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  • 1. Rina Bell AbrahamRina Bell Abraham Roma CaguimbalRoma Caguimbal Cristine Pearl de CastroCristine Pearl de Castro Eloisa Marie MarasiganEloisa Marie Marasigan Tom Christopher ParmaTom Christopher Parma
  • 2. 2 Rina Bell Abraham Roma Caguimbal Cristine Pearl de Castro Eloisa Marie Marasigan Tom Christopher Parma
  • 3. 3 The authors wanted to express their deepest gratitude to the authors and publishers of the books and articles used in making “English Grammar in Progress” possible. The authors would also like to thank: Mrs. Maricris Ascan and family for their limitless support. BatStateU Family for believing that the authors can make it. All the friends that light up their loads. Deepest gratitude are bestowed to: Inay and Tatay My sisters and brother Love -RMA Mama and Papa Rhea Jane FFG -RPC Inay and Tatay Carla and Christian W.S.A - CPBD Inay and Tatay My sisters and brother -EMMM
  • 4. 4 Check It Out!!! Challenge Grammar Armchair This book is designed to test and improve the students’ language proficiency by supplying the students with the basic knowledge in grammar including grammar rules, instructions and practices. It provides students with exercises in applying such gram- mar rules aiming to enhance the students’ confidence in using the language in their everyday lives. The authors made use of techniques that will make the students easily acquire the grammar points necessary in communication Features This provide test that will measure the students’ knowledge on what they already know in grammar. Provides the students with activi- ties to be answered within a given time. This contains discussions on the given topic. Grammar in Action Inkblot Mastery Test
  • 5. 5 Title Page Title Page i Acknowledgement iii Preface v Table of Contents vii Noun 1 Pronoun 19 Verb 35 Simple Tenses 47 Subject Verb Agreement 57 Adjectives 65 Adverbs 75 Clauses and Phrases 85 Basic Sentence Pattern 101 Common Mistakes in English Grammar Bibliography 107 116
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  • 7. 7 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Identify what nouns are;  Classify the kinds, plural and possessive forms of nouns;  Write and use the plural of a noun;  Write and use the possessive form of a noun; and  Assay if a word is a noun N o u n s
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  • 9. 9 Check It Out!!! E N T H U S I A S M A Y E U X T S W A C W G S K E I Y E N O A P A P D A F T Y F X J A O Y Q E G N U E Q V S X E I U S R M E W E D R A O C U G L D S U U R F A A W E F R R A O I Y J I S L J K W Q R A H R S E K T R H R G C I R O P Q U T N A P O F F R M T P M E T O L C R E S E A A B T G P R O T P E L T R A I I F Y Q W F Z N V S L I E M O N G R E T C H E N A E S P T J A D Y Y E I K N E L F B S O F T A L K I N G P Z M I E A K S Y Y T I N U M M O C M W Direction: Encircle the nouns in the puzzle below and write it on the space provided. Then, classify them accordingly. NOUN HUNT Noun Classification Noun Classification
  • 10. 10 Challenge Direction: Underline the nouns that can be found in the selection. This I Believe (Excerpt) Albert Einstein My political idea is democracy. Everyone should be respected as an individual, but no one idolized. It is an irony of fate that I should have been showered with so much un- called-for and unmerited admiration and esteem. Perhaps this adulation springs from the unfulfilled wish of the multitude to comprehend the few ideas which I, with my weak pow- ers, have advanced. Full well did I know that in order to attain my definite goal, it is imperative that one person should do the thinking and commanding and carry most of the responsibility. But those who are led should not be driven, and they should be allowed to choose their leader. It seems to me that the distinctions separating the social classes are false; in the last analysis they rest on force. I am convinced that degeneracy follows every autocratic system of violence, for violence inevitably attracts moral inferiors. Time has proved that illustrious tyrants are succeeded by scoundrels… What is truly valuable in our bustle of life is not the nation, I should say, but the creative and impressionable individuality, the personality – he who produces the noble and sublime while the common herd remains dull in thought and insensible in felling. Grammar Armchair Nouns are words used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns may be classified according to the following groups: A. Proper Nouns - Proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. B. Common Nouns - Common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a gen- eral sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. C. Concrete Nouns - Concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. D. Abstract Nouns - Abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not per- ceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.
  • 11. 11 E. Countable Nouns - Countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Over the course of twenty-seven years, Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies. F. Non-Countable Nouns - Non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. G. Collective Nouns - Collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or per- sons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. Grammar in Action Exercise A Circle the nouns in each of the following sentences. 1. Melissa used a red crayon and a black pen to complete her drawing. 2. George Washington was the first President of the United States. 3. Many people are fascinated by the art of the Incas. 4. The airplane taxied down the runway on its way to Florida. 5. The telephone was an important invention in the history of technology.6. Laughter is the best medicine when you have a case of the blues. 7. An apple is a good snack according to nutritionists. 8. The Middle East is often in the news these days. 9. The guillotine is a machine invented by a doctor named Guillotine. 10. The usher collected our tickets and let us into the theatre. Exercise B In each sentence, underline the common nouns and circle the proper nouns. 1. The Stanley Steamer was his favourite automobile. 2. Sports are quite exciting in the mountains. 3. Nellie would rather read poems than novels. 4. Mr. Putnam will tour the valleys of the Loire and the Rhine. 5. Kathleen Ross was our excellent fielder. 6. Be sure to bring paint, scissors, and paper for Art I. 7. Do you prefer Superman, Spiderman, or Wonder Woman? 8. Muffin was the tiniest dog in the show.9. Riverside Pool echoed with the yells of my little brother. 10. Woof-Woof Unlimited sells clothing for dogs.
  • 12. 12 Exercise C In the following exercise, try to match the collective noun to the animal with which it belongs. 1. pride kangaroos 2. school ferrets 3. pack fish 4. army parrots 5. cete lions 6. mob seals 7. crash dogs 8. cast pigeon 9. flock ants 10.company badgers Inkblot Think of a man or woman of principle whom you know and admire. Write a profile of his/her character in paragraph of not more than 20 sentences. Underline the nouns and identi- fy what type of noun each one is. Challenge Direction : Fill in the puzzle with the plural form of each word. ACROSS 2 Tooth. 7 Wife. 8 Snake. 10 Party. 12 Leaf. 13 Box. 16 House. 17 Finger. 19 Knife. 20 Basket. DOWN 1 Man. 3 Hammer. 4 Bush. 5 Foot. 6 Bench. 9 Girl. 11 Story. 14 Shoe. 15 Sock. 18 Goose.
  • 13. 13 Grammar Armchair Rules for Forming Plural Nouns To form the plural of nouns, follow the rules below. 1. Add s to most nouns. girl/girls bicycle/bicycles printer/printers 2. Add es to nouns ending is s, x, z, ch, or sh. class/classes ax/axes buzz/buzzes church/churches wish/wishes 3. For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es. fly/flies party/parties daisy/daisies 4. For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel, add s. monkey/monkeys valley/valleys
  • 14. 14 5. For nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es. hero/heroes potato/potatoes 6. For nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s. Oreo/Oreos radio/radios patio/patios 7. For musical terms ending in o, add s. solo/solos alto/altos piano/pianos 8. For nouns ending in f or fe, usually change the f or fe to ves. leaf/leaves shelf/shelves wolf/wolves Exceptions: chief/chiefs chef/chefs safe/safes 9. Add s to the end of singular nouns ending in ful. cupful/cupfuls spoonful/spoonfuls 10. Change the spelling of some words. cactus/cacti mouse/mice goose/geese woman/ women 11. Leave some nouns as they are. sheep/sheep deer/deer fish/fish moose/moose 12. Add s to the most important noun in a hyphenated word. editor-in-chief/editors-in-chief brother-in-law/brothers-in-law 13. Add s to proper nouns which do not end in s. Add es to proper nouns which do end in s. Mr. and Mrs. Walker/the Walkers Mr. and Mrs. Ross/the Rosses
  • 15. 15 Grammar in Action Direction: Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence. 1. I have three (child, children). 2. There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women). 3. (Baby, Babies) play with bottles as toys. 4. I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box. 5. A few men wear (watch, watches). 6. I put a (memo, memos) on the desk. 7. I saw a (mouse, mice) running by. 8. There are few (bus, buses) on the road today. Directions: Make the singular nouns into plural nouns. Directions: Make the singular nouns into plural nouns. 1. box = __________________________ 7. class = ____________________________ 2. church = _______________________ 8. shop = ____________________________ 3. wish = _________________________ 9. glass = ____________________________ 4. lake = __________________________ 10. city = _____________________________ 5. bunny = ________________________ 11. friend = ___________________________ 6. house = ________________________ 12. fox = _____________________________ Directions: Read each sentence and circle the correct plural form of the word in parentheses 1. We had to buy ( nailes, nails ) at the hardware store. 2. Please put the empty ( boxes, boxes ) in the house. 3. The ( dishs, dishes ) in the sink need to be washed. 4. My mother used ten ( matchs, matches ) to light the fire. 5. Sara bought some new ( dresses, dresss ) today. 6. Our sun is a ball of hot ( gases, gasss ). 7. There were many ( flyes, flies ) at the beach. 8. The bird spread its ( winges, wings ) before it flew into the air. 9. I like to read the ( funnyes, funnies ) in the newspaper. 10. I made three ( wishes, wishs ) last night List down at least 10 examples for each rule in the pluralisation of nouns. Inkblot
  • 16. 16 Challenge Grammar Armchair Possessive Nouns A possessive noun is a noun that names who or what owns or has possession of some- thing. In most cases, for singular nouns to show that possession, we add an apostrophe and an a (‘s). For plural nouns we simply an apostrophe except for those few plural nouns that do not end in s.
  • 17. 17 Grammar Rules for Possessive Nouns Five basic grammar rules cover the majority of instances where writers encounter pos- sessive nouns. Rule #1: Making singular nouns possessive Add an apostrophe + s to most singular nouns and to plural nouns that do not end in s. English has some words that are plural but do not add an ‘s’. Words like children, sheep, women and men are such words. These plural words are treated as if they were singular words when making noun possessives. Examples:  Singular nouns: kitten’s toy, Joe’s car, MLB’s ruling Plurals not ending in s: women’s dresses, sheep’s pasture, children’s toys Rule #2: Making plural nouns possessive Add an apostrophe only to plural nouns that already end in s. You don’t need to add an extra ‘s’ to plural nouns that already end with the letter ‘s’. Simply tuck the apostrophe onto the end to indicate that the plural noun is now a plural pos- sessive noun. Examples:  Companies’ workers  Horses’ stalls Countries’ armies Rule #3: Making hyphenated nouns and compound nouns plural Compound and hyphenated words can be tricky. Add the apostrophe + s to the end of the compound words or the last word in a hyphenated noun. Examples:  My mother-in-law’s recipe for meatloaf is my husband’s favourite. The United States Post Office’s stamps are available in rolls or in packets. Rule #4: Indicating possession when two nouns are joined together If two nouns share ownership, indicate possession only once, and on the second noun. Add the apostrophe + s to the second noun only.
  • 18. 18 Grammar in Action Examples: Jack and Jill’s pail of water features prominently in the nursery rhyme. Abbot and Costello’s comedy skit “Who’s On First” is a classic act. Rule #5: Indicating possession when two nouns are joined, and ownership is separate When two nouns indicate ownership, but the ownership is separate, each noun gets the apostrophe + s. The examples below may help you understand exactly what this means. Example:  Lucy’s and Ricky’s dressing rooms were painted pink and blue. (Each owns his or her own dressing room, and they are different rooms). Senator Obama’s and Senator Clinton’s educations are outstanding. (Each senator owns his or her education, but they attained separate educations). Direction: Fill the gaps with the possessive case of nouns. Decide whether you have to use 's or an of phrase. 1. The boy has a toy. → It's the . 2. Peter has a book. → It's . 3. The magazine has my picture on its cover. → My picture is on . 4. Our friends live in this house. → It's . 5. There is milk in the glass. → It's . 6. This house has a number. → What is ? 7. The walk lasts two hours. → It's . 8. John has a sister, Jane. → Jane is . 9. The film has a name, "Scream". → "Scream" is . 10. This school is for girls only. → It's a .
  • 19. 19 Direction: Change the phrases to possessive nouns the cheering of the children _______________________________ the laughter of the men __________________________________ the horn of the oxen _____________________________________ the jump rope of the girls ________________________________ the howling of the dogs __________________________________ the singing of the choirs _________________________________ the handbags of the women ______________________________ the cheese of the mice __________________________________ Direction: Write the singular and plural possessives form of the italicized nouns. Inkblot Write a 10 sentence paragraph about the advantage and disadvantages of technology in education. Be sure to use the singular and possessive nouns in your sentences.
  • 20. 20 Mastery Test Underline the nouns that can be found in the selection below. THE TRANSFER Bienvenido Santos At the meaning of the Local Catholic Action Committee held that Sun- day morning at the Bishop’s Palace immediately after the High Mass, Mr. Conrardo Ara- bia, who has an old government employee as well as chairman of the CAC for the past five years, mentioned casually the need for a particular retirement system for the Church, patterned after the civil service. The committee had met to discuss the final details of the welcome program for the first Bishop of the diocese ever to reside in town. The bishop’s Palace stood outside the Cathedral grounds. Formerly the mansion of a Chinese dry goods merchant, it was now ready for its distinguished resident. It still smelled of paint and varnish, but the transformation was complete. The ground floor, formerly a recreation hall and bar, had been partitioned to serve as officers of the Chan- cery. File cabinets and chairs stood in appropriate corners. A huge mahogany table cov- ered with glass occupied an inner compartment for the Bishop himself. On a wall was a colored painting of His Holiness Pope. Typewriter under black leathery hoods, looking like Monks asleep at their desks, bookcases with jacket gay leathery volumes, had re- placed the open bar and the wine shelves; religious calendars, each page crowded with pictures of saints and fish in red, now hung on the walls where colourful targets for ar- chery practices used to be. On the first floor, the guest room adjoining the sala was now a chapel, beautiful with imported rugs and carrying and gleaming pews. From where he sat, Mr. Arabia could see the altar gravely austere in its simplicity, and the chandeliers. Resplendent in the day time. Father Simplicio Ruivivar had been parish priest of the town for nearly half a century anfd he was not strong enough anymore to carry on the growing complexities of his job. Grown fast and habitually shabby, he waddled about with effort. Old age had im- paired his senses. There were old priest who knew when it was time for them to retire and keep to corner, who allowed younger priest to take over their tasks even while they continued to be normal, at least, parish priest. But Father Ruivivar refused to acknowl- edgement what was obvious to everybody, that he was too old for this job. His retort every time someone in the parish dared to brook him or express contrary opinion: “Who are you to say so? You think you are wise, but I am old. Remember, didn’t baptize you myself?” assumed a meaning beyond its implication, indeed, he was a priest grown too old for his job.
