Sinaranelektromagnet (electromagnetic radiation atau EM radiation) merupakangelombang propagasisendiri diangkasadengankomponen elektrik dan magnet. Komponeniniberayunpadasuduttepatsesamasendiridanaraharahpropagasi, dandenganberfasasesamasendiri. Radiasielektromagnetikdikelaskanmenurutjenismenurutfrekuensigelombang: jenisinitermasuk, kadarpeningkatanfrekuensi, gelombang radio, mikrogelombang, sinaranan terahertz, sinaran inframerah, cahayanampak, sinaran ultraungu, sinar-X dan sinar gamma. Dalamsesetengahkontekskeseluruhanjulatdirujukhanyasebagai 'cahaya'
Arkeologi (dari Greek: αρχαιολογία - archaiologia, dari αρχαίος - archaios, "asal, purba, tua" daan λόγος - logos, "kajian") ataujugadikenalisebagai kajipurba merupakansatubidang sains yang melakukankajianmengenai kebudayaan pra-sejarahdengancarapenggaliandanpenghuraiankesan-kesantinggalan.Arkeologipadamasasekarangmerangkumipelbagaibidang yang berkaitdanpelbagai. Sebagaicontoh, penemuanmayat yang ditanamakanmenarikminatpakardaripelbagaibidanguntukmengkajitentangpakaiandanjenisbahandigunakan, bentukseramikdancarapenyebaran, kepercayaanmelaluiapa yang dikebumikanbersamamayattersebut, pakarkimia yang mampumenentukanusiatapakgalianmelaluipereputanunsursepertikarbon 14, pakargenetik yang inginmengetahuipergerakanmanusiapurba, danpelbagaibidanglainnya.
Walaupunnuklear energy banyakkegunaan, iamempuntaikeburukanjugaContohnya, iamungkindisalahgunakanFrance exploded this nuclear weapon at Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia on July 3, 1970. Atmospheric explosions are now banned by treaty and relatively easy to detect. Most monitoring efforts today focus on detecting explosions underground.Seismic monitoring can now detect a nuclear explosion with a yield of a kiloton or more anywhere on Earth. In many places, detection is far more sensitive than that.President BarackObama is likely to ask the U.S. Senate to reconsider its 1999 vote against the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).Treaty opponents have argued that some signatories would cheat by testing explosive nuclear weapons in secret, putting noncheaters at risk.The objection that secret tests could go undetected is no longer seriously credible.
A dosimeter is a tool that can measure different levels of hazardous environments. Common dosimeters are those used for sound (They measure how loud a certain noise is) and radiation (they measure how much radiation there is in an environment).[change]
Nuclear Energy Prepared by :Yee Especially for: 4 Economy
Radioactive substance Element that has an unstable nucleus Will decay and emits radioactive radiation and heat to form a new element which is more stable. This process is called radioactive decay. Nucleus of radioactive substance is not stable and radiates alpha (α)particles, beta (β) particles or gamma (γ)rays to form a more stable nucleus. Examples of radioactive substances are uranium, radium and carbon-14. Radioactive isotopes are call radioisotopes. Example of radioisotopes are carbon-14, cobalt-60 and iodin-131.
Types of Radioactive radiation There are 3 types of radioactive radiation: Alpha radiation, (α) Beta radiation, (β) Gamma radiation, (γ)
Production of Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is produced through nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Tenaganukleardihasilkanmelaluipembelahannukleusdanpencantuman (pelakuran) nukleus. Nuclear fission is the splitting of heavy nucleus into 2 lighter nuclei that have similar mass. Nuclear fission ialahpembedahansuatunukleusberatkepada 2 nukleusringan yang mempunyaiberatlebihkurangsama. Energy produced during nuclei fission is called nuclear energy. Tenaga yang dihasilkansemasapembelahannukleusdinamakantenaganuklear. Nuclear energy can be produced through nuclear fission of a radioactive element in a nuclear reactor. Tenaganuklearbolehdihasilkanmelaluinuklear fission suatuelemen radioactive dalam nuclear reactor (stesenkuasanuklear).
Production of Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is produced through nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Tenaganukleardihasilkanmelaluipembelahannukleusdanpencantuman (pelakuran) nukleus. Nuclear fusion occurs when 2 small nuclei fuse together to form a big nucleus. Nuclear energy is produced. Nuclear fusion berlakuapabila 2 nuklueskecilbercantumdanmembentuksatunukleusbesar. Tenaganukleardihasilkan. Nuclear energy is converted into heat energy that can be used to generate electricity. Tenaganuklearditukarkepadatenagahaba yang digunakanuntukmenghasilkanelectrik. The energy produced from nuclear fusion is safe for use. Tenaga yang terhasildaripada nuclear fusion adalahselamatdigunakan.
Production of Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission is the splitting of heavy nucleus into 2 lighter nuclei that have similar mass. Energy produced during nuclei fission is called nuclear energy. Nuclear energy can be produced through nuclear fission of a radioactive element in a nuclear reactor. Nuclear fusion occurs when 2 small nuclei fuse together to form a big nucleus. Nuclear energy is produced. Nuclear energy is converted into heat energy that can be used to generate electricity. The energy produced from nuclear fusion is safe for use.
