
    The Rape of Nanking: A Comparison
  • Kaitlyn Coons
    Comfort Women Outside Japan:A Global Menace
  • Alex
    Comfort Women of Today:
  • Government Responses
    Many women today are seeking apologies and reparations from the Japanese government
    As late as 1990 Japan has denied government involvement in the use of comfort women
  • Kono Statement
    1991, a Japanese historian discovered government documents directly linking the government to use of comfort women
    This information was published in a national newspaper
    1992, Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa formally apologized to comfort women
    Despite the apology, Japan has never admitted legal responsibility, insisting it wasn’t a war crime, wasn’t an organized system
  • Asia women’s fund
    Set up in 1995, came with signed apology:
    "As Prime Minister of Japan, I thus extend anew my most sincere apologies and remorse to all the women who underwent immeasurable and painful experiences and suffered incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women.“ –Tomiichi Murayama
    Fund gave money from private donations, not government
  • United Nations Human Rights Commission Report
    1998, called Contemporary Forms of Slavery
    Use of comfort women was slavery, which was illegal in Japan at the time
    Rape was a war crime at the time
    Japanese government had committed crimes against humanity
    Japanese government is liable
  • Abe Controversy
    2007, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe denied that Japan had forced women into slavery
    Pressure from US led him to take back his statement
    However, Abe’s party purged comfort women from many history texts
    Important quote from education minister Nariaki Nakayama: "Those women deserve much sympathy, but (being forced to provide sex) is not so much different from what was commonly seen in poor rural Japanese communities in the past, where women were sold to brothels. It could be said that the occupation was something they could have pride in, given their existence soothed distraught feelings of men in the battlefield and provided a certain respite and order."
  • Litigation
    2007, Japan Supreme Court ruled that individuals could no longer seek claims through litigation
  • International Resolutions
    Resolutions have been passed by several countries urging Japan to take full responsibility for the comfort women situation
    These countries include, the United States, the Netherlands, Canada, England, and the European Parliament