  • 21. 21 I. Classify the following nouns accordingly. _____ 1. Love _____11. Hacienda Luicita _____2. Sack of rice _____12. train _____3. Market _____13. A kilo of cotton _____4. Steve Jobs _____14. subway _____5. Happiness _____15. Channel Bag _____6. SM Hypermart _____16. governor _____7. Sugar _____17. Jessica Soho _____8. Sweetness _____18. books _____9. Fear _____19 .hate _____10. Trainor _____20. Water II. Write the following nouns in their plural form. _____1. Fact _____11. cupful _____2. Cameo _____12. knife _____3. Lasso _____13. appendix _____4. Ally _____14. ghetto _____5. Dwarf _____15. radius _____6. Mouse _____16. scenery _____7. Child _____17. lion _____8. Axis _____18. flash _____9. Man _____19. louse _____10. Son-in-law _____20.buoy IV. Add an appropriate nominal qualifier to indicate the plural form of the non- count nouns. 1. Corn 6. Thunder 2. Dust 7. Work 3. Oil 8. Grass 4. Rice 9. Bread 5. Tea 10. Paper
  • 22. 22 V. For each of the following, write the singular and possessive forms. Singular Possessive Plural Possessive the front of the ox ________________ ________________ the iPod of the woman ________________ ________________ the watch of the teenager ________________ ________________ the label of the box and the can ________________ ________________ the dialysis machine in the hospital ________________ ________________ the tooth of the crocodile ________________ ________________ the curriculum of the nurse ________________ ________________ the office of the editor-in- chief ________________ ________________ the bikes of Mitch and Rose ________________ ________________ the requirement of Mathe- matics subject ________________ ________________ Write two sentences for each of the rules in forming the possessive form of a noun. 1. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 2. a._____________________________________________________________________ b._____________________________________________________________________ 3. a._____________________________________________________________________ b._____________________________________________________________________ 4. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 5. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 6. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 7. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________
  • 23. 23 Write the correct form the possessive noun in the blank in the blanks to correctly complete the sentences. None of the __________ (computers) processors are fast enough for this game. (9) Be careful, the ________ edges are very (knives) sharp. The lawyer proved that his ______ (client) rights were violated. (10) Our _________ batteries only last for a (cellphones) couple of hours. The ___________ glass was shattered (windows) shattered by the earthquake. (11) There is a telephone in my __________ (parents) bedroom. The __________ pages had been (textbook) extensively marked up. (12) When the ________ long hand reaches six, (clock) put down your pencils. You also need to paint the ___________ (windows) frames. (13) Shelby pulled back the drapes to let the ________ light in. (sun) The __________ manuals can be found on (programs) the shelf. (14) All of _____________ menus can be found (restaurants) in this book. The _________ surfaces need to be (desks) cleaned with soap and water. (15) The ____________ bindings are starting to (books) fall apart. The _________ lecture notes are available (professors) online. (16) The ___________ solutions are staring us (problems) in the face! Singular Possessive Plural Possessive Christian duty Brother opinion Church congregation Mother garden Family yard Worker uniform Day rest Money worth
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  • 25. 25 After dealing with this chapter, the students must be able to:  Familiarize with the different kinds of pronouns;  Identify the different kinds of pronouns in a sentence;  Determine the cases of pronouns  Identify the pronoun’s antecedent isn a sentence P ro n o u n s
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  • 27. 27 Check It Out!!! Pronoun Underline the pronouns that you found in the song entitled “Lean on Me”. Sometimes in our lives We all have pain We all have sorrow But if we are wise We know that there's always to- morrow Lean on me, when you're not strong And I'll be your friend I'll help you carry on For it won't be long 'Til I'm gonna need Somebody to lean on Please swallow your pride If I have things you need to bor- row For no one can fill those of your needs That you won't let show [ Lyrics from: http:// www.lyricsty.com/bill-withers- lean-on-me-lyrics.html ] You just call on me brother, when you need a hand (Chorus) We all need somebody to lean on I just might have a problem that you'd understand We all need somebody to lean on Second Verse (Chorus) If there is a load you have to bear That you can't carry I'm right up the road I'll share your load If you just call me (Chorus) Call me (if you need a friend) Call me (call me) Call me (if you need a friend) Call me (if you ever need a friend) Call me (call me) Call me Call me (if you need A friend) “Lean on Me” By: Bill Withers
  • 28. 28 Grammar Armchair Pronouns comes from the two words pro which means “for” and noun. A pronoun is traditionally defined as a noun replacement. A pronoun is used in place of a noun or a whole noun phrase, that is also known as noun—substitutes. Pronouns are commonly used. 1. In place of a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned, when the repeti- tion of the noun or noun phrase would be very strange. Example: Mandy has to go the airport. Can you give her a lift? 2. When we know perfectly well who or what to referred to. When, foe example, I use the pronoun I, it is because it would be unusual to referred to myself by name. Example: I’m sorry I’m late. 3. When the name of someone to our office yesterday. Example: She’s the woman who came to our office yesterday. ANTECEDENTS An antecedent is a noun phrase that gives it meaning to another noun phrase in the sentence. Antecedents usually occurs before the pronoun. Here are some examples: Adeline bit her lip. Adeline = antecedent; her = personal pronoun. Our carnivorous friends will not attend the picnic be- cause they despise tofu hotdogs and black bean burgers. Friends = antecedent; they = personal pronoun. When Kris sprained his ankle, Coach Ames replaced him with Jasper, a much slower runner. Kris = antecedent; him = personal pronoun. Eating with your mouth closed has several benefits. Most im- portantly, itkeeps people from turning away in disgust. Eating with your mouth closed = phrase as antecedent; it = personal pronoun. Karline hopes that her roommates remember to walk the new pup- py. It will mean less urine to mop up when she gets home.
  • 29. 29 Direction: Underline the correct pronoun in each sentence below. 1. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget (his or her, their) lines. 2. The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break. 3. A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year. 4. The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document. 5. If any one of the sisters needs a ride, (she, they) can call me. 6. When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly. 7. If the board of directors controls the company, (it, they) may vote for a raise. 8. Neither the pilot nor the attendants gave (his or her, their) opinion about the mishap. 9. Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited. 10. Some of the china has lost (its, their) luster. Grammar in Action Proofread each sentence for errors in pronoun/antecedent agreement. Correct the in- correct pronouns. Write a C next to sentences that use correct pronoun/antecedent agreement. 1. One of the boys had tears in their eyes. 2. Somebody left their books on the counter. 3. A student should see an advisor if they have any questions. 4. Any injured athlete should see a trainer as soon as they are injured. 5. Many of us love the movies, but you seldom have time to go to them. 6. Everyone has his or her own way of studying. 7. Teachers are responsible for providing their students with accurate grades. 8. Someone had blocked the driveway with their car. 9. When I asked the teacher why I failed the test, he said that I had not studied the proper ma- terial. 10. Each woman must do their best to take care of their health. 11. Each of the apartment owners had his or her apartment repainted. 12. As the weather got colder everyone wished they had brought a coat. 13. Everyone gets angry when someone accuses him or her of voting for the wrong candidate. 14. Jill told Reagan that she had to get more sleep. 15. A person needs to learn how to read or you will not do very well in school.
  • 30. 30 Case refers to the form a word takes and its function in a sentence. The English language has just three cases: subjective, possessive and objective. Most nouns, many indefinite pronouns and “it” and“you” have distinctive forms only for the possessive case. For most nouns and indefinite pronouns, that form usually is indicated by an apostrophe: John's coat; states' powers; someone's house; another's task. For “it.” the possessive is formed by adding “s”; for “you” the possessive is formed by adding “r” or “rs” to the word. (Never use an apostrophe to form a possessive for it, you or the personal pronouns noted below.) Six personal pronouns have a distinctive form for each of the three cases: Subjective “I,” “we,” “he,” “she,”“who” and “they” are the forms used for subjects and subject comple- ments. Examples: Subjects — He and I were great friends. We grew uptogether. They lived next door. Who teaches that course? Complements of the subject — The ones responsible are Joe and she. It is I. Joe Smith, that's who. Possessive “My/mine,” “our/ours,” “his,” “her/hers,” “their/theirs and “whose” are the formsused to show ownership. Examples: Before noun — My car broke down. Our boat leaks.His dog is ugly. Her back is wet. Their name is Mudd.Whose job is that? Possessors in the noun position — Mine is green. Ours is over there.His looks heavy. Hers was last inline. Theirs sank yesterday.Whosewill be chosen? Objective “Me,” “us,” “him,” “her,” “them” and “whom” are the forms reserved for use as objectsof verbs or prepositions. Examples: Sue likes me. Elaine drove to the airport to meet us. For him this is no problem. Sam wanted her to leave. Jim was introduced to them. Finding whom I was looking for, I re- turned to my favorite pastime. Grammar Armchair CASES
  • 31. 31 Determining the Case of Pronouns Underline the correct form from the choices given in the parenthesis. 1. (Who, Whom) did you say you saw at the park. 2. If it is (he, him), why don’t you bother to tell us. 3. (Whoever, Whomever) you vote will represent us in Congress. 4. Philippines and (you, yourself) are the official candidates. 5. Are you astonished at (us, our) winning the Championship. 6. There’s enough for you and (she, her) to fix your relationship. 7. That is one beautiful lady (who, whom) I like so dearly. 8. The box should be returned to either Joan or (me, myself). 9. Between you and (I, me), they should not be here at all. 10. They triumphantly won at least two or more games than (we, us). Grammar in Action Inkblot Write an essay about your prized possession as of this moment. Take note to use pronouns and cases of pronouns and underline it. Grammar in Action Choose the correct pronoun for each sentence below. Read the entire sentence before making your choice. 1. Five of (we, us, ourselves) took a cab to the play. 2. Are you and (they, them, themselves) attending the meeting. 3. No one is more concerned about the matter than (she, her, herself). 4. (Who, Whom) can I go out with tonight? 5. Margaret and (I, me, myself) hope to be roommates. 6. The committee told Smith and (they, them, themselves) to write a new resolution. 7. Is he the one for (who, whom) the note is intended? 8. We discovered that it was (they, them, themselves) who started the fire. 9. Everyone asked Joan and (he, him, himself) to speak at the convention. 10. A person as young as (she, her, herself) should not be given too much responsibility.
  • 32. 32 Types of Pronoun There five types of pronoun 1. Personal Pronoun 6. Indefinite 2. Possessive Pronoun 7. Reciprocal 3. Reflexive Pronoun 8. Interrogative 4. Relative Pronoun 5. Demonstrative Pronoun Personal Pronouns Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group. Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them). Example. He helps poor. The pronoun “he” in above sentence describes a person who helps poor. Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/ person to another thing/person. e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs, hers, Example. This book is mine. The pronoun “mine” describes the relationship between book and a person (me) who pos- sesses this book or who is the owner of this book. Grammar Armchair Reflexive Pronoun. Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subject’s action affects the subject itself. e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself are reflexive pronouns. Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction be- tween the subject and an object.
  • 33. 33 Reciprocal Pronouns. Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other. or Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each other, or, more subjects act in same way to one another. For example, A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other. There are two reciprocal pronouns Each other One another. Demonstrative Pronouns. Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things. e.g. this, that, these, those, none, neither These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time. Short distance or time: This, these. Long distance or time: That, those. Demonstrative pronouns “this and that” are used for singular thing while “these or those” are used for plural things. Relative Pronouns Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it. Or Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences. For example, It is the person, who helped her. In this sentence the word “who” is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the per- son) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the person) and more in- formation (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person). Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “it is the per- son” and “who helped her”.
  • 34. 34 information (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person). Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “it is the per- son” and “who helped her”. Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronoun is used when you do not know or do not need to say precisely who or what you are referring to. Examples: Many are called, but few are elected. Each of us has his own share of protecting the environment. Singular indicators: anybody, anymore, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, somebody, someone, something, another, each, either, neither, nobody, nothing, none, one. Plural indicators: all, any, both, enough, few, more, none, plenty, several, some Portion Indicators: all, any, enough, less, little, more, much, none, plenty, some. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronoun allows us to build a question around the thing that the pronoun refers to. Examples: Who is dancing with Helen in the movie? Which of these development theories would you recommend for reading? Whose are these artefacts? Circle any pronouns that you see in the narrative below. Jane and Jack went out to play. It was a hot Saturday afternoon as they played ball. After playing with the ball, they went on the swings in the backyard. Jane ran ahead of Jack. “I wonder where she is going,” Jack said quietly. Waiting for a moment, Jack then ran after Jane quickly. “Wait for me!” he yelled. As Jane looked back, she smiled sweetly. “I will meet you at the top of the hill,” she yelled back as she kept running. Jack was out of breath, but he still managed to catch up with her. “Hey,” he said panting. “You run fast,” he continued. “I know!” said Jane giggling loudly as she poked Jack’s arm playfully and he laughed as well. Grammar in Action
  • 35. 35 In each of the following sentences a pronoun has been highlighted. What type of pronoun is it? 1. Let's contact one another once we've made some progress. 2. She wants to do it herself. 3. I can't find them. 4. I can't believe it's finally ours. 5. The girl who usually cuts my hair has won the lottery. 6. He wants to go to Scarborough. 7. Why are you shouting at me? 8. Jim gave me the last copy. 9. Nobody said a word all night. Inkblot Write your plan and highlight the pronouns by underlining it and the antecedents by writing it in bold letters. Grammar in Action Directions: Choose the correct pronoun in each sentence below. 1. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget (his or her, their) lines. 2. The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break. 3. A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year. 4. The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document. 5. If any one of the sisters needs a ride, (she, they) can call me.
  • 36. 36 6. When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly. 7. If the board of directors controls the company, (it, they) may vote for a raise. 8. Neither the pilot nor the attendants gave (his or her, their) opinion about the mishap. 9. Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited. 10. Some of the china has lost (its, their) luster. Direction: Look for the pronouns in the poem and box it out. The Lover’s Death By Ricardo Demetillo He who had lived the earth with a firm love Is now, being infirm, laid in the earth That covers him with green grass quietly. Once when he walked the fields, he suddenly knelt And with an avid gesture clasped the earth. His sun-lit fingers sifted dust. Lovers would write their incoherent view On passionate pages; but he, on pads of meadow, Wrote with his plow a tongue tied love. Fields understood, for when the harvest ripened, Fruits lay like brown breasts for his hands to pluck, And he with lightness, touched each pregnant stalk. His house was quiet, like the one who closed. The gate-behind him when the lamplight glowed He knew no woman’s touch except the earth’s. We thought it fitting that the sun should touch With quite fingers the rice-fronds in the field When he, after a fever, gave himself to dusk. We could not salvage breath, but we could swathe His body and lay it in the earth he loved He may returned and beckon from sheaf.
  • 37. 37 Mastery Test Write an A over the antecedent for the pronoun choice in parentheses, then write S or P next to the number of the sentence to indicate singular or plural. Finally, circle the pro- noun that agrees with its antecedent. ____ 1. A reporter talked to Mrs. Bea Zwack after (her, their) home was struck by a tor- nado. ____ 2. Jack Zwack spent most of (his, their) time cleaning up the yard. ____ 3. Nick, Mack, and Patty Zwack are staying with (his or her, their) neighbors for the time being. ____ 4. The Zwacks now have a healthy respect for tornadoes and (its, their) power. ____ 5. The reporter finally submitted (her, their) assignment to the editor of the paper. ____ 6. The newspaper featured tornadoes on (its, their) front page. ____ 7. Subscribers that read the story and saw the pictures realize that (he or she, they) could have been the victims of the storm. ____ 8. A mature person is responsible for (his or her, their) actions. ____ 9. The detective told (his or her, their) chief that (he or she, they) had caught the criminal. ____ 10. Each of the Olympic champions proudly wore (his, their) medal. ____ 11. Either the professional craftsmen or the amateur woodworkers enjoyed working with (his or her, their) hands. ____ 12. Almost anybody who has worked with wood would say that woodworking soothes (his or her, their)s spirit. ____ 13. Each of the Hopi Indian fathers carved (his, their) daughter a kachina doll from cottonwood root. ____ 14. Every one of the Iroquois carvers used basswood for (his or her, their) healing ritual mask. ____ 15. One of the wooden masks from the Pacific Northwest shows by (its, their) detail the customs of the tribe. ____ 16. Each of my sisters has tried (her, their) hand at whittling. ____ 17. Neither cut (herself, themselves). ____ 18. Everybody used to buy (his or her, their) tobacco at the store with the carved wooden Native American in front. ____ 19. Anybody who likes (his or her, their) home uncluttered with detail would appre- ciate the simple wooden furniture made by the Quakers. ____ 20. Everyone, including Queen Victoria, wished (he or she, they) could own the fancy Victorian furniture painstakingly carved by William Bartels.
