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Augmented reality for learning and teaching:  A literature review of the state-of-the-art Yu-Chang Hsu Anthony Saba
Azuma's (1997) definitions of AR <ul><ul><ul><li>Combines real and virtual  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactiv...
Virtuality Continuum  <ul><li>Milgram & Kishino (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
AR Technologies :  Data Reading <ul><li>Sensors : Receive information to help programs decide what to do next </li></ul><u...
AR Technologies:  Interfaces <ul><li>User Interfaces  (information display and/or  data entry ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head...
Potential Benefit of AR in Education <ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cognitive load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation ...
Research Question <ul><ul><ul><li>What are the state-of-the-art AR applications for teaching and learning reported in peer...
Research Methods <ul><ul><li>Keywords search  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>augmented reality AND (teaching or learning o...
General Findings from AR Research (20 articles) <ul><li>Regions :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US: 10 ( 50% ),  </li></ul></ul><...
General Findings (continued) <ul><li>Disciplines :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority:  70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sc...
General Findings (continued) <ul><li>Types of Display Systems :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Monitor Displays (plus man...
Diverse Applications
Mobile Handheld Display <ul><ul><li>Dunleavy, Dede, & Mitchell (2008)  [Collaborative/GPS location-based] (USA) </li></ul>...
Mobile handheld through Camera Scanning/Sensor (RFID) <ul><ul><li>Liu, Tan, & Chu (2009)  EULER [Ubiquitous Learning with ...
Computer Monitor +  Mannequin <ul><ul><li>Botden et al. (2007)  (Netherlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AR vs. VR </li></...
Projection- Group-based <ul><ul><li>  Birchfield et al. (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated Multimedia Arts Learnin...
Projection- Individual-based in Groups <ul><ul><li>Hsiao (2010)  CARLS (Chemistry AR Learning System) (Taiwan) </li></ul><...
  Head Mounted Displays <ul><ul><li>Kaufmann & Schmalstieg (2003)  [Construct3D] (Austria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Computer Monitor +  Marker Cards <ul><li>Liarokapis et al. (2004)  (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical engineering education...
Computer Monitor + Wearable Marker Cards <ul><li>Commercial Example (K-12) </li></ul><ul><li>LarnGear chemistry experiment...
Conclusions <ul><ul><li>AR is more than presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction and collaboration </li></u...
Contact:   [email_address]   [email_address]
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Augmented Reality for Learning and Teaching

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Transcript of "Augmented Reality for Learning and Teaching"

  1. 1. Augmented reality for learning and teaching:  A literature review of the state-of-the-art Yu-Chang Hsu Anthony Saba
  2. 2. Azuma's (1997) definitions of AR <ul><ul><ul><li>Combines real and virtual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive in real time [Jurassic Park virtual objects-- not interactive] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registered in 3D [football information on TV--2D] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Virtuality Continuum <ul><li>Milgram & Kishino (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. AR Technologies : Data Reading <ul><li>Sensors : Receive information to help programs decide what to do next </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera (tracking AR users and physical objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS (location-based activities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerometer (e.g., Wii remote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyroscope (sensing orientation, such as tilt, of objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labels and Codes (used with Camera or other sensors) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFID ( Radio-frequency identification) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QR (Quick Response) codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand Manipulated  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual cards allowing interaction among learners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded (in printed books) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wearable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. AR Technologies: Interfaces <ul><li>User Interfaces (information display and/or data entry ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head Mounted Displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor Viewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile handheld </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group Interaction  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Interaction (with the system) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Supplemental Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mannequins in the medical field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to Monitors and/or other peripherals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input on/through the mannequins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haptic feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Potential Benefit of AR in Education <ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cognitive load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation situated in physical environment—learning in context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity in applications for various implementations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical exercise through psychomotor activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-sensory feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Research Question <ul><ul><ul><li>What are the state-of-the-art AR applications for teaching and learning reported in peer-reviewed journals from 2000-2011? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject domains </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research Methods <ul><ul><li>Keywords search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>augmented reality AND (teaching or learning or education or training).  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EBSCO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000-2010 peer-reviewed journal articles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of research: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical studies on learning and teaching; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design and Development for learning and teaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open coding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research questions, participant characteristics, subject domains </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constant comparison and revising coding  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning interaction  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>among learners (individual or collaborative learning) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of AR system and technologies used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. General Findings from AR Research (20 articles) <ul><li>Regions :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US: 10 ( 50% ),  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe: 6 (30%),  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia-Pacific: 4 (20%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>School level : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K-12: 11 ( 55% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical and BioMed: 5 (25%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University: 2 (10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K-12 + University: 2 (10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Usage :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual learning: 9 (45%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group: 9 (45%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Modes: 2 (10%) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. General Findings (continued) <ul><li>Disciplines :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority: 70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science: 6 (30%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine: 6 (30%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering 2 (10%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other : 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math: 1 (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary (math/scientific literacy): 1 (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special education and rehabilitation training: 1 (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban planning education: 1 (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial training: 1 (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art education: 1 (5%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. General Findings (continued) <ul><li>Types of Display Systems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Monitor Displays (plus mannequins or marker cards): 8 ( 40% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Handheld Displays: 6 ( 30% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection Systems: 4 (20%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head Mounted Displays: 2 (10%) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Diverse Applications