Uses of nuclear energy Nuclear energy is used to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Tenaganuckleardigunakanuntukmenghasilkantenagaelektrikdistesenkuasanuklear (reaktornuklear). Nuclear fission of radioactive substance is done on a large scale to produce large amount of energy. Pembelahannuklearbahanradioaktifdijalankansecarabesar-besaranuntukmenghasilkantenaga yang banyak.
Misuse of radioactive substances Use radioactive substance to make nuclear weapons Menggunakanbahan radioactive untukmembuatsenjatanuklear Nuclear test destroy habitats and pollute the environment Ujiannuklearmemusnahkan habitat danmencemarkanalamsekitar
Effects of radioactive rays Irresponsible radioactive waste disposal will pollute the environment Pembuangansisabahanradioactifmencemarkanpersekitaran Exposed over short period can cause nausea and vomiting / diarrhoea Terdedahmasapendekmenyebabkanloya, muntahataucirit-birit Exposed over long period can destroy body cells, causes cancer and mutation as well as abnormalities in foetus Terdedahmasapanjangbolehmembinasakansel-selbadan, menyebabkankanserdanmutasisertakeabnormalan fetus
Proper handling of radioactive substances & radioactive waste Radioactive substances are commonly kept in thick lead containers surrounded by thick concrete. Bahanradioaktifbiasanyadisimplandalamberkasplumbumtebaldikelilingiolehkonkrittebal The storeroom where radioactive substances are kept must be labelled with the radioactive warning symbol. Bilikstorbahanradioaktifmestidilabeldengansimbolamaranradioaktif
Radioactive waste must be kept in a lead container that is sealed tightly. Bahanbuanganradioaktifmestidisimpandalamberkasplumbum yang ditutuprapat Workers in a nuclear power station must wear protective clothings and dosimeters or film badges. Pekerjastesenkuasanuklearmestimemakaipakaianlindungandan dosimeter
The relevant authorities must enforce existing laws to ensure that the disposal of radioactive waste is done properly. Pihakberkuasaharusmenguatkuasakanundang-undanguntukmemastikanpembuangansisabahanradioaktifdijalankandenganwajar
In a nuclear power stations, there is always the risk of accidents that will release dangerous radiations into the environment. Hence, the nuclear reactor is safely contained inside cylindrical containment buildings while there are also cooling towers venting water vapor from the non-radioactive side of the plant. Workers in a nuclear plant must take extra precautionary measures due to the hazards posed by the radioactive substances. Strict laws must be enforced and proper signages be made available for safety purposes.
une 23, 2011 Robert Bosch to set up solar panel manufacturing facility in Penang By FINTAN NG firstname.lastname@example.org PETALING JAYA: Stuttgart-based technology company Robert Bosch GmbH is investing RM2.2bil in a solar panel manufacturing plant in BatuKawan, Penang, to mainly serve Asia's growing demand for solar energy. The new plant would provide employment opportunities for 2,000 people, which would be an increase of some 40% of Robert Bosch's current workforce in the country, said Robert Bosch solar energy division head and Bosch Solar Energy AG chairman, Holger von Hebel. He said this at a briefing yesterday following the announcement of the company's results for the financial year ended Dec 31, 2010 (FY10). The investment comes on the heels of a recent announcement to build another manufacturing facility in Venissieux, France, to serve the southern European markets. Von Hebel: Production will start by the end of 2 013. Von Hebel said construction of the BatuKawan plant, to be located on an 80-acre site, would begin before the end of this year, with production to start by the end of 2013. He said the new plant would also support and deliver components to other plants in North America and Europe. The venture, said to be one of the largest overseas investment ever made by Robert Bosch, would further cement the global strategy of the company's photovoltaics business and presence in Asia, where solar energy demand is expected to see an average annual growth of 30% in the coming years. “The planned facility will cover the entire value-added chain, from silicon crystals known as ingots and solar cells to the modules which can be installed on roofs or in solar power plants,” von Hebel said. He said the plant would have an annual capacity of 800 megawatts peak (MWp) for wafers and 620MWp peak for cells. This would be on top of producing solar power plants with a total output of 640MWp and module production lines of 150MWp. According to von Hebel, the company expect sales from the solar energy division to exceed one billion euros this year. “The decision to build a new site in Asia reflects general developments in the global market for photovoltaics. By 2020, total installed output in the region is expected to reach some 130 gigawatts peak,” he said. He added that the company's main plant in Arnstadt, Germany, together with the BatuKawan plant would complement each other and help secure the future of the photovoltaics business. Robert Bosch (SEA) Pte Ltd and Robert Bosch SdnBhd managing director Martin Hayes said South-East Asia contributed RM2.07bil in sales turnover for FY10, with Malaysia contributing RM555mil, a 37% increase from FY09. “Last year saw an outstanding performance for the region coming after the recession,” he said, adding that Malaysia was the second-largest contributor to Robert Bosch's sales in South-East Asi
Senjatanuklear adalah senjata yang mendapattenagadari tindakbalasnuklear danmempunyaikuasapemusnah yang besar. Sebijibomnuklearmampumemusnahkansebuahbandar. Senjatanuklearhanyadua kali digunakandalamsejarahduniaiaitudalam PerangDunia II oleh Amerika Syarikat terhadapbandar-bandarJepun iaitu Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negara kuasanuklearadalah Amerikasyarikat, russia, UK, Pakistan, perancis, china, india, dan Korea Utara. Selainitu, negara Israel dipercayaimempunyaisenjatanuklear, walaupuntidakdiujidan Israelengganmengisytiharkansamaadaiamemilikisenjatanuklearataupuntidak. Lihat senarainegaradengansenjatanuklear untuklebihterperinci. Senjatanuklearkinidapatdilancarkanmelaluipelbagaicarasepertimelalui kapalterbangpengebom, peluruberpandu, peluruberpandubalistik, dan peluruberpandubalistikantarabenua. Senjatanuklear yang pertamadiciptadi Amerika Syarikat dalamsatuprojekrahsia yang dinamakan "Projek Manhattan". Ujiansenjatanuklearpertamadijalankanpada 16 Julai 1945 disuatutapakdekat Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield and explosive capability ofnuclear weapons. Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that have developed nuclear weapons have tested them. Testing nuclear weapons can yield information about how the weapons work, as well as how the weapons behave under various conditions and how structures behave when subjected to nuclear explosions. Additionally, nuclear testing has often been used as an indicator of scientific and military strength, and many tests have been overtly political in their intention; most nuclear weapons states publicly declared their nuclear status by means of a nuclear test. The first nuclear weapon was detonated as a test by the United States at the Trinity site on July 16, 1945, with a yield approximately equivalent to 20 kilotons. The first hydrogen bomb, codenamed "Mike", was tested at the Enewetak atoll in the Marshall Islands on November 1 (local date) in 1952, also by the United States. The largest nuclear weapon ever tested was the "Tsar Bomba" of the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961, with an estimated yield of around 50megatons. In 1963, all nuclear and many non-nuclear states signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty, pledging to refrain from testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater, or in outer space. The treaty permitted underground nuclear testing. France continued atmospheric testing until 1974, China continued up until 1980. Underground tests in the United States continued until 1992 (its last nuclear testing), the Soviet Union in 1990, the United Kingdom in 1991, and both China and France in 1996. After signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996 (which has as of 2011 not yet entered into force), all of these states have pledged to discontinue all nuclear testing. Non-signatories India and Pakistan last tested nuclear weapons in 1998. The most recent nuclear test was announced by North Korea on May 25, 2009.
Purpose Separately from these designations, nuclear tests are also often categorized by the purpose of the test itself. weapons related tests are designed to garner information about how (and if) the weapons themselves work. Some serve to develop and validate a specific weapon type. Others test experimental concepts or are physics experiments meant to gain fundamental knowledge of the processes and materials involved in nuclear detonations. weapons effects tests are designed to gain information about the effects of the weapons on structures, equipment, organisms and the environment. They are mainly used to assess and improve survivability to nuclear explosions in civilian and military contexts, tailor weapons to their targets, and develop the tactics of nuclear warfare. safety experiments are designed to study the behavior of weapons in simulated accident scenarios. In particular, they are used to verify that a (significant) nuclear detonation cannot happen by accident. They include one-point safety tests and simulations of storage and transportation accidents. nuclear test detection experiments are designed to improve the capabilities to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations; in particular to monitor compliance with test ban treaties. Peaceful nuclear explosions are conducted to investigate non-military applications of nuclear explosives. Aside from these technical considerations, tests have been conducted for political and training purposes. Tests also often serve multiple purposes.
Compensation for victims Over 500 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests were conducted at various sites around the world from 1945 to 1980. As public awareness and concern mounted over the possible health hazards associated with exposure to the nuclear fallout, various studies were done to assess the extent of the hazard. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ National Cancer Institute study claims that nuclear fallout might have led to approximately 11,000 excess deaths, most caused by thyroid cancer linked to exposure to iodine-131. United States: As of March 2009, the U.S. is the only nation that compensates nuclear test victims. Since the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, more than $1.38 billion in compensation has been approved. The money is going to people who took part in the tests, notably at the Nevada Test Site, and to others exposed to the radiation. France: In March 2009, the French Government offered to compensate victims for the first time and legislation is being drafted which would allow payments to people who suffered health problems related to the tests. The payouts would be available to victims' descendants and would include Algerians, who were exposed to nuclear testing in the Sahara in 1960. However, victims say the eligibility requirements for compensation are too narrow. Britain: There is no formal British government compensation program. However, nearly 1,000 veterans of Christmas Island nuclear tests in the 1950s are planning to sue the Ministry of Defense for negligence. They say they suffered health problems and were not warned of potential dangers before the experiments. Russia: Decades later, Russia offered compensation to veterans who were part of the 1954 Totsk test. However, there was no compensation to civilians sickened by the Totsk test. Anti-nuclear groups say there has been no government compensation for other nuclear tests. China: China has undertaken highly secretive atomic tests in remote deserts in a Central Asian border province. Anti-nuclear activists say there is no known government program for compensating victims.