  • 38. 38 Box the correct pronoun from the choices given in brackets. 1. How many times has Bill told a lie to (his / him) father? 2. Where did Sally go with (she / her) friends yesterday? 3. I love going to the park with Mark, even though (he / him) is a little odd. 4. The cat was taking care of (its / his) young. 5. The dog was chasing (her / its) tail. 6. Many students wonder where (they / them) will end up after college. 7. A parent always wonders if (he or she / they) are doing the best for the kids. 8. How many times did Mr., Johnson have to tell you to stay out of (his / he / him) yard? 9. I don’t know what’s gotten into the dogs but (them / they) have been barking all day. 10. Look at the mother and father bird building (their / its) nest in the tree. Proofread each sentence for errors in pronoun/antecedent agreement. Correct the incorrect pronouns. Write a C next to sentences that use correct pronoun. 1. One of the boys had tears in their eyes. 2. Somebody left their books on the counter. 3. A student should see an advisor if they have any questions. 4. Any injured athlete should see a trainer as soon as they are injured. 5. Many of us love the movies, but you seldom have time to go to them. 6. Everyone has his or her own way of studying. 7. Teachers are responsible for providing their students with accurate grades. 8. Someone had blocked the driveway with their car. 9. When I asked the teacher why I failed the test, he said that I had not studied the proper Each woman must do their best to take care of their health. 10. Each of the apartment owners had his or her apartment repainted. 11. As the weather got colder everyone wished they had brought a coat. 12. Everyone gets angry when someone accuses him or her of voting for the wrong candi- date. 13. Jill told Reagan that she had to get more sleep.
  • 39. 39 14. A person needs to learn how to read or you will not do very well in school. 15. The children insisted on doing it theirselves. I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS Fill in the correct personal pronouns. 1. She is very handsome. I envy _____. 2. They are not reliable. He doubts ______. 3. I taught her. ________ learned it from ______. 4. We asked for his advice. ______ advised ______ not to come. 5. He dislikes her, and ______ hates ______; it’s evident. 6. You should be there on time. I want _____ to come on time. 7. She is English; _____ gave me lessons in English. 8. They are our friends. We invited _____ to the party. 9. It was him who wrote this letter. I recognized _____ by _____ handwriting. 10. Did you see the snake? – Yes, I saw _____ and _____ saw _____. II. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Fill in the correct possessive pronouns. 1. This book belongs to me. This is _____ book. 2. Whose book is that? It is not _____. 3. The cat ate _____ food. 4. She took out _____ purse and gave it to me. 5. A friend of _____ gave me that toy. 6. This is their car. That car is _____ too. 7. May I introduce to you one of _____ colleagues? 8. Has anyone here lost _____ books? 9. Every season is beautiful in _____ own way. 10. They would like a house of _____ own. III. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Fill in the correct demonstrative pronoun. 1. What is _____? 2. _____’s how he does it. 3. They talked about _____ and _____. 4. _____ is his book, isn’t it? 5. _____’s why they accepted his proposal.
  • 40. 40 6. _____ is Ann speaking. 7. After _____ they decided not to come. 8. _____ will do. 9. I’ll take _____ books. 10. He’s been waiting _____ three weeks. ______ had the right love At the wrong time Guess ______ always knew inside ______ wouldn't have ______ for a long time ______ dreams of ______ Are shining on distant shores And if they're calling you away ______ have no right to make you stay But somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again ______ doesn't really matter when But somewhere down the road ______ know that heart of ______ Will come to see ______ you belong with ______ Sometimes good-byes are not forever ______ doesn't matter if you're gone ______ still believe in ______ together ______ understand more than you think ______ can ______ have to go out on ______ own So ______ can find ______ way back home And somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again ______ doesn't really matter when But somewhere down the road ______ know that heart of ______ Will come to see ______ belong with ______ Letting go is just another way to say I'll always love ______ so ______ had the right love At the wrong time Maybe we've only just begun Maybe the best is yet to come 'Cause Somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again ______ doesn't really matter when But somewhere down the road ______ know that heart of yours Will come to see That ______ belong With ______ Somewhere Down the Road By: Nina
  • 41. 41 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Learn the various types of verbs  Improve their skills in using verb in a sentence  Construct meaningful sentences and composition employing correct verb use Ve rb s
  • 42. 42
  • 43. 43 Check It Out!!! HOW STEVE JOBS CHANGED BY JAMES SUROWIECKI As seemingly everyone on the planet knows, Steve Jobs’s defining quality was per- fectionism. The development of the Macintosh, for instance, took more than three years, be- cause of Jobs’s obsession with detail. He nixed the idea of an internal fan, because he thought it was noisy and clumsy. And he wanted his engineers to redesign the Mac’s motherboard, just because it looked inelegant. At NeXT, the company Jobs started after being nudged out of Apple, in 1985, he drove his hardware team crazy in order to make a computer that was a sleek, gorgeous magnesium cube. After his return to Apple, in 1997, he got personally in- volved with things like how many screws there were in a laptop case. It took six months un- til he was happy with the way that scroll bars in OS X worked. Jobs believed that, for an ob- ject to resonate with consumers, every piece of it had to be right, even the ones you couldn’t see. This perfectionism obviously had a lot to do with Apple’s success. It explains why Apple products have typically had a feeling of integrity, in the original sense of the word; they feel whole, rather than simply like collections of parts. But Jobs’s perfectionism came at a price, too. It could be literally expensive: back in the eighties, Jobs insisted that in maga- zine ads and on packages the Apple logo be printed in six colors, not four, which was thirty to forty per cent more expensive. And there were more important costs: Jobs’s vision re- quired Apple to control every part of the user experience, and to make everything it possibly could itself. Its hardware was proprietary: the company had its own Mac factory and favored unique cables, disk drives, and power cords, rather than standardized ones. Its software was proprietary, too: if you wanted to run Apple software, you needed to own an Apple comput- er. This made Apple’s computers more expensive than the competition. It also made them hard to customize, which businesses didn’t like. So, while Apple changed the world of com- puting in the eighties, with machines that were more user-friendly and powerful than your typical I.B.M. clone, most users never touched a Macintosh. They ended up with P.C.s in- stead. When Jobs returned, he still wanted Apple to, as he put it, “own and control the pri- mary technology in everything we do.” But his obsession with control had been tempered: he was better, you might say, at playing with others, and this was crucial to the extraordinary success that Apple has enjoyed over the past decade. Take the iPod. The old Jobs might well have insisted that the iPod play only songs encoded in Apple’s favored digital format, the A.A.C. This would have allowed Apple to control the user experience, but it would also have limited the iPod market, since millions of people already had MP3s. So Apple made the iPod MP3-compatible. (Sony, by contrast, made its first digital music players compatible only with files in Sony’s proprietary format, and they bombed as a result.) Similarly, Jobs could have insisted, as he originally intended, that iPods and iTunes work only with Macs. But that would have cut the company off from the vast majority of computer users. So in 2002 Apple launched a Windows-compatible iPod, and sales skyrocketed soon afterward. And, while Apple’s designs are as distinctive as ever, the devices now rely less on proprietary hardware and more on standardized technologies. Direction: Look for the verbs in the selection and write it on a piece of paper.
  • 44. 44 Grammar Armchair Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the sentence. It can be an action word, and auxiliary or a linking verb. 1. Action Verb. States the action performed by the subject. This can be transitive, which requires a direct object or intransitive, which does not need direct object and can stand alone as a predicate. Example: TV George plays basketball every weekend. IV The choir sings well. 2. Linking Verb. Connects the subject to its complement which can be a predicate noun or predi- cate adjectives. Verbs which appeal to senses are considered linking verbs. The commonly used linking verbs are the formed. Example: Jenny feels good upon seeing her high school friends. Ted is a physician. The children are excited to see the clown. 3. Auxiliary Verb. It may be formed from have, may be, shall, will, might, must, do and appears before the main verb in a verb phrase. The commonly used auxiliary verbs are: Example: Lucky is doing his assignment. The going will have their vocation in Vigan. She has been working in the university since 2003. She could have done better if she studied her lessons. Grammar in Action Underline the action verbs in the following sentences. 1. I assumed that you would bring your swimsuit because the invitation stated "pool par- ty." 2. As I walked home, I noticed a box of abandoned kittens on the sidewalk. 3. Many people have the ill-conceived notion that "natural" means pesticide-free. 4. They will close the theater for two weeks while workers install the new seats. 5. Let's go downtown and spend some time at the museum.
  • 45. 45 6. Alex's laptop wouldn't reboot after the unexpected power surge at the office earlier in the day. 7. Brush corn on the cob with butter and salt, wrap it in heavy-duty aluminum foil, and roast it on the grill for a delicious treat. 8. Uncle Drew cast his fishing line off the edge of the pier. 9. Lexi considered Morgan to be her best friend. 10. Marcia watched the squirrel hop from limb to limb. Determine whether the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences are action or linking verbs. 1. "It appears that the only solution to this problem is starting over," said Trudy. 2. "The group appears dismayed at that prospect," she thought to herself. 3. Dennis was asked to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the butler did it. 4. There was no doubt in his adversary's mind that his argument would prove faulty. 5. The sign says to stay behind the line when viewing the work of art. 6. We stayed quiet while the tour guide explained the painting. 7. We tasted the orange sherbet and ordered a pint to take home. 8. We decided that it tasted delicious. 9. Mom's chicken and dumplings taste too salty for some reason. 10. Charlotte grew green and yellow peppers in her container garden. Grammar Armchair Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another verb (the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound tense or the pas- sive. The verb "be" The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb: Simple Present: I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are Simple Past: I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were Past Participle: been You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb; for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)
  • 46. 46 Progressive Forms Present Progressive: He is playing football. Past Progressive: He was playing football. Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football. Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football. Passive Simple Present/Past: The house is/was built. Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built. Future I: The house will be built. "be" as a full verb The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If be is used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions. positive sentence: They are fifteen years old. negative sentence: They are not fifteen years old. question: Are they fifteen years old? The verb "have" The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of the full verb.) Compound Tenses - Active Voice Present Perfect Simple: He has played football. Past Perfect Simple: He had played football. Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football. Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football. Compound Tenses - Passive Voice Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built. Note that have is an irregular verb, too: Simple Present: I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they had Past Participle: had
  • 47. 47 "have" in positive sentences As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb). full verb: I have a car. auxiliary verb: I have got a car. "have" in negative sentences and questions When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary. have as a full verb: I do not have a car. Do I have a car? have as an auxiliary verb: I have not got a car. Have I got a car? The verb "will" The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses. The auxiliary verb "will" Future I: He will not play football. Future II: He will have played football. The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short form for negative sentences is won't.' Examples: I will, he will I will not = I won't The verb "do" The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.) The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences Simple Present: He does not play football. Simple Past: He did not play football. The auxiliary "do" in questions Simple Present: Does he play football? Simple Past: Did he play football?
  • 48. 48 Grammar in Action Fill in each blank space with the correct auxiliary verb: 1. ________ the teacher explain this properly? 2. ________ the professor angry? 3. ________ you spoken to him before he called you? 4. If you ________ told me, I would have never found out. 5. ________ they seeing each other? 6. ________ they continue seeing each other? 7. ________ you learn anything? 8. ________ he in my American History class? 9. I realized that I ________ learned a thing (= anything). 10. ________ your sister living in Paris for a while? Identify the action verbs in the following sentences. 1. I assumed that you would bring your swimsuit because the invitation stated "pool party." 2. As I walked home, I noticed a box of abandoned kittens on the sidewalk. 3. Many people have the ill-conceived notion that "natural" means pesticide-free. 4. They will close the theater for two weeks while workers install the new seats. 5. Let's go downtown and spend some time at the museum. 6. Alex's laptop wouldn't reboot after the unexpected power surge at the office earlier in the day. 7. Brush corn on the cob with butter and salt, wrap it in heavy-duty aluminum foil, and roast it on the grill for a delicious treat. Determine whether the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences are action or linking verbs. 1. "It appears that the only solution to this problem is starting over," said Trudy. 2. "The group appears dismayed at that prospect," she thought to herself. 3. Dennis was asked to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the butler did it. 4. There was no doubt in his adversary's mind that his argument would prove faulty. 5. The sign says to stay behind the line when viewing the work of art. 6. We stayed quiet while the tour guide explained the painting. 7. We tasted the orange sherbet and ordered a pint to take home. 8. We decided that it tasted delicious.
  • 49. 49 The verb do is irregular: Simple Present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they did The full verb "do" As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary. positive sentence: She does her homework every day. negative sentence: She doesn't do her homework every day. question: Does she do her homework every day? Sentences without the auxiliary "do" In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions: the full verb is "be" Example: I am not angry. / Are you okay? the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will) Example: They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that? the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should) Example: We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please? the question asks for the subject of the sentence Example: Who sings that song? Grammar in Action The following sentences are taken from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Underline the auxiliary verb in each sentence. 1. Tom was swimming in bliss. 2. Well, I’ve been pretty much so, too, Huck. 3. I been creeping all over, ever since I got here. 4. The boys were subdued by these solemnities, and talked little. 5. Now the raft was passing before the distant town. 6. Well, he’s mended kites for me, Huck, and knitted hooks on to my line.