  13. 13. Mobile Handheld Display <ul><ul><li>Dunleavy, Dede, & Mitchell (2008) [Collaborative/GPS location-based] (USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle school and high school students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math & Scientific literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenario: Alien Contact! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investigate alien's encounter with Earth with inter-dependent pieces of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-student team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High engagement due to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld and GPS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting Data Outside </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPS Issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity and high management need (difficult to scale up) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much requirement on students (technology/content knowledge/collaboration task) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Mobile handheld through Camera Scanning/Sensor (RFID) <ul><ul><li>Liu, Tan, & Chu (2009) EULER [Ubiquitous Learning with Educational Resources] (EULER)] (Taiwan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5th graders and their teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetland ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contextual content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>virtual objects overlay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>context-aware learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AR group better than control group (textbook only) on post-test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no control of time on learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  Perceptions: Easy to use; believe to help their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  15. 15. Computer Monitor +  Mannequin <ul><ul><li>Botden et al. (2007)  (Netherlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AR vs. VR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery: Translocation and suturing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All participants used both system; randomly decided which go first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experts and Intermediate Professionals consider AR better for training resident surgeons than VR, regarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>realism, didactic value, haptic feedback, and usefulness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. Projection- Group-based <ul><ul><li>  Birchfield et al. (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated Multimedia Arts Learning Lab [SMALLab] (USA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group & Collaborative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building “layer cake” (rock formations and sediments) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforced concepts taught previously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AR Components and interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control virtual element to build the layered structure of rock formations together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shake Wii remote to generate fault events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sig. gains in concept learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement and modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration and negotiation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Projection- Individual-based in Groups <ul><ul><li>Hsiao (2010) CARLS (Chemistry AR Learning System) (Taiwan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group (non-collaborative learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High school student (7&8th grade) in Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice with chemistry concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jumping (to reach the answers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stretching (to catch answer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boxing (to hit certain times for the correct answer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KMCAI (regular keyboard-mouse group) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical activities group did better on science knowledge test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18.   Head Mounted Displays <ul><ul><li>Kaufmann & Schmalstieg (2003)  [Construct3D] (Austria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Math/geometry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Spatial ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience dynamic geometry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for collaborative learning through negotiating modifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement in and motivation due to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co-interacting with virtual objects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making modifications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ walk around and under” to appreciate their creation” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Computer Monitor +  Marker Cards <ul><li>Liarokapis et al. (2004)  (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical engineering education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>machines, vehicles, and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help students explore the multidimensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>augmentation of materials in various levels of detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space-saving; mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and development— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>needs research on learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 20. Computer Monitor + Wearable Marker Cards <ul><li>Commercial Example (K-12) </li></ul><ul><li>LarnGear chemistry experiments (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>http://goo.gl/HsJPn </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Example: Medical Field </li></ul><ul><li>http://goo.gl/M8y55 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions <ul><ul><li>AR is more than presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction and collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement and learning improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual relevance and immediacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability issues due to learning design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AR system literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AR systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning domains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many examples available, but research on learning lacking in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded and manipulated marker cards (e.g., chemistry experiments, human organs)  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplines other than STEM education and Medicine, such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humanities and social sciences (e.g., history, language learning, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Contact:   [email_address]   [email_address]
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