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The Limbic System<br />Dr. Kenira J. Thompson<br />Ponce School of Medicine<br />Dept. of Physiology<br />840-2575 Ext. 21...
Lecture Goals<br />Review functional anatomy of the limbic system<br />Describe behavior and cognitive disturbances associ...
“Is emotion a magic product, or is it a physiological process which depends on an anatomic process?” (Papez, 1937).<br />
Broca’s Limbic Lobe, 1878<br />(“Le Grand Lobe Limbique”)<br />C’est magnifique!<br />
Limbic Functions (HOME)<br />Homeostatic functions (autonomic and endocrine control)<br />Olfaction<br />Memory<br />Emoti...
What is the limbic system?<br />Set of interconnected cortical and subcortical structures that form a border (or limbus) a...
Main Components<br />Limbic cortex<br />Parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, Medial Orbitofrontal cortex<br />Hippocamp...
Papez Circuit<br />James Papez (1937)<br />Was the first to identify that emotion is not a function of any specific brain ...
Revised Papez Circuit<br />Paul McLean (1970)-<br />Revised Papez’s theory and called the circuit the limbic system.<br />...
Neocortex<br />Emotional experience<br />Cingulate cortex<br />Hippocampus<br />Anterior nuclei of Thalamus<br />fornix<br...
Three limbic circuits<br />Amygdala-Hippocampus<br />Affects behaviors related to self-preservation<br />Cingulate gyrus- ...
1<br />Cingulate Gyrus<br />CAUDATE<br />CC<br />
Anterior nucleus thalamus<br />Fornix<br />CINGULATE<br />T<br />Mamillary bodies<br />Parahippocampal gyrus<br />
Cingulate Gyrus and Depression<br />Depressed Patient                                                  After Fluoxetine<br />
Hypothalamus<br />
Damage to hypothalamic<br />nuclei results in:<br />Abnormalities in motivated<br />behaviors such as feeding, <br />drink...
Brain transections and sham rage<br />
 Rage reaction in cats with hypothalamic stimulation<br />
Korsakoff’s Syndrome<br />Severe anterograde amnesia<br />Results from thyamine deficiency (Vit. B1)<br />Usually caused b...
Amygdala<br /><ul><li>Buried within the anterior-inferior</li></ul>temporal lobe.<br /><ul><li>Essential in the control of...
3<br />STRIA TERMINALIS<br />Fx<br />H<br />TEMPORAL<br />LOBE<br />P<br />Temporal<br />Lobe<br />Amygdala<br />
Amygdala Nuclei<br />
Amygdala Projections<br />
Amygdala Lesions<br />Result in:<br />Reduced ability to identify motivational and emotional significance of events<br />E...
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome<br />Results from bilateral removal of the amygdala and inferior temporal cortex. Includes:<br />Tame...
Human brain activity in response to emotional stimuli<br />
Amygdala activity associated with enhanced emotional memory<br />
Central nucleus<br />(Autonomic <br />Response)<br />(Behavioral<br />Reaction)<br />(Emotional <br />Experience)<br />Hyp...
A neural circuit for aggression<br />
Emotion and Memory<br />
Hippocampal formation…why is it important?<br />Making new memories<br />Involved in severe mental illness	<br />Reduced v...
4<br />Mammilothalamic tract<br />A<br />Mamm<br />PHG<br />Temporal<br />Lobe<br />Hippocampus<br />
Hippocampus (cortical connections)<br />
Neurogenesis<br />
Hippocampus and Alzheimer’s Disease<br />
Ischemia<br />
Hippocampus and Depression<br />
Hippocampus and Estrogen<br />
Reward System Projections<br />This will make<br />me famous!<br />Self-stimulation<br />Reward pathways<br />DOPAMINE<br />
2<br />C<br />P<br />Nucleus Accumbens<br />
Dopamine receptors (D3) in Nuc. Accumbens<br />Cocaine Addict<br />
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Transcript of "Sist Limbico"

  1. 1. The Limbic System<br />Dr. Kenira J. Thompson<br />Ponce School of Medicine<br />Dept. of Physiology<br />840-2575 Ext. 2166<br />Email: kthompson@psm.edu<br />
  2. 2. Lecture Goals<br />Review functional anatomy of the limbic system<br />Describe behavior and cognitive disturbances associated with limbic system pathology.<br />
  3. 3. “Is emotion a magic product, or is it a physiological process which depends on an anatomic process?” (Papez, 1937).<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Broca’s Limbic Lobe, 1878<br />(“Le Grand Lobe Limbique”)<br />C’est magnifique!<br />
  7. 7. Limbic Functions (HOME)<br />Homeostatic functions (autonomic and endocrine control)<br />Olfaction<br />Memory<br />Emotions and Drives<br />
  8. 8. What is the limbic system?<br />Set of interconnected cortical and subcortical structures that form a border (or limbus) around the brain stem. <br />
  9. 9. Main Components<br />Limbic cortex<br />Parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, Medial Orbitofrontal cortex<br />Hippocampal formation<br />Dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum<br />Amygdala<br />Olfactory cortex<br />Diencephalon<br />Hypothalamus, thalamus (anterior nucleus, mediodorsal nucleus)<br />Basal Ganglia<br />Ventral striatum (Nucleus Accumbens, Caudate, Putamen)<br />Basal forebrain<br />Septal nuclei<br />Brainstem<br />Also includes the tracts that link these structures: fornix, mammillothalamic, stria terminalis, etc.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Papez Circuit<br />James Papez (1937)<br />Was the first to identify that emotion is not a function of any specific brain center but a circuit involving 4 basic structures.<br />
  15. 15. Revised Papez Circuit<br />Paul McLean (1970)-<br />Revised Papez’s theory and called the circuit the limbic system.<br />Added more structures to the system:<br />Prefrontal cortex<br />Parahippocampal gyrus<br />Important subcortical structures (amygdala, thalamic nuclei, septal area, etc.).<br />
  16. 16. Neocortex<br />Emotional experience<br />Cingulate cortex<br />Hippocampus<br />Anterior nuclei of Thalamus<br />fornix<br />Hypothalamus<br />Emotional expression<br />
  17. 17. Three limbic circuits<br />Amygdala-Hippocampus<br />Affects behaviors related to self-preservation<br />Cingulate gyrus- septum<br />Relates to pleasure, especially sexual enjoyment (stimulation of this region in rats results in penile erection, self-grooming)<br />Hypothalamus-anterior thalamus<br />Important for cooperative social behavior<br />
  18. 18. 1<br />Cingulate Gyrus<br />CAUDATE<br />CC<br />
  19. 19. Anterior nucleus thalamus<br />Fornix<br />CINGULATE<br />T<br />Mamillary bodies<br />Parahippocampal gyrus<br />
  20. 20. Cingulate Gyrus and Depression<br />Depressed Patient After Fluoxetine<br />
  21. 21. Hypothalamus<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Damage to hypothalamic<br />nuclei results in:<br />Abnormalities in motivated<br />behaviors such as feeding, <br />drinking, sexual behavior,<br />fighting, temp. regulation.<br />Also regulates secretion of <br />hormones via the pituitary <br />gland (secretions control <br />other endocrine organs, such <br />as the thyroid, adrenal glands, <br />ovaries, testes).<br />
  24. 24. Brain transections and sham rage<br />
  25. 25. Rage reaction in cats with hypothalamic stimulation<br />
  26. 26. Korsakoff’s Syndrome<br />Severe anterograde amnesia<br />Results from thyamine deficiency (Vit. B1)<br />Usually caused by alcoholism<br />Severe degeneration of mammillary bodies.<br />Patients tend to confabulate to cover up memory deficit<br />
  27. 27. Amygdala<br /><ul><li>Buried within the anterior-inferior</li></ul>temporal lobe.<br /><ul><li>Essential in the control of:</li></ul>love, friendliness, affection,<br />fear, rage, aggression.<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. 3<br />STRIA TERMINALIS<br />Fx<br />H<br />TEMPORAL<br />LOBE<br />P<br />Temporal<br />Lobe<br />Amygdala<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Amygdala Nuclei<br />
  32. 32. Amygdala Projections<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Amygdala Lesions<br />Result in:<br />Reduced ability to identify motivational and emotional significance of events<br />Electrical stimulation of amygdala can lead to emotional attacks (rage)<br />Rabies virus (especially attacks the temporal lobe) leads to violent behavior<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Kluver-Bucy Syndrome<br />Results from bilateral removal of the amygdala and inferior temporal cortex. Includes:<br />Tameness, loss of fear<br />Indiscriminate dietary behavior<br />Greatly increased autoerotic sexual activity<br />Tendency to attend to every visual stimulus<br />Tendency to examine all objects by mouth<br />Visual agnosia (cannot recognize objects visually)<br />Inability to recognize facial expression<br />
  38. 38. Human brain activity in response to emotional stimuli<br />
  39. 39. Amygdala activity associated with enhanced emotional memory<br />
  40. 40. Central nucleus<br />(Autonomic <br />Response)<br />(Behavioral<br />Reaction)<br />(Emotional <br />Experience)<br />Hypothalamus<br />Auditory cortex<br />PAG<br />BLA<br />Cerebral cortex<br />Neural circuit for learned fear<br />Tone<br />
  41. 41. A neural circuit for aggression<br />
  42. 42. Emotion and Memory<br />
  43. 43. Hippocampal formation…why is it important?<br />Making new memories<br />Involved in severe mental illness <br />Reduced volume in schizophrenia, PTSD, depression<br />Directly affected by estrogen (Wooley, NWU)<br />Neurogenesis<br />
  44. 44. 4<br />Mammilothalamic tract<br />A<br />Mamm<br />PHG<br />Temporal<br />Lobe<br />Hippocampus<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Hippocampus (cortical connections)<br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Neurogenesis<br />
  50. 50. Hippocampus and Alzheimer’s Disease<br />
  51. 51. Ischemia<br />
  52. 52. Hippocampus and Depression<br />
  53. 53. Hippocampus and Estrogen<br />
  54. 54. Reward System Projections<br />This will make<br />me famous!<br />Self-stimulation<br />Reward pathways<br />DOPAMINE<br />
  55. 55. 2<br />C<br />P<br />Nucleus Accumbens<br />
  56. 56. Dopamine receptors (D3) in Nuc. Accumbens<br />Cocaine Addict<br />
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