Reading involves understanding the meaning of the text interpreted by the reader which is called reading comprehension.
When the reader may not have understood they might create “fix-up” strategies.
ex: rereading, reading on further or ignore confusion
An important goal in reading instruction is to teach comprehension and comprehension monitoring strategies.
Reading Instruction Cont.
Learning difficulties Reading is a complex process and it involves many areas of potential difficulties. Reciprocal causation which means a domino effect that an initial factor leads to a second factor, and a third and so on. Ex: Children who are not read to during preschool might not be familiar with books, which leads to not knowing print or sounds, which leads to greater problems.
When teaching you must be sensitive to the factors that influence reading to
the individual needs of each student.
Depending on the student’s development and needs should emphasize on certain components. It is crucial to obtain these components to maintain a balance approach in reading.
A goal of reading instruction is to use social content to engage students in discussion about what they are reading and the reading process.
A child learning to read has learned to read using phonological awareness and letter sounds. It is important that the student pair reads and writes to build reading decoding skills. It is also important that the student explores different types of texts and genres. Reading Instruction
Section Quiz 1. What is reading instruction? 2. Reading requires thinking skills and strategies called? _________________________
3. Name at least one important goal of reading instruction. 4. Name at least two factors that influence reading.
Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Readers Janelle Baluja
Effective Reading for Struggling Readers It is important for teachers to create an effective reading environment for all students. Some effective reading instruction that a teacher can use throughout their classroom include the following: Establishing an environment to promote reading Using appropriate on going assessments and monitoring (to see what students have mastered and need to develop) Providing intensive instruction Obtaining early intervention when needed
Establishing an Environment to Promote Reading Having a room filled with print that is of interest to the students can help them become easily engaged to read, which will ultimately build up their vocabulary as well as reading skills. Some materials and resources that are beneficial in having include: Class library Reading center Word study center Listening center
Establishing an Environment to Promote Reading The social environment is also critical. The teacher needs to be the one providing the example of how a book should be read, and this can be done by reading a book aloud to the class. Having discussions on the books they have read is also another important element. Some strategies to help build the students reading skills would include echo and choral reading.
Using Response to Intervention to Screen Struggling Readers The focus in helping struggling readers get the help that they need is focused around RTI. The steps of RTI include: Ongoing screening Monitoring progress Early intervention in reading and ongoing assessments and treatments.
Using Response to Intervention to Screen Struggling Readers How do you know if students are responding to instruction? We are capable of finding out through several important questions: Have students received scientifically-based reading instruction? Have students received adequate opportunities to respond and obtain feedback? How does their performance in reading compare to the rest of the classroom? Have students received instructional opportunities in small groups to obtain reading proficiency? Have students been engaged and given opportunities to read texts of their interest? Is data available to view the slope of the students reading skills?
Using Response to Intervention to Screen Struggling Readers Answering those questions can help you as a teacher determine whether or not the student had received adequate instruction. This then allows you to understand whether or not their low responses to instruction is a functional need to the student. Completing assessments and monitoring their progress helps teachers have a better understanding where the student seems to be struggling at with their reading.
Using Screening Assessment and Progress Monitoring Screening is a mechanism that reveals a students progress compared to the rest of their grade level peers. These screenings also allow teachers to measure whether students are reading above or even below average. When it comes to assessing students, teachers need to make sure they go about it properly. TYPES OF ASSESSMENTS- Critical aspects to keep in mind before choosing an assessment: Purpose of assessment Specific information needed about the students reading Number of students being tested Qualifications of assessor
Using Screening Assessment and Progress Monitoring Picking the correct assessment is also a critical aspect. Diagnostic Assessments- Tells us specifically how a student is performing, and well else he or she need to know. Norm-based Assessments- Help us to determine how the student’s performance idea of what students of the same age or in the same grade.