  • 50. 50 7. Daily Muff Potter’s gratitude made Tom glad he had spoken; but nightly he wished he had sealed up his tongue. 8. Aunt Polly was vexed to think she had overlooked that bit of circumstantial evidence, and missed a trick. 9. They’re coming right toward the door. 10. The family were still at table, but they had finished breakfast. The Other Woman by Virgilio Samonte It is almost a month since my uncle died. Nana Cecilia, his widow, has made up with my maiden aunt Cora, and now stays with her in San Nicolas. The suspicions -- for they proved to be mere suspicions after all -- she had entertained concerning Nana Cora and my late uncle, were dispelled at his death. I don't know the truth myself up to now. But I don't want to know. What matters now is that they are no longer young. Loida, I learned some time ago, is gone from the old house in Laoag. She stayed there for some days after my uncle's burial, and no one could make her go away then. No one knows where she had gone. Anyway it does not matter. She does no t matter anymore. As for the old house, it now stands bleak and empty, except for the thick, gathering shadows and the inevitable dust; the bats hanging from the tattered eaves like the black patches; the mice scampering freely within ; cockroaches and lizrds; and perhaps ghosts. The flower-laden cadena de amor, draped heavily on the rotting bamboo fence surrounding it, it is a huge funeral wreath around the deserted house. The same sense of desolation seemed to enshroud the old house even then, about a month ago, when I arrived from the city. I had come ahead of my father after we received the wire from Nana Cecilia, saying that my uncle was seriously ill, and that she needed my f a t h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e . It was a cold grey dawn, and the clatter of the calesa as it left me, sounded loud and sharp in the yet deserted streets. the old house seemed to loom bigger than the others in the neighborhood, and it seemed to stand apart, squat and dark; light filtered through the closed or half opened windows of the other houses where early breakfast fires were al- ready burning. The large, gnarled trunk of an acacia tree beside it, rose like a phantom, its foliage blotting out a portion of the sky overhead. i knocked for what it seemed a long time on the closed door, the sounds echoing hollowly within as though the house was a huge, empty shell before I heard muffled footsteps coming down the stairway. Light glimmered through the cracks of the door. The sliding bar was moved noisily and then the door opened slowly, grating on the scattered pebbles on the cement floor. Read the selection below. Underline the auxiliary verb, box the linking verb and encircle the action verb
  • 51. 51 Spot the verb used in the sentences and write whether it is Tr(Transitive), Intr(Intransitive), LV(Linking Verb), or Aux V(Auxiliary Verb). Electric Love Verb Kind _____ _____ 1. Some people still believe in love at first sight. _____ _____ 2. The internet has introduced a new way of meeting the love of one’s life. _____ _____ 3. The story of Garth and Pituca explains this phenomenom. _____ _____ 4. Garth Fairlight is a Londoner. _____ _____ 5. Pituca Chang hails from California. _____ _____ 6. They started to like each other through as online game. _____ _____ 7. According to them, they fell genuinely in love long before they met face to face. _____ _____ 8. It seems unbelievable. _____ _____ 9. In the online fantasy world, they appeared as avatars or cartoon versions of themselves. _____ _____ 10. They communicated by typing messages. _____ _____ 11. Their story sounds like a fairytale. _____ _____ 12. They are now engaged to be married in real life. _____ _____ 13. Though unusual, online relationships are becoming rampant. _____ _____ 14. One may not know it. _____ _____ 15. He or she might already be chatting with a future lifetime partner. Identify whether the sentences use a linking verb(LV) or an auxiliary verb(aux V). _____ 1. His passion is creating masterpieces for the museum. _____2. The removed sculptor is creating his twentieth masterpiece. _____3. He was last seen painting the sidewalks in Manhattan. _____4. His preferred activity is painting the sidewalks in Manhattan. _____5. The baby’s habit is nibbling his little fingertip. _____6. Amiel’s greatest joy is seeing his kids happy and healthy. _____7. The president is now seeing the fruits of his labor. _____8. Their only pressure is serving their countrymen. _____9. The organization is serving the people to the best of their abilities. _____10. His task is implementing the plans previously agreed upon. Mastery Test
  • 52. 52 Write a two paragraph essay using action and linking verb with the theme “How To Make Your Life Interesting”. Each paragraph must contain a minimum of 7 sentences and maximum of 15 sentences. Inkblot Challenge VERB HUNT Direction: In ten minutes time, encircle the verb in the puzzle below Verb Verb Verb Verb S U R F K Q A R Z A T W J S X A E D F W A T E R P C E U D C F R S G E F E V B P U N M M L P J U H W I Y P P L R I P D A M P A N E T V B S U T P G N R L Z Z J N I N Q W A S M R E I C M X K T R O W I D N K O P S G I V E E T F E M E O E T S E C J C L E W R R J D C X Z B P O S V P R Q I T K G W O R E L M Q B A B I D E L H A Z U M B P W N O T B E Y P F S U N G K O E M I A M J U O D S B M R B S C A R R Y R I S W O R N C D E R I U Y L D M P E R F O R M
  • 53. 53 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Distinguish the various types of simple sentences  Apply the rules of verb tenses in writing S i m p l e Te n s e s
  • 54. 54
  • 55. 55 Check It Out!!! One year ago this month, Lady Gaga arrived for an interview in the dark, oak pan- eled lobby of the Roosevelt Hotel, a massive Spanish-style place in the tourist dis- trict of Hollywood that was supposed to make the area chic but has largely failed. “Just Dance,” the lead single off her first album, The Fame, had reached No. 1 in Australia, Sweden, and Canada in early 2008, but in March 2009, she was still an up-and-coming artist in Amer- ica: a few thousand MySpace plays, a generic website, and a short tour as the opening act for New Kids on the Block. Gaga had a video, though. “My colleagues at radio in those three countries agreed to support her if I made a video,” says Martin Kierszenbaum, the president of A&R at her label, Interscope. The “Just Dance” video, shot a few miles from the Roosevelt, features Gaga shimmying with a disco ball in her hands while her friends drape themselves on a couch nearby—though most of those people were extras, not real friends. She didn’t know many people on the West Coast. “I don’t like Los Angeles,” she told me. “The people are awful and terribly shallow, and everybody wants to be famous but nobody wants to play the game. I’m from New York. I will kill to get what I need.” Before the meeting, I assumed that someone with a stage name like “Lady” (her given name is Stefani Joanne Germanotta) was going to be a bit standoffish—that’s the strategy employed by most nervous young musicians on the occasion of their first real interview, in any case. But I never thought she was going to actually be Lady Gaga. These days, very few artists play the media like Bob Dylan, or stay in character as Devo’s Mark Mothersbaugh did in his early career. In the age of VH1’s Behind the Music, tabloid culture, and reality televi- sion, musicians are aware that they should show themselves to journalists in as much mun- dane detail as they can muster. “But Lady Gaga is my name,” she said, amazed that I would have thought otherwise. “If you know me, and you call me Stefani, you don’t really know me at all.” Growing Up Gaga Direction: Write down the verbs you can see on the article below. Identify whether it’s on past, present pr future tense of the verb Direction: Write the past tense of the verb. 1.. rise ______________ 6. fix ________________ 2. swim ______________ 7. am ________________ 3. call _______________ 8. talk _______________ 4. is ________________ 9. run _______________ 5. write _____________ 10. eat ______________
  • 56. 56 Grammar Armchair Simple Tense Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: pre- sent, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and per- fect progressive tenses. Things to remember about simple tense: a. Present tense is the original verb form. b. Past tense has a few patterns. c. Future tense needs will (shall) + verb. Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Pro- gressive Present finish am/is/are fin- ishing have/has fin- ished have/has been finishing Past finished was/were fin- ishing had finished had been fin- ishing Future will finish will be finish- ing will have fin- ished will have been finishing run I run a marathon this year. (present) I ran a marathon last year. (past) I will run a marathon next year. (future) eat I eat lunch now. I ate lunch an hour ago. I will eat lunch in one hour. see I see a movie once a week. I saw a movie yesterday. I will see a movie tomorrow. know I know it. I knew it the day before yesterday. I will know it by tomorrow. learn I learn English. I learned English the last two years. I will learn English next year.
  • 57. 57 Past Present Future act leave lay wear understand read beat bind cost meet Direction: Write down the proper tenses of the verb. Inkblot Write a minimum of 3 paragraph article/essay about one of your most memora- ble experience during your childhood. Observe correct use of verbs. Grammar in Action
  • 58. 58 Fill the gaps with the correct tenses. 1. I (learn) English for seven years now. 2. But last year I (not / work) hard enough for English, that's why my marks (not / be) really that good then. 3. As I (pass / want) my English exam successfully next year, I (study) harder this term. 4. During my last summer holidays, my parents (send) me on a language course to London. 5. It (be) great and I (think) I (learn) a lot. 6. Before I (go) to London, I (not / enjoy) learning English. 7. But while I (do) the language course, I (meet) lots of young people from all over the world. 8. There I (notice) how important it (be) to speak foreign languages nowadays. 9. Now I (have) much more fun learning English than I (have) before the course. 10. At the moment I (revise) English grammar. 11. And I (begin / already) to read the texts in my English textbooks again. 12. I (think) I (do) one unit every week. 13. My exam (be) on 15 May, so there (not / be) Grammar in Action
  • 59. 59 any time to be lost. 14. If I (pass) my exams successfully, I (start) an apprenticeship in September. 15. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I (go) back to London to work there for a while. Fill the gaps with the correct tenses. 1. They (build) a new power station at the moment. 2. When I was buying the stamps somebody (call) my name. 3. 'What time (Kevin come) ?' 'An hour ago.' 4. I (not go) to the cinema last night. I was too tired. 5. Carol invited us to the party but we (not go) . We had other things to do. 6. I saw Bridget at the museum when I was going to the restaurant but she (not see) me. 7. 'Where (your parents live) ?' 'In a village near London. They have always lived there.' 8. She speaks English but she (not speak) French. 9. Jeff is from London. He (live) there all his life. 10. My favourite country is Canada. I (be) there four times. 11. I (never eat) bananas. 12. 'How long (you study) Photography?' 'For one year.' 13. 'Where are you going on holiday?' 'I don't know. We (not decide) yet.' 14. Who (invent) the washing machine?
  • 60. 60 15. 'Where's Jill?' 'She (have) lunch at the moment.' 16. (Terry work) ? No, he is on holiday. 17. Somebody (steal) my sunglasses at the swimming pool last week. 18. (she wear) the nice jacket when you saw her? 19. Where (be) you yesterday? 20. As you (see / can) , I (become) a real London fan already. Inkblot Brainstorming: making a Sensory Table Before you begin to write your personal narrative, complete the following table that would help you recall all the significant details you may want to add your own story. The table should con- tain details that appeal to your five senses. This is similar to the you table completed at the beginning of the lesson. Recall the complete sentence you wrote after filling out that table. Write it on the space below and then proceed to write your sensory details. Sentence: ___________________________________________________________________ Senses Descriptive Sensory Details Sight Smell Touch Taste Hearing
  • 61. 61 Review the past tense by changing the verb inside the parenthesis to complete each sentence. I (enjoy) ________ biking with my cousins in Baguio. I (look) ________ sad when my father (go) ________ on a business trip. I was glad when he (laugh) ________ at my joke. I (dream) _______ of being an Olympic swimmer when I was five years old. I (see) _______ my old playmates during my birthday last year. Choose the word that would best complete each sentence. Then change the form of your chosen verb to the simple past tense. I (make, wish, feel) ________ for a baby sister to be my playmate. Last night, I ( cry, show, pray) ________ for my mother to get better. I (want, start, give) ________ to live with my cousins in Pangasinan last summer. For one year, I (cover, smell, ask) ________ with joy when I was announced as the winner. Complete the paragraph below by changing each verb in the parenthesis to the simple past tense. It was July. Luis (walk0 ________ home from school very slowly. As he (cross) ________ the small bridge leading to his house, he (observe) ________ how strong the rain was the night before. Scat- tered leaves lay all over the path. Trees were bent sideways. As he (approach) ________ his house, he (pause) ________ to talk to his neighbour, Mang Rod. “we had such strong rain last night, didn’t we, Mang Rod?” “We sure did! Im glad no one got hurt.” Luis (wave)________ good-bye and (turn) ________ to walk indoors. He could smell the fried chicken his mother was cooking. Read the short paragraph below. Notice how simple past tense is used to describe and narrate an event that was completed in the past. You may underline the verbs to guide you. My father To the Rescue I stepped on a very sharp twig. I almost fainted in pain. I lifted my foot and saw that the twig planted itself firmly on the sole of my right foot. The twig was like a small sharp arrow. I pretended to be a shoulder wounded in battle. But the pain was too much to ignore. Then my father walked up from behind me and lifted me in his arms. I smiled at him weakly. He placed me on a very big log and rubbed my right shin briskly. Then he pulled the twig out with one sudden movement. I did not feel any pain at all. My father laughed and called me a brave little soldier! Now write your own paragraph . Use the simple past tense to describe your feelings for some- thing that happened to you in the past. Try to express your feelings clearly so that others may under- stand you easily. Mastery Test
  • 62. 62 Choose the correct form of the verb in the parenthesis. Encircle your answer. 1. Either the cabinet members or the president (is, are) going to be transported to a safer ground. 2. (Is, Are) my partner or my brothers in the sect going to win this fight? 3. Every morning, the sheriff (take, takes) time to review all the reports. 4. One of my uncles (is, are) leaving for Italy soon. 5. Not only the trees but also the plants (was, were) destroyed when the storm came. 6. Peter’s fish and fried rice, my favourite dish, (remind, reminds) me of my childhood days in Manila. 7. A large number of sharks (was, were) seen sprawling the eastern coast. 8. Several of these lessons (need, needs) revision. 9. The owner of the house and host (welcome, welcomes) visitors at the garden. 10. The Liwanags and the Cruzats (entertain, entertains) the idea of leaving the village. 11. Neither the crocodiles nor the monkey (was, were) saved from the fire. 12. The number of casualties (was, were) relatively small. 13. A number of trucks (line, lines) up in this avenue every afternoon. 14. The committee (is, are) in favor of sending help to the refugee camps. 15. The group of choir directors (is, are) directly responsible for the delay. 16. The goose, as well as the ducks, (cross, crosses) the stream every spring. 17. Only one of the relatives (is, are) allowed to enter the emergency room. 18. All applicants but Pearson (is, are) accepted for the internship training. 19. The manager, together with the board of directors, (decide, decides) on matters affecting the cooperative. 20. Attending the assembly (is, are) council presidents from Luzon and Mindanao. Write the correct form of the verb in parenthesis on the space provided. Palawan! 1. Most people (to visit) ________ Palawan. 2. They (to like) ________ its breath-taking views 3. They (to call) ________ Palawan the country’s best natural frontier. 4. Either parents or children (to enjoy) ________ this paradise. 5. If one (to visit) ________ bat Island, one (to get) ________ the surprise of his life- thou- sands of bats land on the mangroves by day and fly by groups at night. 6. Lagoons and caverns (to make) ________ tourists wonder especially when they (to see) ________ the stalactites looking like chandeliers. 7. One who (to go) ________ to Palawan (to have) ________ many places to really spend time to enjoy nature. 8. The visitor, along with friends, (to get)________ to see the Crocodile Farming Institute. 9. Either boating or island hopping (to make) ________ the tourist’s day. 10. Others (to prefer) ________ to go to Butterfly Garden with its dazzling species of butter- flies.
  • 63. 63 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Analyze the subject—verb agreement through given examples Apply the rules on subject—verb agreement in exercises Construct an essay using the principles in the agreement of the subject and verb. S u b j e c t – Ve rb A g re e m e n t
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  • 65. 65 Is, or are? Go, or goes? Whether a verb is singular or plural depends on any one of a compli- cated set of factors. Here is a roster of rules for subject-verb agreement (or “Here are some rules . . .”): 1. Use verbs that agree with a subject, not with a noun that is part of a modifying phrase or clause between verb and subject: “The pot of eggs is boiling on the stove.” 2. Use singular or plural verbs that agree with the subject, not with the complement of the subject: “My favorite type of movie is comedies,” but “Comedies are my favorite type of movie.” 3. Use singular verbs with singular indefinite pronouns — each, the “-bodies,” “-ones,” and “-things” (anybody, everyone, nothing), and the like: “Neither is correct.” (And, just as in rule number 1, the presence of a modifier is irrelevant: “Neither of them is correct.”) 4. Use plural verbs with plural indefinite pronouns: “Many outcomes are possible.” 5. Use singular verbs with uncountable nouns that follow an indefinite pronoun: “All the paint is dried up.” 6. Use plural verbs with countable nouns that follow an indefinite pronoun: “All the nails are spilled on the floor.” 7. Use plural verbs with compound subjects that include and: “The dog and the cat are outside.” 8. Use plural verbs or singular verbs, depending on the form of the noun nearest the verb, with compound subjects that include nor or or: “Either the dog or the cats are responsible for the mess.” (“Either the cats or the dog is responsible for the mess” is also technically correct but is awkward.) 9. Use singular verbs with inverted subjects that include singular nouns: “Why is my hat outside in the rain?” 10. Use plural verbs with inverted subjects (those beginning with the exple- tive there rather than the actual subject) that include plural nouns: “There are several hats outside in the rain.” 11. Use singular or plural verbs with collective nouns depending on meaning: “His staff is assembled,” but “Staff are asked to go to the conference room immediately.” (In the first sentence, the emphasis is on the body of employees; in the second sentence, the focus is on compliance by each individual in the body of employees.) 12. Use singular verbs for designations of entities, such as nations or organizations, or compositions, such as books or films: “The United Nations is headquartered in New York.” 13. Use singular verbs for subjects plural in form but singular in meaning: Grammar Armchair
  • 66. 66 “Physics is my favorite subject.” 14. Use singular or plural verbs for subjects plural in form but plural or singular in meaning depending on the context: “The economics of the situation are complicated,” but “Economics is a complicated topic.” 15. Use plural verbs for subjects plural in form and meaning: “The tweezers are in the cupboard.” 16. Use plural verbs in constructions of the form “one of those (blank) who . . .”: “I am one of those eccentrics who do not tweet.” 17. Use singular verbs in constructions of the form “the only one of those (blank) who . . .”: “I am the only one of my friends who does not tweet.” 18. Use singular verbs in constructions of the form “the number of (blank) . . .”: “The number of people here boggles the mind.” 19. Use plural verbs in constructions of the form “a number of (blank) . . .”: “A number of people here disagree.” 20. Use singular verbs in construction of the forms “every (blank) . . .” and “many a (blank) . . .”: “Every good boy does fine”; “Many a true word is spoken in jest.” Grammar in Action Directions: Encircle the correct verb in the sentences below. 1. Each of the girls (look-looks) good on skis. 2. Everybody (was-were) asked to remain quiet. 3. Neither of the men (is-are) here yet. 4. (Is-Are) each of the girls ready to leave? 5. Several of the sheep (is-are) sick. 6. Some members of the faculty (is-are) present. 7. Nobody in the class (has-have) the answer. 8. Each of the girls (observe-observes) all the regulations. 9. All of the milk (is-are) gone. 10. Most of the seats (was-were) taken. 11. Statistics (is-are) interesting subject. It (is-are) often misleading. 12. Every single knife, fork and spoon (has, have) to be encountered. 13. The sheep (stray-strays) when the gate is open. She (stray-strays) when the gate is left open. 14. The committee (is-are) meeting today. 15. Building a good marriage and building a god log fire (is-are) similar in many ways.
  • 67. 67 Directions: In the blank, use the correct present tense form of the infinitive given at the begin- ning of each sentence. to have: The cracked windshield, in addition to the torn upholstery and rusted body, __________ made Ruth’s old car difficult to sell. to be: This week's National Inquisitor claims that there __________ photographs of the Loch Ness Monster eating Elvis. to work: At Tito’s Taco Palace __________ friends who will stuff double meat into our burritos for free. to crawl: On the tables in the library __________ the many germs that have escaped in the hot breath of hardworking students. to be: None of this breakfast that Lilly Mae cooked __________ fit to eat. to taste: None of these chocolate-broccoli muffins __________ good, either. to have: The whole red ant colony, including the queen and all of her drones, __________ swarmed over Tommy's feet, stinging his ankles. to make: Fifteen gallons of chocolate milk __________ Herbert the elephant a happy pachyderm. to hope: Everyone on the roller coaster, including Martha and Angie, __________ that the hot dogs, onion rings, funnel cake, and cotton candy will stay down during the twisting ride to come. to bother: Neither Fred's ratty clothes nor his sullen attitude __________ Esmeralda, who lets Fred pick up the check every time they dine out. to hug: That pair of jeans __________ the curves of Hannah’s body as nicely as tinfoil on a baked potato. to annoy: Neither the coughing muffler nor the squeaky brakes __________ Ruth as much as the broken radio in her old car. to get: Florida alligators usually __________ severe indigestion after eating poodles. to cling: Every cat hair, candy wrapper, and loose thread __________ to the super- charged polyester pants that Theodora loves to wear. to know: Any one of Ms. Orsini's students __________ the rules that govern subject- verb agreement
  • 68. 68 Inkblot Identify and revise the subject-verb agreement errors in this passage: Uncle Stanley and his girlfriend, Kira, is coming to visit me next weekend. Unfortu- nately, neither of them are very interesting. Every time they visit, Kira sleeps about eighteen hours a day, and Stanley tells childhood stories over and over. There is only about three sto- ries in his entire repertoire, and, although he finds them amusing, neither his stories nor his one and only joke are funny at all. I try to get him to discuss other topics, but economics are his only real interest, and I don’t find that topic very interesting either. I hate to admit it, but I hope the days they spend with me passes quickly. Challenge Direction: Create a paragraph regarding poverty in the country. Observe proper use of subject—verb agreement.
  • 69. 69 Directions: In the blank, use the correct present tense form of the infinitive given at the beginning of each sentence. to take: The shine on my hardwood floors __________ abuse from the ragged toenails of Floyd, my dog. 1. to have: Neither of those students __________ a clue about the rules governing subject- verb agreement. Pity them both during the quiz. 2. to make: Patience and compassion, in addition to a wallet bulging with money, __________ everyone want Jordan as a friend. 3. to require: Statistics __________ so much homework that Michelle's poor fingers have permanent indentations from the calculator pads. 4. to come: The committee ___________ from all parts of the city, so we usually have to start late because so many members get stuck in traffic. 5. to believe: The committee ___________ that waiting until everyone arrives is more im- portant than starting on time. 6. to be: When Dad is angry, there __________ fire flickering in his eyes as well as smoke escaping from his ears. 7. to brighten: When Matthew is having a bad day, old episodes of The X-Files always __________ his mood. 8. to hit: Each of those opera singers regularly ___________ notes high enough to break glass and rupture eardrums. 9. to be: Either the fried oyster sandwich or shrimp pizza __________ the best choice for lunch at Crusty's Seafood Restaurant. Underline the correct form of the verb that agrees with the subject. 1. The English Club, as well as the Chemistry Society (need, needs) to submit a financial report. 2. Four and four (is, are) eight. 3. Forty percent of the students (is, are) in favor of changing the policy. 4. My pants (was, were) torn. 5. Somebody (has, have) left his wallet. 6. The jury (take, takes) their seats in the courtroom. 7. One of the instructors (has, have) written a letter of recommendation for her. 8. Everybody (is, are) required to bring the requirements. 9. The scholarship is awarded to the student who (need, needs) financial assistance most. 10. Neither the people nor the President (has, have) a voice in this matter. 11. One half of the sugar (is, are) brown. 12. The general, with the soldiers (is, are) entering at this moment. 13. My adviser and my friend (is, are) coming to visit me soon. 14. The committee (is, are) composed of prominent people in the community. 15. Five times two divided by two (is, are). 16. Forty percent of the student body (is, are) in favor of changing the policy. 17. Measles (is, are) a dangerous disease for pregnant women. Mastery Test
  • 70. 70 18. Either my father or my brothers (is, are) attending the meeting. 19. The mayor together with his followers (are, is) distributing relief goods to the typhoon victims. 20. Andy or his sister (are, is) going to be responsible for this. 21. Economics (has, have) developed very fast in the last few years. 22. They (complain, complains) about their living conditions. 23. Both Lex and Sam (was, were) selected as contractors of the new project. 24. Neither husband nor wife (want, wants) to take a vacation. 25. Survey (show, shows) that one fourth of the viewers (prefer, prefers) programs on Sci- ence and Technology. 26. Everybody in the court (is, are) requested to keep silent during the trial. 27. One of the moral obligations (is, are) to help the needy. 28. His physical stamina (is, are) wonderful. 29. His dedication and courage (have, has) won him a medal of honor. 30. Several have, has) indicated their attention to help. 31. Half of the fortune they inherited (is, are) gone. 32. The secretary and treasurer (is, are) here to see the president. 33. A flock of birds (is, are) flying in the sky. 34. The basketball team (has been, have been) practicing all week. 35. Some of the information (is, are) exaggerated. 36. Husband and wife (has, have) many things in common. 37. He is one of the students who (has, have) no assignment. 38. None of them (know, knows) the lesson. 39. Therein (lie. lies) the truth of the whole matter. 40. Andrew, like Jun, (appreciate, appreciates) Philippine products. Inkblot Describe your own perspective on the use of social networking sites in bullying and other online crime. Observe the proper use subject—verb agreement.
  • 71. 71 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Familiarize with the different types of adjectives  Determine the appropriate degree of adjectives to be used in a given context Ad j e c t ive s
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  • 73. 73 Check It Out!!! Direction: Underlined the adjectives in the following paragraphs. A Friendly Clown On one corner of my dresser sits s smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle- a gift I re- ceived last Christmas from a close friend. The clown’s short yellow hair, made of yarn, co- vers its ear but it is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has three red cheeks, nose, lips and its broad grin disappears into the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume. The left side of the outfit light blue and the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surroundings its spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles the inner half to a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together stand about a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colourful figure greets me with a smile every time I enter my room. The Magic Metal Tube By Maxine Hong Kingston Once in a long while, four times so far me, my mother brings out the metal tube that holds her medical diploma. On the tube are gold circles crossed with seven red lines each – “joy” ideographs in abstract. There are also little flowers that look like gears for a gold machine. According to the scraps of labels with Chinese and American addresses, stamps, and postmarks, the family airmailed the can from Hongkong in 1950. It got crushed in the middle, and whoever tried to peel the labels off stopped because the red and gold paint come too, leaving silver scratches that rust. Somebody tried to pry the end off before discovering that the falls apart. When I open it, the smell of China flies out, a thousand-year -old bat flying heavy-headed out of the Chinese caverns where bats are as white as dust, a smell that comes from long ago, far back in the brain.
  • 74. 74 An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quanti- fying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clausefunctioning as an adverb. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned." Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sen- tence Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles ("the," "a," "an") to be adjectives. Grammar Armchair Grammar in Action In the following sentences, underline each adjective. Then circle the word it describes or modifies it. 1. Most new Presidents are cautious when they deal with Congress. 2. The window of the store was full of attractive new clothes. 3. The blue ribbon was given to the best gardener. 4. Several tall boys are members of the team this year. 5. That program is a good comedy. 6. Little work can be done on the project now. 7. The long trip on the famous Orient Express took one from Paris to Istanbul. 8. Two people can set up camp in a short time. 9. Because she was energetic, Sally jogged for two hours. 10. Some authors attract the attention of the reader with the first paragraph. 11. The new neighbors are friendly. 12. The melon was large and sweet. 13. Joyce is never conceited about winning. 14. A hundred people turned up for the first meeting.
  • 75. 75 15. Many students study foreign languages. 16. The teacher sounded angry when he spoke to the noisy students. 17. The woman seems worried about finances. 18. Karen is popular with old and young people. 19. Those long questions were hard for me. 20. Much rain fell during the month of June. Inkblot Your mind may be full of ideas right now about what you can do to show your power and energy as a young person. Remember that before you start doing anything for others, you must understand who you are and how you see yourself. In this way, your efforts are more fo- cused and more organized. Writing a simple profile or character sketch about yourself may be a start in getting to know yourself more deeply. A character sketch is a description of the qualities one sees in a person. Answer the question below as many ideas as you can. Spend 15-20 minutes in doing this; What are the things you enjoy doing the most? What do you have that it is most important to you? What are the things you can do very well? What have you always wanted for yourself? What do you need right now to make your life better? Grammar Armchair Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identi- cal to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences: I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase "my assignment" functions as anobject. Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number"; the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement. Note that the pos- sessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. The bakery sold his favourite type of bread. In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of the verb "sold." After many years, she returned to her homeland. Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase
  • 76. 76 "her homeland" is the object of the preposition"to." Note also that the form "hers" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our way" is the direct object of the compound verb"have lost". Note that the possessive pronoun form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents. Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents" is the object of the preposition "by." Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball" is the object of the verb "chased." Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is a contraction for "it is." Demonstrative Adjectives The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books. In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over." This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the sentence. Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these. In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the object of the verb "preferred." In theindependent clause, "these" is the direct object of the verb "bought." Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun. Interrogative Adjectives An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstra- tive adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this exam- ple, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which plants" is the subject of the com- pound verb "should be watered": What book are you reading? In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct ob- ject of the compound verb "are reading." Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed. The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many peo- ple" is the subject of the sentence.
  • 77. 77 Grammar in Action Fill in the blanks with the correct form of adjectives in brackets 1. Michael is the ______ staff in the company. ( senior) 2. The price of most products is ______ during festive seasons. ( high ) 3. In Siberia, you may experience the ______ climate on earth. ( hostile ) 4. Even though you have retired, you have to be as ______ as before. ( active ) 5. Among the staff, Jenny is the ______ employee. ( patient ) 6. Today's dishes are definitely ______ that yesterday's. ( tasty ) 7. The road here is much ______ than all the other roads. ( broad ) 8. Children are ______ to diseases than adults. ( prone ) 9. It is ______ to wear a life-jacket when traveling in a speed boat. ( safe ) 10. No one has ever explored the ______ part of the jungle. ( wild ) Look at the adjective in bold print in each sentence. Write the word it modifies in the blank. _______________ 1. A large crowd waited at the bus stop. _______________ 2. The roasting sun beamed down on them. _______________ 3. One man, hot and tired, leaned against the bench. _______________ 4. A child sat in a very small patch of shade. _______________ 5. A European couple talked quietly in German. _______________ 6. The day was very humid. _______________ 7. A boy played his miniature radio. _______________ 8. Two men balanced a heavy box of groceries. _______________ 9. Huge and green, the bus roared toward the stop. _______________ 10. The passengers, relieved, began to board. In the spaces list the adjectives and say whether they are common or proper. _______________ 1. The American South has interesting attractions. _______________ 2. The beautiful Mississippi River runs through several states. _______________ 3. South Carolina is famous for its magnificent gardens. _______________ 4. The English colonies founded the fascinating city of Charleston. _______________ 5. Austin is the capital city of Texas, but Houston is larger. _______________ 6. Texan food is known for its spicy flavours and generous portions. _______________ 7. Florida’s wetlands are home to many unusual animals and birds.
  • 78. 78 _______________ 8. These include lovely butterflies and dangerous alligators. _______________ 9. Louisiana boasts the French city of New Orleans and famous jazz musicians. _______________ 10. Cotton is an important crop in the south. Adjectives answer the questions: What kind? Which one? How many? How much? What kind? blue dress, old car Which one? these books, every woman How many? sixty cents, several answers How much? no time, great confidence Exercise B Look at the adjective in bold print in each sentence. Write the question it answers (which one, how many, how much, or what kind) in the blank. _______________ 1. This bicycle is blue and white. _______________ 2. That one is made of aluminum. _______________ 3. There are two reflectors at the rear. _______________ 4 The fenders have several dents. _______________ 5. The powerful brakes work quickly. _______________ 6. This style is more reliable. _______________ 7. But that type costs less. _______________ 8. A comfortable seat is necessary. _______________ 9. A ten-speed requires less work on hills. _______________ 10. Some bikes are racing dreams. Inkblot Describe what someone in your family looks like to an artist. Underline the adjectives used.
  • 79. 79 Mastery Test Decide whether you have to use a little or a few: 1. Can you please buy _______ apples. 2. We need _______ water. 3. I have _______ money left. 4. I take _______ sugar with my coffee. 5. We had _______ pints of beer there. 6. You have _______ time left. 7. There are _______ chairs in the room. 8. He only spent _______ dollars there. Decide whether you have to use some or any: 1. Is there _______ milk left? 2. There is _______ juice in the bottle. 3. Do you have _______ coffee? 4. I don’t have _______ money left. 5. She has _______ money. 6. Do you know _______ of these singers? 7. I don’t know _______ of them. 8. I know _______ of them. Adjectives make stories more exciting. They add the descriptions that help paint pictures in our minds. Stories without adjectives can be simple and boring. Read the story below. Then rewrite it using at least one adjective for each noun. Use sensory and descriptive language that helps the story come alive. It was a day. The alarm rang. I jumped out of bed and got dressed. I put on a pair of pants and a shirt. I added some socks and shoes, and then I was almost ready to leave. I drank some juice in a cup and ate a piece of toast. I hurried out the door to go to school. I ran to my class in a building on the campus. There were students in my class. I sat next to one. I wrote in my notebook and on the board. I looked at my books, pens, and pencils. Later, I got paper and paint from the cupboard to make a project. The teacher gave us homework. After school, I walked home through the neighborhood. The boys yelled to me. I went into my house to do my homework. I finished in two hours. I played with the kids until dinner.
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  • 81. 81 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Define what adverbs are and tell what parts of speech they define  Use adverb properly  Distinguish between adjective and adverb Adve rb s
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  • 83. 83 Adverbs are words that modify a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?) an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?) another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?) As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions some- thing happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives: Grammar Armchair Kinds of Adverbs Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Place She moved slowly and spoke quietly. She has lived on the island all her life. She still lives there now. Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Time She takes the boat to the mainland every day. She tries to get back before dark She often goes by herself. It's starting to get dark now. Adverbs of Purpose She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks. She shops in several stores to get the best buys. FORMING ADVERBS Many adverbs are formed from adjectives and end in -ly. Here are some tips to help you form adverbs and spell them correctly: The basic rule is that -ly is added to the end of the adjective: If the adjective has two syllables and ends in -y, then you need to replace the final - y with -ily: adjective adverb quick quickly sudden suddenly straight- forward straightfor- wardly adjective adverb happy happily hungry hungrily lazy lazily
  • 84. 84 Grammar in Action Underline the adverbs in the following sentences and state their kinds. You must also mention the question these adverbs answer. 1. The umbrella was kept there. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 2. Uncle Peng often goes to the club. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3. Petu ran quickly to catch the ball. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 4. Bowbow went out. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 5. Teddy went to the circus yesterday. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 6. Mrs. Cow rang the bell twice. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 7. King will buy some meat tomorrow. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 8. Piggy rarely makes mistakes. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 9. The child slept soundly. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ If the adjective ends with a consonant followed by -le, replace the final -e with -y on its own: adjective adverb terrible terribly comforta- ble comfortably
  • 85. 85 Comparative Superlative smart more complicated colorful better least most pretty cleaner taller understanding coolest hotter interesting cutest Direction: Complete the table below The Difference between Adjectives and Adverbs The Basic Rules: Adjectives Adjectives modify nouns. To modify means to change in some way. For example:  "I ate a meal." Meal is a noun. We don't know what kind of meal; all we know is that someone ate a meal. "I ate an enormous lunch." Lunch is a noun, and enormous is an adjective that modifies it. It tells us what kind of meal the person ate. Adjectives usually answer one of a few different questions: "What kind?" or "Which?" or "How many?" For example:  "The tall girl is riding a new bike." Tall tells us which girl we're talking about. Newtells us what kind of bike we're talking about.  "The tough professor gave us the final exam." Tough tells us what kind of professor we're talking about. Final tells us which exam we're talking about. "Fifteen students passed the midterm exam; twelve students passed the final ex- am." Fifteen and twelve both tell us how many students; midterm and final both tell us which exam. So, generally speaking, adjectives answer the following questions:  Which?  What kind of? How many? The Basic Rules: Adverbs Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. (You can recognize adverbs easily
  • 86. 86 because many of them are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, though that is not always the case.) The most common question that adverbs answer is how. Let's look at verbs first.  "She sang beautifully." Beautifully is an adverb that modifies sang. It tells us how she sang. "The cellist played carelessly." Carelessly is an adverb that modifies played. It tells ushow the cellist played. Adverbs also modify adjectives and other adverbs.  "That woman is extremely nice." Nice is an adjective that modifies the noun woman.Extremely is an adverb that modifies nice; it tells us how nice she is. How nice is she? She's extremely nice. "It was a terribly hot afternoon." Hot is an adjective that modifies the nounafter- noon. Terribly is an adverb that modifies the adjective hot. How hot is it? Terribly hot. So, generally speaking, adverbs answer the question how. (They can also answer the ques- tions when, where, and why.) Some other rules: Most of the time, adjectives come before nouns. However, they come after the nouns they modify, most often when the verb is a form of the following:  be  feel  taste  smell  sound  look  appear seem Some examples:  "The dog is black." Black is an adjective that modifies the noun dog, but it comes after the verb. (Remember that "is" is a form of the verb "be.")  "Brian seems sad." Sad is an adjective that modifies the noun Brian.  "The milk smells rotten." Rotten is an adjective that modifies the noun milk. "The speaker sounds hoarse." Hoarse is an adjective that modifies the noun speaker. Be sure to understand the differences between the following two examples: "The dog smells carefully." Here, carefully describes how the dog is smelling. We imagine him sniffing very cautiously. But: "The dog smells clean." Here, clean describes the dog itself. It's not that he's smelling clean things or something; it's that he's had a bath and does not stink. Inkblot Create a feature article about your favorite vacation place/area. Underline the adjective used and encircle the adverb used.
  • 87. 87 Grammar in Action Underline the adjectives and identify the word it modifies. 1. The old house had been empty for several years. 2. The second team played during the last quarter. 3. The new coach seems pleasant and competent. 4. The old elephant was suffering from a bad toothache. The enormous jet can not land at the regular airport. 5. A magnetic field surrounds the entire earth. Page 5 of 16 6. The new atomic submarines are spacious and comfortable. 7. The water in the lake tastes salty. 8. Many young Americans are making important scientific discoveries. 9. The two men in the other car seemed angry. 10. Most European students can speak the English language. 11. This little book contains some big ideas. 12. A cold wind drove the deep snow into the huge drifts. 13. Some small economy cars are neither small nor economical. 14. This new arrangement is good for all of us. For each question, you will be asked to select the most appropriate order of modifiers or the only appropriate placement of modifier(s). Submit the form using the SUBMIT APPLICA- TION button at the end of the exercise. Your score will be returned to you in a few seconds. 1. Select the sentence in which usually appears in an appropriate position. A. She usually shops for clothes at the local thrift store. B. Usually she shops for clothes at the local thrift store. C. She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually. D. Either "A" or "B" is fine. 2. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial phrases. A. She leaves the island during the months of December and January after dark. B. She leaves the island after dark during the months of December and January. C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.
  • 88. 88 Let's suppose that you want to talk about when something happened or will happen, or that you want to tell someone how to do something that must be done in steps and each of those steps should be done in a specific order. In either of these two situations, you must use signal words to help the person you are talking to understand the order of the process. These signal words are called adverbials of time and sequence. They are also sometimes referred to as time-order signal words. Adverbials of time and sequence help us understand the time relationship between sentences and ideas. Adverbials of time and sequence fall into two groups. The first group consists of time expres- sions of more than one word. Time expressions of more than one word generally introduce a sen- tence and are followed by a comma. Here's a list of the most common ones: Time signal words are useful in many types of narratives. Below are four paragraphs using time signal words. Read the paragraphs and try to guess what they are talking about. The time sig- nal words have been underlined. 1. They're easy to make! First, put some of your favorite ice cream in a bowl. Then, pour two table- spoons of chocolate syrup on the ice cream. Next, cover the ice cream and chocolate with whipped cream. Finally, sprinkle chopped nuts on the whipped cream and top it off with a cherry. 2. To get there go straight two blocks and then turn right. Follow that street for two blocks. Look for a tall gray building on the left. Then, turn left and go three more blocks and it will be the blue house on the southwest corner. 3. The first thing you see is a big map on the wall in front of you. Then, if you look to the right, you will see a large sofa. Then, as you look around the room you will notice a cute little plastic chair in the far corner. 4. I usually get up at around 7a.m. The first thing I do after getting up is drink a cup of cof- fee. While I'm drinking my coffee, I check my e-mail. Then, I eat breakfast. After breakfast, I take a shower and get dressed. by + time By seven o'clock, the theater was full. at + time At around three o'clock, the band walks through the door. after + time After five o'clock, the students go home. before + time They all arrived before noon. after + noun After about twenty minutes, I had to see her again. before + noun Before the movie, we went out for dinner. during + noun During the movie, the people kept talking. Grammar Armchair Inkblot Write at least three paragraph about your daily routine. Observe proper use sequences of adverbs.
  • 89. 89 Mastery Test Complete the sentences with the best adverb. Hint: Not every adverb is needed. slowly carefully beautifully well loudly carelessly easily excited- ly finally suddenly quickly quietly 1. Come here ____________. You have to see this! 2. We knew that she had got the job when we saw her _________ talking on the phone. 3. He ______________ put the vase on the table. It fell to the floor. 4. Sharon is throwing a party on Saturday. She ___________ finished her PhD. 5. Let’s walk ________________. I don’t want to be the first one at the meeting. 6. Alex _____________ put up the bookshelves. It was too difficult for me to do on my own. 7. Every thing happened so ______________. We had to move to California in less than a month. 8. Why does he always have to talk so ____________. You can hear him in the next room! 9. Although she speaks five languages, she did not do ___________ on the translation exam. 10. I was so surprised. His new apartment was _____________ decorated. II. Adverb or Adjective? Complete the sentence using an adjective or adverb. To make adverbs we often add –ly at the end of an adjective (words that describe a noun) Example: beautiful (adjective) girl (noun) beautiful + ly = beautifully (adverb) 1. He’s always in a rush. I don’t understand why he walks so ____________ (quick/quickly). 2. I prefer studying in the library. It’s always_______________ (quiet/quietly). 3. Michael __________ (happy/happily) took the assistant job. He had been looking for a position all summer. 4. Marta dances _____________ (beautiful/beautifully). She’s been taking ballet since she was five years old. 5. They speak French very ____________ (good/well). They lived in France for two years. 6. My neighbor always plays ___________ (loud/loudly) music on the weekends. It’s so annoying. 7. Please be __________ (careful/carefully) in the hallway. The walls have just been paint- ed. 8. Dan is very smart, but he is not a very___________ (good/well) student. 9. He reacted __________ (angry/angrily) to the news. I have never seen him so upset. 10. We didn’t ______________ (complete/completely) understand the teacher’s instructions. Most of us did not finish the assignment.
  • 90. 90 A. Identifying Adjectives and Adverbs (4 points each) Select the letter of the term that identifies each italicized word. a. predicate adjective c. definite article e. demonstrative adjective b. indefinite article d. proper adjective f. intensifier _____ 1. Jeremy found the filmstrip rather dull and boring. _____ 2. A movie would have been more fun. _____ 3. Jeremy fell asleep at the end. _____ 4. The filmstrip was narrated by a Canadian professor. _____ 5. He spoke too softly. _____ 6. That visitor enjoyed the filmstrip. _____ 7. He is very enthusiastic about photography. _____ 8. I think he really liked those pictures at the end of the filmstrip B. Adjectives and Adverbs as Modifiers (4 points each) Select the letter of the word or phrase that each italicized word modifies. _____ 9. There is a great new video game at the arcade. a. There b. new c. game _____ 10. It looks quite challenging but fun. a. It b. looks c. challenging _____ 11. Starblaster is the name of this game. a. Starblaster b. name c. game _____ 12. Tommy can play the game betterthan I can. a. Tommy b. can play c. game _____ 13. He goes to the arcade and practices hard every weekend. a. goes b. practices c. weekend _____ 14. I almost never beat Tommy when we play Starblaster. a. never b. beat c. playSelect the letter of the form that correctly completes each sentence. _____ 15. Jim Thorpe was one of the _____ American athletes of all time. a. most great b. greater c. greatest _____ 16. Thorpe competed _____ in the 1912 Olympics. a. successfully b. successful c. most successful
  • 91. 91 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Differentiate the kinds of clauses and phrases  Construct sentences using the different sentence patterns C l a u s e s a n d P h ra s e s
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  • 93. 93 Check It Out!!! Grammar Armchair Independent Clauses Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when they do stand by themselves, separated from other clauses, they're normally referred to simply as sentences, not clauses. The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is capa- ble of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing and is especially helpful in avoiding sentence fragments and run-on sentences.. Needless to say, it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. In the following sentence, for example, Bob didn't mean to do it, but he did it anyway. we have two independent clauses — "Bob didn't mean to do it" and "he did it any- way" — connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction ("but"). If the word "but" is missing from this sentence, the sentence would be called a comma splice: two independent clauses would be incorrectly connected, smooshed together, with only a comma between them. Furthermore, a long series of clauses of similar struc- ture and length begins to feel monotonous, leading to
  • 94. 94 what is called "Dick and Jane" or primer language (after the kind of prose that we find in first grade textbooks or "primers"). (See the section on Avoiding Primer Language for ad- vice and exercises on combining sentences.) It would also be helpful at this time to review the section on Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses. Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination, subordination, and by means of a semicolon. Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes* so. Clauses thus connect- ed are usually nicely balanced in length and import. Ramonita thought about joining the church choir, but she never talked to her friends about it. Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one that cannot stand on its own) through the use of aSubordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word) or a Relative Pronoun. When the clause begins with a subordi- nating word, it is no longer an independent clause; it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else (the independent clause) for its meaning. There are other ways of combining ideas — by turning independent clauses into various kinds of modifying phrases. Again, see the section onAvoiding Primer Language. Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir, she never talked to her friends about it. Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir, because she was afraid they would make fun of her. Yasmin is Ramonita's sister. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the choir no matter what her friends said. Joining these with the use of a relative clause: Yasmin, [who is] Ramonita's sister, told Ramonita to join the choir. . . . Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). Semicolons should be used sparingly and only when the two independent clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in terms of length and import. Ramonita has such a beautiful voice; many couples have asked her to sing at their wedding. Ramonita's voice has a clear, angelic quality; furthermore, she clearly enjoys using it. Dependent Clauses Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a sentence that can stand by itself. (Review the section on Commas Usage for advice and plenty of exercises on the punctuation requirements when dependent and independent clauses are combined.) Unlike independent clauses, which simply are what they are, dependent clauses are said to perform various functions within a sentence. They act either in the capacity of some kind of noun or as some kind of modifier. There are three basic kinds of dependent clauses, categorized ac- cording to their function in the sentence. Remember that a dependent clause always contains a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand by itself.
  • 95. 95 Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in the main (independent) clause: where, when, or why. "When the movie is over, we'll go downtown." or "John wanted to write a book because he had so much to say about the subject." Adjective clauses work like multi-word adjectives. "My brother, who is an engineer, figured it out for me." or "The bridge that collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace." A special kind of adjective clause begins with a relative adverb (where, when, andwhy) but none- theless functions as adjectivally. Noun clauses can do anything that nouns can do. "What he knows [subject] is no concern of mine." or "Do you know what he knows[object]?" or "What can you tell me about what he has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?" Grammar in Action Determine whether the underlined word groups are dependent clauses, independ- ent clauses, or not a clause. 1. Although it was raining, Maria went for a jog at Civitan Park. 2. Brianna eats chocolate whenever she gets a poor grade in math. 3. After the flood, the family moved into a temporary shelter. 4. While walking at the park, John saw a raccoon eating potato chips. 5. Students enrolled in bachelor's and associate's degree programs must pass the Re- gents' Test as a graduation requirement. 6. Students who fail to show up for the Regents' test must enroll in the Regents' reme- diation courses. 7. When you finish your homework, please take the dog for a walk. 8. After Juan completed the assignment, he swam laps at the gym. 9. Christa left home at 4:00 a.m. since she had to drive to Atlanta for a meeting. 10. Before completing the assignment, Evan decided to eat a quick lunch. Inkblot Try remembering one of your experiences in childhood where you played a prank to some one. Write down why and how it happened and what is the effect of your prank. Retell it by writing an essay and underline the independent clause one and the dependent clause twice
  • 96. 96 Challenge Read the selection below. Pick clause and try to add another clause to make a new sentence. Can You Die of a Broken Heart? By Eric Metcalf, MPH Once the Nashville, Tenn., resident went to the hospital, doctors began running tests. They told Lisa that instead of a heart attack, she actually had a different type of heart problem called stress cardiomyopathy. This problem -- which is also dubbed "broken heart syndrome" -- may be the real issue in some cases that initially appear to be a heart attack. Understanding broken heart syndrome requires understanding how the body reacts to stress - - and a bit of knowledge about Japanese octopus-fishing gear. A Troubled Mind May Lead to a Broken Heart The term "broken heart syndrome" came about after researchers noticed that many people with the condition were grieving, says Ilan Wittstein, MD, a Johns Hopkins University cardi- ologist who's been studying the condition for a decade. "The first several patients we saw, many of them had [just experienced] the death of a loved one, a spouse, a parent. Some people started having symptoms at a funeral," he tells WebMD. But other patients had just gone through a trauma like a car accident or a mugging. Another woman landed in the intensive care unit on her 60th birthday after being startled by well- wishers shouting "Surprise!" Wittstein says. These types of events can trigger your sympathetic nervous system, which is also called your "fight or flight" mechanism, says Peter Shapiro, MD, a professor of clinical psychiatry at Co- lumbia University who studies emotional issues in heart disease. Your body unleashes a flood of chemicals, including adrenaline, he says. This sudden flood can stun your heart muscle, leaving it unable to pump properly. So even though broken heart syndrome may feel like a heart attack, it's a very different prob- lem that needs a different type of treatment. Grammar Armchair Subordinate clauses that describe nouns and pronouns A subordinate clause may give your listener or reader more information about a noun or pro- noun in the sentence. Here are some examples, with the subordinate clause in italic: The book that Michael wrote is on the best seller list. (that Michael wrote describes the noun book) Anyone who knows Michael well will read the book. (who knows Michael well describes the pronoun anyone)
  • 97. 97 The book includes some information that will prove embarrassing to Michael’s friends.(that will prove embarrassing to Michael’s friends describes the noun information) You don’t need to know this fact, so skip to the next paragraph. Still here? Okay then. Subor- dinate clauses that describe nouns or pronouns are called adjectival clauses or adjective claus- es. Happy now? Subordinate clauses that describe verbs, adjectives, or adverbs Subordinate clauses also can describe verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. The subordinate clauses tell you how, when, where, or why. Some examples, with the subordinate clause in italic, are as follows: Because Michael censored himself, the book contains nothing about the exploding doughnut. (Because Michael censored himself describes the verb contains) We will probably find out more when the movie version is released. (when the movie version is released describes the verb will find) The government may prohibit sales of the book wherever international tensions make it dangerous. (wherever international tensions make it dangerous describes the verbmay prohibit) Michael is so stubborn that he may sue the government. (that he may sue thegovern- ment describes the adverb so) More grammar terminology, in case you’re having a very dull day: Subordinate clauses that describe verbs are called adverbial clauses or adverb clauses. Subordinate clauses that describe adjectives or adverbs (mostly in comparisons) are also adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses do the same job as single-word adverbs. They describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Subordinate clauses that act as subjects or objects inside another clause This one is a bit more complicated: Subordinate clauses may do any job that a noun does in a sentence. Subordinate clauses sometimes act as subjects or objects inside another clause. Here are some examples, with the subordinate clause in italics: When the book was written is a real mystery. (When the book was written is the subject of the verb is) No one knows whom Michael hired to write his book. (whom Michael hired to write his book is the object of the verb knows) Michael signed copies for whoever bought at least five books. (whoever bought at least five books is the object of the preposition for)
  • 98. 98 Stop now or risk learning more useless grammar terms. Noun clauses are subordinate clauses that perform the same functions as nouns — subjects, objects, appositives, and so on. Check out the italicized clause in each sentence. Subordinate or independent? You decide. A. Even though Michael hit a home run, our team lost by more than 50 runs. B. Eggworthy danced for a while, but then he said that his head was splitting and sat down. Answer: In sentence A, the italicized clause is subordinate. In sentence B, the italicized clause is independent. Grammar in Action Identify the underlined clause in each of the following sentences. Write SUB for subordinate clause and IND for dependent clause. 1. Every day teachers throw away hundred of sheets of paper that they should be recycling. 2. Since landfills are getting full, our school doesn't need to be contributing to the problem. 3. If our teachers recycled in their classrooms, it would set a good example for students. 4. Students who may never see an example of recycling at home could learn about it. 5. Once these students learn to recycle, they can show their family how to do it. 6. If every student taught their family to recycle, it would reduce the waste going to landfill 7. If you model recycling in your neighborhood, more neighbors will join in and start recycl ing. 8. Although you may only think of recycling paper, many other items can be recycled. 9. Some communities recycle glass and plastic which must be put in separate bins. 10. Make sure you rinse out containers that you recycle so you won't attract bugs. 11. Ask you local waste management company if they have special bins for each kind of wast e. 12. Before you know it, you will place your waste in the recycling bin without even thinking. Inkblot Being a college student, you have hard time on managing your schedule because of the requirements and study habits you need to comply with. Write an essay on how a student should manage time and prioritize things. Encircle the subordinate clause used.
  • 99. 99 Check It Out!!! Read the selection below. Underline the noun phrase, encircle the verbal phrase, box the prepositional phrase. Modern-Day Narcissus: The Selfie Obsession by Nicky Day We are all familiar with various legends of the ancient Greeks, such as The Mino- taur and Hercules, and yet one that keeps circulating my brain is the story ofNarcissus. He had the possession of great beauty, yet disdained those who praised him and ironically had never seen his own reflection. This is until the day he visits a stream out of thirst and sees his image for the first time in the water’s ripples. Narcissus falls in love with his image and fears drinking the water as it distorts the picture he adores. There are different versions of the myth, some proclaim that Narcis- sus dies of thirst, others say he drowned and there are descriptions of the nymph Echo repeating the words Narcissus voices to his reflection, so that he believes it to be a real entity. In the Roman ver- sion, Narcissus turns into a flower so that he can finally be praised by all; hence we still call the plant Narcissus by this name today. Most notably though, the myth has resulted in the term ‘narcissist’ becoming part of our everyday language, an adjective that refers to a person who is so enamoured with there own sense of being that they pay little attention to the emotions of those around them. They are self-involved and focus upon their own image just as Narcissus became ob- sessed with his reflection in the stream. What is tragic about this myth is that it is more than ever a story that projects the dark shadows of our reality today. We have become a civilisation that has created our own streams to fall into through the establishment of online media and communication. For example, the birth of the ‘Selfie,’ an image that a person takes of themselves, demonstrates a similar fixation with one’s own reflection to that of Narcissus. The Urban Dictionary defines the ‘Selfie’ as: ‘A picture taken of your- self that is planned to be uploaded to Facebook, MySpace or any other sort ofsocial network- ing website.’ The term ‘planned’ here disturbs me greatly, as photography no longer seems to be a form of art that captures moments, but instead solely captures you, regardless of where you are or who you are with. It is as if people are no longer comfortable with simply experiencing the present, we have to constantly define ourselves through vain portraits of one’s being. Moreover, the ability to ‘tag’ yourself on sites such as Facebook, places your image as the centre of that photograph. By placing your name upon your physical form, we suggest that this is the product of your complete identity, this is who you are. Furthermore, as the business has developed, Facebook is starting to encourage its users to list their favourite books, music, television programmes, sports, thereby so- lidifying your identity as a product of the external world. Like how Narcissus’ world becomes fo- cused upon his self through his obsession with his reflection, our lives are fast becoming centred upon our physical presence in the world we exist in. Grammar Armchair TYPES OF PHRASES A phrase is a group of related words (within a sentence) without both subject and verb. For example, He is laughing at the joker. A phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a sentence. The func- tion of a phrase depends on its construction (words it contains). On the basis of their func- tions and constructions, phrases are divided into various types i.e. noun phrase, verb
  • 100. 100 phrase, adverb phrase, adjective phrase, appositive phrase, infinite phrase, participle phrase and gerund phrase. Noun Phrase A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words (usually modifiers and deter- miners) which modify the noun. It functions like a noun in a sentence. A noun phrase consists of a noun as the head word and other words (usually modifiers and determiners) which come after or before the noun. The whole phrase works as a noun in a sentence. Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun) Examples. He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object) She brought a glass full of water. (as noun/object) The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject) A man on the roof was shouting. (as noun/subject) A sentence can also contain more noun phrases. For example. The girl with blue eyes bought a beautiful chair. Prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition(noun or pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers. e.g. on a table, near a wall, in the room, at the door, under a tree A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and mostly ends with a noun or pronoun. Whatever prepositional phrase ends with is called object of preposition. A prepositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb in a sentence. Examples. A boy on the roof is singing a song. (As adjective) The man in the room is our teacher. (As adjective) She is shouting in a loud voice. (As adverb) He always behaves in a good manner. (As adverb) Adjective Phrase. An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a sentence. It consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or pronoun. An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify (or tell about) a noun or a pronoun in a sentence.
  • 101. 101 Examples. He is wearing a nice red shirt. (modifies shirt) The girl with brown hair is singing a song. (modifies girl) He gave me a glass full of water. (modifies glass) A boy from America won the race. (modifies boy) Prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can also call them adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above sentence “The girl with brown hair is singing a song”, the phrase “with brown hair” is a prepositional phrase but it functions as an adjective. Adverb Phrase An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works like an adverb in a sentence. An adverb phrase functions like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Examples He always behaves in a good manner. (modifies verb behave) They were shouting in a loud voice. (modifies verb shout) She always drives with care. (modifies verb drive) He sat in a corner of the room. (modifies verb sit) He returned in a short while. (modifies verb return) A prepositional phrase can also act as an adverb phrase. For example in above sentence “He always behaves in a good manner”, the phrase “in a good manner” is a prepositional phrase but it acts as adverb phrase here. Verb Phrase A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and its auxiliaries (helping verbs) in a sen- tence. Examples. He is eating an apple. She has finished her work. You should study for the exam. She has been sleeping for two hours. According to generative grammar, a verb phrase can consist of main verb, its auxiliaries, its complements and other modifiers. Hence it can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence. Example. You should study for the exam.
  • 102. 102 Infinitive Phrase An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive(to + simple form of verb) and modifiers or other words associated to the infinitive. An infinitive phrase always functions as an adjective, ad- verb or a noun in a sentence. Examples. He likes to read books. (As noun/object) To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject) He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb shout) He made a plan to buy a car. (As adjective, modifies noun plan) Gerund Phrase A gerund phrase consists of a gerund(verb + ing) and modifiers or other words associated with the gerund. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence. Examples I like writing good essays. (As noun/object) She started thinking about the problem. (As noun/object) Sleeping late in night is not a good habit. (As noun/subject) Weeping of a baby woke him up. (As noun/subject) Participle Phrase A participle phrase consists of a present participle (verb + ing), a past participle (verb ending in -ed or other form in case of irregular verbs) and modifiers or other associate words. A participle phrase is separated by commas. It always acts as an adjective in a sen- tence. Examples The kids, making a noise, need food. (modifies kids) I received a letter, mentioning about my exam. (modifies letter) The table, made of steel, is too expensive. (modifies table) We saw a car, damaged in an accident. (modifies car) Absolute Phrase Absolute phrase (also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a noun or pro- noun and a participle as well as any associated modifiers. Absolute phrase modifies (give in- formation about) the entire sentence. It resembles a clause but it lack a true finite verb. It is separated by a comma or pairs of commas from the rest sentence.
  • 103. 103 Examples He looks sad, his face expressing worry. She was waiting for her friend, her eyes on the clock. John is painting a wall, his shirt dirty with paint. Grammar in Action Instructions: Identify the underlined phrase or clause. 1. Steven's book, which made Oprah's Book Club this month, is not in any stores. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 2. While preparing for the speech, Joe couldn't help but worry about his entrance. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 3. Ahmad wants to visit Quebec, but he will need to wait for his next vacation. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 4. Hoping for a miracle, the doctors continued the surgery. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 5. Our boss supports donating time to charity. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 6. Melanie hoped to find a cure for the disease, but she tried to be realistic. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 7. After the banquet, the cooks will take a well-deserved break. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 8. Joey is hoping for a change to play pool with his uncle. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 9. The dog that Sam chose from the litter seems to be healthy. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 10. Sam Smith, who recently spoke to the youth group, excels at motivating young people. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 11. Pushed beyond endurance, the runner dropped the baton. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 12. The shoes he saw in the catalogue are available down the street. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
  • 104. 104 13. The reporter crouched behind that tree got the best picture of the arrest. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 14. Keith tried supporting both teams, but his heart was with Oregon. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 15. Katrina, who resented being left at home, drew on the walls with her crayons. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 16. Arnold hoped to find an answer to the funding shortfall. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 17. Pressed for time, the agent ran the red light. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 18. His uncle thinks that working for the government is the key to stability. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 19. Richard's chance to make his point slipped away. a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase 20. Is it possible that Joshua will compete against that man? a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase Inkblot Write your stand about the Sin Tax Law. Defend your answer. Underline the phrases used.
  • 105. 105 Mastery Test In the following sentences, underline the dependent clauses. (2 points each item – 20 points total) 1. Pasadena’s Tournament of Roses has been held annually since it was established in 1890. 2. The spectators also enjoy the bands that march by at intervals. 3. The Rose Queens who ride the floats are important parts of the pageant. 4. The spectators know which ones won prizes. 5. Floats that are entered by commercial firms are judged separately. 6. After the parade is over, the floats are left on display. 7. A group of officials decide who will be the Tournament Queen. 8. Because she works hard, the girl selected to be queen deserves the honor. 9. Some years ago the length of the parade had to be limited because the parades were be- ginning to take too much time. 10. Officials recommended that the parade should not take over two hours to pass any giv- en point along the route. Write P for phrase, IC for independent clause, and DC for dependent clause. (1/2 point each item – 10 points total) _____ 1. In the house _____ 11. Driven by desire _____ 2. Who drive the cars _____ 12. That swings open _____ 3. It was fun _____ 13. One third failed _____ 4. During the night _____ 14. Which was wrong _____ 5. The yellow ball in the street _____ 15. Except her _____ 6. After sitting in the sun _____ 16. As it began _____ 7. Half of the girls passed _____ 17. Because I failed
  • 106. 106 _____ 8. Listen carefully _____ 18. While singing _____ 9. The nice child in class _____ 19. Fishing is fun _____ 10. While I slept _____ 20. Fishing at noon For each of the examples below, identify each clause as an independent or dependent clause. If it is a dependent clause, add to the clause to make it an independent one. For sentenc- es that contain both an independent and dependent clause, underline the dependent clause.  While Wendy was at her doctor’s appointment.  William takes his dog, Sparky, for a walk around the block every evening around 7 o’clock.  Before Wanda makes coffee in the morning.  Exercising first thing in the morning both invigorates my body and refreshes my mind.  While Wallace loves mountain biking, it is a difficult activity to engage in during the win- ter months.  Because it is dark out when I arrive at the office.  Even though Wade tries to arise early every morning, including on the weekends.  He sometimes does not set his alarm on Sundays.  Whenever it is snowing heavily.
  • 107. 107 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Develop an awareness of the common mistakes in English grammar  Know what correct English grammar is S e n te nc e Pa t te r n
  • 108. 108
  • 109. 109 Check It Out!!! The film’s greatest asset is its unstoppable forward momentum. The film just keeps moving forward, never stopping too long to explain entirely what’s going on, relying on clev- er narrative parallels to fill out the details of this somewhat intricate plot. The film begins with a killing and never lets up on the intensity, every scene bearing a palpable sense of dan- ger: whether it be the overt threat of bullets flying in the air, or the more subtle dread of being discovered that dominates most of the characters. The film never lets the audience forget that the characters are basically under the thumb of more powerful forces, and though they have some degree of autonomy, their lives aren’t fully under their control. The local cut is a little different from what was shown internationally. This version includes a couple of scenes that look into the home life of SPO1 Acosta, an extra sex scene, and an additional final scene. These additions, though generally well done, fit kind of awk- wardly into the narrative, and only provide marginal benefit. But the story remains intact, and despite the diversion, it’s still a propulsive piece of entertainment that also serves as a rather dark examination of the intractability of corruption in our society. Stunning production values make it a real treat for the senses. Dix Buhay’s cinematography makes the shadows of Metro Manila feel equally menacing and seductive. A powerful musical score underlines the growing d e s p e r a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . Joel Torre has long been one of the finest actors in this country, but few films have provided the actor with a role meaty enough to really make use of his talents. But On The Job exploits every last bit of the actor’s inherent gravity, Torre exuding a world-weariness that goes well beyond his years. Gerald Anderson proves to be a bit of a revelation in this film. The young actor displays a strangely charming nihilism in his performance, a heady mix of attitude and naiveté that is worth exploring further. Joey Marquez is perfect in his role as an honest cop, alternating between bursts of weary humor and righteous anger. Piolo Pascual is a bit outclassed by his co-stars, but he delivers on his end as well. On The Job is a real treat, if only because it is the rare local mainstream film that treats its audience as adults. Its pleasures are complex and heady, built on an expertly con- structed sense of atmosphere, incredible production values and a story that bucks the expecta- tions of its viewers. I think I prefer the international cut, which ends on a more powerful im- age, but this local version is still more than worth anyone’s time. Hopefully, On The Job is just the start of a change in the local mainstream. Job Well Done (OTJ Movie Review) by Philbert Ortiz Dy
  • 110. 110 Grammar Armchair Basic Sentence Patterns Subject + intransitive verb Elizabeth swims. Dolphins leap. Subject + transitive verb + direct object John hated lima beans. Books convey ideas. Subject: + linking verb + subject complement The sea is beautiful. You seem worried. Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object The writer sold his publisher a three-part story. The pitcher threw the catcher a curve ball. Subject + transitive verb + direct object + object complement Samantha called her sister a baby. The king made Gawain a knight. Verb + subject + verb… [questions] Can Sherry play with us? Will this train leave on time? Verb + (other) [commands] Leave this room immediately. Give your exams to the proctor. Subject (working as object) + transitive verb [passive voice] The queen was laid to rest. Books were read to the children. Dinner is served at eight.
  • 111. 111 Grammar in Action Different bowl of ‘goto’ By Carlo Bonn Felix D. Hornilla It was a rainy June afternoon in my first week in a part-time job somewhere in Ortigas. My supervisor, perhaps pitying the fresh-from-Ala-eh-country newbie, invited me to eat out with him. “Do you eat goto?” he asked as we got into the company car. I nodded enthusiastically. I consider myself a goto authority. My father, a pure-blooded son of Taysan, Batangas, put me through two years of college by cooking goto for all sorts of people—security guards, truck drivers, construction and factory workers, drunkards, gamblers, and such. Papa cooks our product, manages the store, and chats with the customers; I scrub bowls and utensils stained with sebo (beef fat) and laugh at their bawdy jokes. Our store is not much—tiny, sawali-walled, with a malfunctioning TV set intended to entertain those who sit at our three makeshift tables. It’s a place that only we blue-collars can call comfortable. Still, Papa and I manage to scrape out our everyday expenses from our goto earnings. After some time, however, I felt that we could not go on with this kind of living, that I should do some- thing to improve our situation. So shortly after my 20th birthday, I set out for what I believed was the proverbial land of milk, honey, and money: Metro Manila. The metropolis bore down on me like a sack of hard and heavy firewood. My Tagalog is loud and thickly -accented Batangueño, and I felt inferior. Footbridges are unknown in my rural upbringing, and at one point, I was forced to pay a fine of P200 to an officer for jaywalking. The claustrophobia I’ve never known to exist within me was brought to the surface by MRT rides. My cheap pair of leather shoes did not withstand a leg-deep flood. One time, I woke to find that my favorite pair of slippers, which I had left just outside the door, was gone. Stolen. Even so, I could not bear to go home with nothing to show for my “adventure.” I needed to stay, to earn and save money. I miss the idle life in Batangas—days spent with easy labor, easy talk with people you’ve known all your life, nights spent with friends under skies full of stars, the sound of cricket wings and bamboo creaks lulling you to serenity. Simplicity… It was still raining when my supervisor and I arrived at his favorite eatery. I waited expectantly as he ordered two bowls of goto. I was excited, and nostalgic. Why, come to think of it, I had lived a week without a staple in my gustatory life. But when the waitress served us our order, along with a platter of tofu and little pieces of cold calaman- si, I felt insulted. “But sir, this is not goto!” I told my supervisor. “What? Why? What do you mean?” he said, surprised at my outburst. “This—a bowl of rice porridge with a few slivers of ox tripe on top? This is lugaw!” It was far from the goto I know – a rich stew of beef fat, heart, blood, liver, intestines and tripe, kept on a slow simmer over a low fire, flavored with chili, ginger, onions, fish sauce and roasted garlic. “No. This is goto,” my supervisor insisted. “Taste it. If you don’t like it, I’ll order a different dish for you.” I forced myself to swallow a spoonful. Well, it tasted like lugaw. But then, the warmth of it, the plainness of it, was so suited to the rainy weather that it was more than enough to warm my insides and indulge my wanting tongue. “Bonn,” my supervisor said as he squeezed calamansi over his bowl, “this is the goto I’ve known. This is the goto here in Manila. I know this is different from the gotong Batangas you know, but you’re in Ma- nila now. You should expect a different bowl of goto.” He smiled at me and closed his eyes to say grace. I suddenly understood the point of this invitation, this goto discovery, and the life lesson my supervisor wanted me to learn. We have to eat the bowl of goto that we are served, even if it is not the one we are accustomed to. The same can be said of life. Live the life you have, not the one you had. Embrace today. Embrace change. I said my prayers and thanked God for the bowl of goto in front of me. Pick five sentences each pattern from the selection below.
  • 112. 112 Identify the pattern (S-IV, S-TV-O, S-LV-C, S-TV-IO-DO, S-TV-DO-OC) of each sentence. 1. The Philippines lies in the Pacific. 2. Affectionate mothers give their children warm hugs. 3. The model wore brown pants and a tweed blazer. 4. For such a small restaurant, the menu appeared extensive. 5. The storekeeper appointed me manager in her absence. Write your own opinion on what is the song all about. Right from the start You were a thief You stole my heart And I your willing victim I let you see the parts of me That weren't all that pretty And with every touch you fixed them Now you've been talking in your sleep, oh, oh Things you never say to me, oh, oh Tell me that you've had enough Of our love, our love Just give me a reason Just a little bit's enough Just a second we're not broken just bent And we can learn to love again It's in the stars It's been written in the scars on our hearts We're not broken just bent And we can learn to love again I'm sorry I don't understand Where all of this is coming from I thought that we were fine (Oh, we had everything) Your head is running wild again My dear we still have everythin' And it's all in your mind (Yeah, but this is happenin') You've been havin' real bad dreams, oh, oh You used to lie so close to me, oh, oh There's nothing more than empty sheets Between our love, our love Oh, our love, our love Just give me a reason Just a little bit's enough Just a second we're not broken just bent And we can learn to love again I never stopped You're still written in the scars on my heart You're not broken just bent And we can learn to love again Oh, tear ducts can rust I'll fix it for us We're collecting dust But our love's enough You're holding it in You're pouring a drink No nothing is as bad as it seems We'll come clean Just give me a reason Just a little bit's enough Just a second we're not broken just bent And we can learn to love again It's in the stars It's been written in the scars on our hearts That we're not broken just bent And we can learn to love again Just Give Me A Reason Inkblot
  • 113. 113 This is a good place to briefly, but effectively, describe your product or services. C o m m o n M i s t a ke s
  • 114. 114
  • 115. 115 Check It Out!!! Write the errors or mistakes you can find in the selection. Marjie, I am not surprise or wander why Dennis leave you. Why? What reason you can think about but you're very fat body. I thought before that Dennis only use me to his toy but sooner and later I'm realize that he really can't beared or stomached to be with you anymore because at first, Dennis say he could not stand you're habit of making pakialam all his walks [lakad] and always calling to their house what he go home or this or that and then say he get ashame to met iether in school or in his family and then asking you to exercise you're ver very, very fat body but you hate it thoughth your the most preetiest girls he knows about what do you think you are "Beautiful Girl" of Jose Marie Chan even you are beautiful face to your think)you do not have the right to called me whatsoever or else different name one time or the other for the real purposed to insults my personality because I'm never call you names iether in the front of Dennis or in th backs of Dennis, but if you start already to calling me different name, I don't have any other choice but to call you any other different name to like you are a PIG, FAT, OBESSED, OVERWIGHT, AND UGLY SHAPE girl. Shame to you're body that is to a BUDING. You can't not blame Dennis for exchanging you to me because I am more sexier than you when you look to us in the mirror. I'm repeat again that you are like Ike Lozada when she is a girl. FROM: THE SEXIEST GIRL OF D.M. P.S. You say that I'm the badbreath but who is Dennis want to kissed.Me or you?You or me? And the final is me.
  • 116. 116 Grammar Armchair COMMON MISTAKES IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR TENSES The English language has a more complex tense system than many languages do, and it can be difficult for non-native and even native speakers to master. Several common errors in Eng- lish grammar stem from the way that English conjugates verb tense -- that is, the way it changes verbs to communicate past, present and future action. Multiple Past-Tense Markers In English, when a sentence discusses a past event, the sentence only needs one word to show that the event is in the past. The sentence “I went home,” for example, only includes one past- tense verb: “went” is the past tense of the verb “go.” But if you ask the speaker, “Did you go home?” the past tense leaps from the verb “go” to the auxiliary verb “do.” Using two past- tense markers instead of one is a common mistake in tense formation, as in the question, “Did you went home?” Here, both “go” and “do” are in past tense, but only “do” should be. Incorrect Tense With a Temporal Adverb Whereas some languages use temporal adverbs like “yesterday” and “tomorrow” with the pre- sent tense to describe a past or future action, English uses the past tense with those adverbs. “Yesterday I played,” for example, is correct. A common error is using the present tense with these adverbs: The incorrect sentence, *“Tomorrow I play” should be, “Tomorrow I will play.” Incorrect Tense With Irregular Verbs English uses many irregular verbs in which a central vowel changes when the tense shifts to the past. For example, “swim/swam/swum,” “drink/drank/drunk” and “catch/caught/ caught” are the present tense, past tense and past participles for the verbs “swim,” “drink” and “catch.” Common mistakes with irregular verbs include conjugating the verbs with the regu- lar past-tense ending -ed -- to get, for example, the incorrect sentence, “I swimmed yester- day,” instead of “I swam yesterday” -- and substituting the past participle for the past tense, for instance, “I drunk all of your orange juice this morning” instead of the correct sentence “I drank all of your orange juice this morning.” Incorrect Sequence of Tenses The tense that English uses for verbs in subordinate clauses depends on the tense of the main verb. This connection is especially important and easily confused when you’re reporting someone else’s speech. For example, if your daughter says, “I have cleaned the house,” you might tell your spouse, “She says that she has cleaned the house.” In this sentence, the main verb “says” is present tense and the subordinate verb “has cleaned” is in present perfect tense. If you get home and find the house a mess, you might exclaim, “But she said that she had cleaned the house!” Here, because the main verb “said” is past tense, the subordinate verb must change to the past perfect “had cleaned.” A common error in the sequence of tenses aris- es when speakers neglect to shift the subordinate verb: For example, “She said that she has cleaned the house" is incorrect. Common mistakes in the use of prepositions Although prepositions are small words, they are very important ones. In this lesson, we will explain some common mistakes in the use of prepositions.
  • 117. 117 Incorrect: Although he is clever, he lacks of experience. Correct: Although he is clever, he lacks experience. Incorrect: The train is now approaching to Boston. Correct: The train is now approaching Boston. Incorrect: We were not allowed to enter into the house. Correct: We were not allowed to enter the house. Explanations The verbs lack, approach and enter are directly followed by objects without prepositions. Other verbs that do not normally take prepositions are: discuss, marry and resemble. Incorrect: See you on next Friday. Correct: See you next Friday. Incorrect: I will never forget meeting her on that afternoon. Correct: I will never forget meeting her that afternoon. Explanation Prepositions are not used before a number of common time expressions beginning next, last, this, one etc. Incorrect: Of what color are her eyes? Correct: What color are her eyes? Incorrect: He is of just the right height to be a good soldier. Correct: He is just the right height to be a good soldier. Explanation Expressions containing words like height, weight, length, size, color, age etc., are usually connected to the subject by the verb be without a preposition. Incorrect: I am going to home. Correct: I am going home. Explanation We do not use to before home. Incorrect: To where shall I send it? Correct: Where shall I send it to? Explanation The structures where …to?, what…like? and what…for? have a fixed word order. It is not possible to move the preposition to the beginning of the clause.
  • 118. 118 COMMON MISTAKES IN COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Adjectives and adverbs come in three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, andsuperla- tive. When comparing or contrasting two or more things, we use the comparative or superla- tive degrees. The following chart gives some examples of adjectives and adverbs in their var- ious degrees. When using these modifiers in comparisons, avoid the following common errors. Confusing Comparative and Superlative Rule: When comparing or contrasting two persons, places, or things, use the comparative degree. When comparing more three or more, use the superlative degree Comparing two: On most women, evening gowns look more attractive than overalls. More than two: Of all the electricians I know, you are the most attractive. Comparing two: Marvin is wiser than Tom, but Tom is kinder. More than two: Solomon was the wisest man of all. A common error occurs when the degrees are confused: Confused: Between Larry and Moe, Moe is the meanest. Better: Between Curly and Moe, Moe is the meaner. Doubling Up In forming comparative and superlative modifiers, you either add an er/est ending or add the helpers more/most. It is never necessary to use both: Incorrect: That was my most happiest moment. Correct: That was my happiest moment. Incorrect: This restaurant is more better than the other. