• Save
Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes

on

  • 488 views

Presentation I delivered on instructional design models for a variety of problem-solving scenarios.

Presentation I delivered on instructional design models for a variety of problem-solving scenarios.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
488
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
313
Embed Views
175

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 175

http://www.jeffgeronimo.com 175

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Problem domain is content (concepts, rules, and principles) that defines problem elementsProblem type describes combination of concepts and rules and procedures for acting on them in order to solve problems (oxidation reactions in chemistry are type of problem that are solved in a similar manner)Problem-solving process depends on problem-solver’s understanding and representation of the type problem, including an understanding of the problem state and goal stateWith practice over time, ps-ers construct richer problem representations or schemas which they can apply in a more proceduralized or automatized manner. Experts differ from novices because their problem schemas better enable them to recognize a problem situation as belonging to a certain class of problem; novices possess deficient problem schemas and are not able to recognize problem states as well, so they rely on generalized problem-solving strategies (Sweller, 1988).Solution to problem may be convergent (single, known solution) or divergent (one of several acceptable solutions); solution should not be readily apparent so learner must identify not only the nature of the problem, but also an acceptable solution, and process for arriving at it.
  • Step 1: review or present prior to beginning the PS lesson; i.e. review concepts of music before solving major problemsStep 2: Provide graphic organizer to help learners construct appropriate problem representations (develop appropriate problem schema); contains representation of essential parts, states, or actions encountered in problem and relationship between them; enhances learners’ mental models of the content being studied; explicitly represents structural knowledge required to support problem solvingStep 3: Problem-solving performance improved more after studying as few as two worked examples than from solving well-structured problems; may cause issues with transferability of PS skills from viewing worked examplesStep 4: Present practice problems with worked examples; present practice problems to learner in the form in which they will be assessed (word problems on test? Then word problems during practice)Step 5: provide analogical problems; provide advice or hints; provide feedbackStep 6: what was most effective? Ineffective? Reflect in order to acquire appropriate problem schemas
  • Step 1: Understand context of problem; what is nature of domain? Constraints? Problems? Use activity theory (Leont’ev, 1978) to analyze task domainStep 2: What requirements might reasonably constrain their solutions?Step 3: Develop cases that represent doable real-world problems in the domainStep 4: Presents multiple representations on information; learners can compare and contrastStep 5: Provide coaching on perspectivesStep 6: Cannot try out

Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes Instructional Design Models for Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes Presentation Transcript

  • ••••
  • UnknownSolution Problem domain Problem Problem-Solving Problem Type Process/Schema
  • ••••
  • ••••••
  • ••••
  • •••••
  • Problem schema activated Construct No schemas Search for Implement Problem Succeed Stop activated Solutions SolutionRepresentation Fail
  • Problem schema activated Construct No schemas Search for Implement Problem Succeed Stop activated Solutions SolutionRepresentation Fail • WHAT DO I NEED TO PRODUCE HERE? WHAT IS AN ACCEPTABLE SOLUTION GOING TO LOOK LIKE? WHAT ARE THE GIVENS? • DECOMPOSE PROBLEM STATEMENT AND MAP PROBLEM TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE • IF LEARNER POSSESSES COMPLETE SCHEMA, PROBLEM CAN BE MAPPED ONTO PROBLEM SCHEMA • “EXPERTS ARE BETTER PROBLEM SOLVERS BECAUSE THEY RECOGNIZE DIFFERENT PROBLEM STATES WHICH INVOKE CERTAIN SOLUTIONS” (SWELLER, 1988).
  • Problem schema activated Construct No schemas Search for Implement Problem Succeed Stop activated Solutions SolutionRepresentation Fail Recall Analogical Means-End Decomposing and Generate/Test Problems Analysis Simplifying •Very natural step; •Isolate goals to •Break down •Least structured usually 1st be achieved and problem into and weakest method select means to subproblems method •Have I achieve goals •Brainstorm experienced a •What is the most possible solutions similar problem? important difference? Reduce discrepancies •Impedes schema acquisition; should focus selectively on aspects of problem
  • Problem schema activated Construct No schemas Search for Implement Problem Succeed Stop activated Solutions SolutionRepresentation Fail • TEST PROCEDURES: IF SOLUTION WORKS, PROBLEM IS SOLVED; IF SOLUTION FAILS TO WORK, LEARNER GENERATES NEW HYPOTHESIS • IDENTIFYING CLUES FROM FAILED ATTEMPTS AND USING THEM IS DIFFICULT
  • Designing and Developing Well-StructuredProblem Solving Instruction Step 1: Review Prerequisite Component Concepts, Rules, and Principles Step 2:Present Conceptual or Causal Model of Problem Domain Step 3: Model Problem Solving Performance in Worked Examples Step 4: Present Practice Problems Step 5: Support the Search for Solutions Step 6: Reflect on Problem State and Problem Solution
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs Adapt Solution
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • DOES A PROBLEM REALLY EXIST? WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM? • MAY HAVE MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS OR UNDERSTANDINGS Adapt Solution • THINK ABOUT PROBLEM AS REALISTIC SITUATIONS
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • CONSTRUCT MULTIPLE PROBLEM SPACES DEPENDING ON SITUATION • DECIDE WHICH PROBLEM SCHEMA IS MOST RELEVANT AND USEFUL FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM (SINNOTT, 1989) Adapt Solution • PERCEIVE AND RECONCILE DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS OF PHENOMENA
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS BECAUSE THERE ARE MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE PROBLEM • GENERATING SOLUTIONS IS A CREATIVE PROCESS AND RELIES ON UNRELATED THOUGHTS AND EMOTIONS (SINNOTT, 1989) Adapt Solution
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • SOLUTION SHOULD ASSUME FORM OF AN ARGUMENT FOR A PREFERRED SOLUTION • SELECT/CONSTRUCT VIABLE SOLUTION, REFLECT, AND JUSTIFY Adapt Solution
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • REFLECT NOT ONLY ON WHAT YOU KNOW, BUT ALSO ON WHAT I MEANS • CONSIDER WHAT OTHERS BELIEVE AND DEVELOP ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT MENTAL MODEL OF PROBLEM SPACE Adapt Solution
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • MONITOR PERFORMANCE OF ELEMENTS IN PROBLEM TO SEE HOW THEY PERFORM Adapt Solution
  • Identify and Clarify Articulate Problem Alternative Opinions, Generate PossibleSpace and Contextual Positions, and Problem Solutions Constraints Perspectives of Stakeholders Assess Viability of Alternative Solutions byImplement and Monitor Monitor Problem Space Constructing Arguments Solution and Solution Options and Articulating Personal Beliefs • TRY OUT SOLUTION IF POSSIBLE • PROBLEM SOLVERS RECOMMEND SOLUTION AND ADJUST AND ADAPT IT BASED ON FEEDBACK Adapt Solution
  • Designing and Developing Ill-StructuredProblem Solving Instruction Step 1: Articulate Problem Context Step 2: Introduce Problem Constraints Step 3: Locate, Select, and Develop Cases for Learners Step 4: Support Knowledge Base Construction; Cognitive Flexibility Theory (Spiro, 1987) Step 5: Support Argument Construction Step 6: Assess Problem Solutions