Using Screening Assessment and Progress Monitoring PROGRESS MONITORING- Progress monitoring, also known as curriculum-based measurement (CBM), is a means of measuring student’s progress and highlights the close tie between curriculum and student performance. CBM provides ongoing data for making instructional decisions by considering: How performance is affected by changing the instructional part The rate of learning compared to the goal The variability in the consistency of the performance
Using Screening Assessment and Progress Monitoring Informal reading inventories and curriculum-based measurement are means for monitoring student progress. Informal reading inventories is when students read lists of words and passages that are leveled by grade, and retell or answer questions about the passages that they have read. Guidelines that provide information on whether or not students are reading appropriate material: Independent reading level Instructional reading level Frustration reading level
Providing Intensive Instruction Students that have special learning needs, it is important to find ways to provide appropriate instruction for their individual needs and it needs to be intensive enough to create progress. Reading instruction is appropriate and intensive when: Students have a clear understanding of teacher expectations Instruction provided matches the reader’s instructional reading level and needs Adequate texts are used that are engaging to the students and at their reading level Instruction is is explicit and direct in the skills and strategies and reader needs in order to become proficient and more independent
Providing Intensive Instruction Students are grouped appropriately, which includes ability-level grouping Instruction includes frequent opportunities for responding with feedback Student progress is monitored frequently and used to make instructional decisions Teachers and peers support the students when necessary
Obtaining Early Intervention: Response to Intervention
An early intervention class addresses students with reading difficulties as soon as they become aware of there situation.
These classes provide a one-on-one instruction in which each student is grouped by there levels and needs.
Through this program, it teaches phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondences, decoding skills and word recognition.
This programs work mainly for grade levels 2 -5.
At what level is the material too difficult for the students to read with understanding even with assistance?
What does the curriculum-based measurement measure?
Why is it important to screen struggling readers?
Strategies for teaching phonological awareness and phonics Liz Ovides
Phonological Awareness Phonics It is knowing and demonstrating that spoken language can be broken down into smaller units Rhyming: identifying similarities and differences in word endings Alliteration: identifying similarities and differences in word beginnings Blending: putting syllables or sounds together to form a word Segmentation: dividing words into syllables and sounds Manipulation: deleting, adding, and substituting syllables and sounds Is the connection between the sounds of letters and the letters in print Phonics is the key element in understanding the alphabetic principle and learning to read and write Teach a core set of frequently used consonants and short Begin immediately to blend and segment the sounds in order to read and spell the words and read the words in decodable text (text in which most words are composed of letter-sound that have been taught) Separate the introduction of letter sounds with similar auditory or visual features Teach that some letters can represent more than one sound Teach that different letter can make the same sound Teach that sounds can be represented by a single letter or by a combination of letters Add a kinesthetic component by having students trace or write the letters as they say the sound Have students use mirrors and feel their mouths to see and feel how the sounds are different
Section Questions What is phonological awareness? List the five skills included in phonological awareness. Describe the five skill you listed above. What is Phonics? What is decodable text?
Strategies for teaching word identification Silvia Perrina
Strategies for Teaching Word Identification Reading words quickly and easily is one key to successful reading. Successful readers identify words fluently and, if a word is unknown, have effective decoding strategies to decipher the word.
Teaching Sight Words A sight word is a word for which the student can recognize the pronunciation and meaning automatically. Automaticity is quick word recognition High-frequency words are words such as “the, you, and, was” You can select words to teach on the basis of the materials the students are reading, words the students are having difficulty learning, key vocabulary from textbooks, or high-frequency words from graded word lists.
Teaching Decoding Strategies Phonic Analysis is the use of phonics to decode a word Onset-rime is using common spelling patterns to decode words by blending. Structural analysis and syllabication is the use of knowledge of word structures such as compound words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, and inflectional endings and syllabication to decode multisyllabic words. Syntax and semantics is the use of knowledge of word order (syntax). (Semantics) is to support the pronunciation and confirm word meaning.
Techniques for Teaching Decoding and Sight Words A number of programs and strategies have been developed for teaching decoding strategies and sight words. The technique of making words, word sorting, and using word walls have been used by many teachers. Even secondary teachers who are instructing older students with reading disabilities are using word analysis practices to bolster students’ success at decoding and accurately reading words.
Using DISSECT Strategy As students become more advanced in their reading, they begin to use structural analysis and syllabication to identify multisyllabic words. The strategy DISSECT has the following steps: 1.) Discover the word’s context 2.) Isolate the prefix 3.) Separate the suffix 4.) say the stem 5.) Examine the stem 6.) Check with someone 7.) Try the dictionary
Strategies for improving Reading Comprehension Juliana Santos
Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension The biggest problem are students who can read the words, albeit slowly, but do not understand what they read. Comprehension strategies need to be used before, during and after reading.
Effective Comprehension Instruction Activating Background Knowledge Predicting Generating and answering questions Clarifying Summarizing Using text structure Monitoring comprehension Engaging text and conversations about reading
Vocabulary Vocabulary refers to the words a person understands and uses in and indirect experiences with oral and printed language Indirect Experience- increase students vocabularies include opportunities to engage in oral discussions of new experiences and new words that build on previous knowledge. Students need repeated exposure to the new vocabulary in a variety of contexts to ensure significant reading gains. Teachers should provide student friendly definitions consisting of words that students know
Steps to Introducing New Words Introduce a vocabulary word and ask students to repeat the word so they know how to pronounce it. Discuss the meaning of the new word using synonyms, examples, and definitions Test students on their understanding of the word by asking students to figure out positive or incorrect examples and to explain why.
K-W-L Strategies K-W-L is a strategy used to help students become actively engaged in comprehension before, during , and after reading. Accessing what I Know Determining what I Want to learn Recalling what I Learned During the know step teachers and students engage in discussion about what they already know about the topic During the want –to-learn step, teachers and students describe what they hope to learn from reading about the topic. During the learned stage, teachers and students discuss what they learned after the reading
Questions-Answer Relationship Strategy Instruct students in how to develop good questions about what they read and to ask and answer these questions. Questions-Answer Relationship (QAR) Strategy- helps students realize that when answering questions they need to not only consider the text and their prior knowledge, but also use strategic behavior to adjust the use of each of these sources. The four question-answer relationships are based on the source of information and the types of reasoning involved: Right there. Words used to create the question and words used for the answer are in the same sentence Think and search. The answer is in the text, but words used to create the question and those used for an appropriate answer are not in the same sentence. Author and you. The answer is implied in the author’s language , style, and tone. On my own. The answer is found not in the text but in one’s head on the basis of personal experience.
Collaborative Strategic Reading Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a multi-component learning strategy that combines essential reading comprehension strategies that have been demonstrated as effective in improving students’ understanding of text with cooperative learning groups or paired learning. Four strategies using the following steps: Previewing. Students to learn as much as they can in 2-3 minutes, activate the background knowledge, make predictions, grab their interest in the topic Click and Clunk. Students read each section of the text while monitoring their comprehension. Getting the Gist. Students learn to get the gist (main idea) by reading and asking questions. Wrap-up. Students formulate questions and answers about the key ideas from the entire passage and discuss what they have learned.
Teaching English Language Learners with Reading Difficulties The essential components of learning to read are also effective for ELLs. ELLs benefit from instruction in phonics, fluency, and comprehension. The most important component is to adequately build vocabulary, concept, and comprehension knowledge. Unfortunately , there is substantially more knowledge about teaching students with reading difficulties who are monolingual English students than there is about teaching students who are ELLs.
Section Questions What is the biggest problem in reading comprehension? List five Effective Comprehension Instruction. What are the steps in order to introducing new words to students? Explain K-W-L. How do the four steps of Collaborative Strategic Reading work? What is most important when teaching ELLs?
Strategies for Teaching older Readers Yessenia Zamora
Strategies for Teaching Older Readers It is not unusual to find students in Middle School and High school still reading at a third grade level or below. Reading instruction for students in upper grades is primarily focused on comprehension and understanding of the content area. Most of these students make part of the general class. Usually, the approach for teaching older readers with reading difficulties is similar if they were beginning readers.
Strategies for Teaching older Readers, Cont. Many of the previously discussed strategies can be applied to teaching older readers They need instruction in phonological awareness Focus on more complex and/or multisyllabic words versus single syllables. REWARDs Program: (reading excellence word attack & rate development strategies) Flexible program designed to teaching harder words at a level that is not intimidating/demanding by breaking down words and allowing the learner to become familiar with syllables, prefixes, suffixes, vowels, etc., before putting the word parts together.
Section Questions Why do you think students in the upper grades might be affected if they are having trouble with their reading? What can a teacher do to help an older student learn how to read? What does the acronym REWARDS mean?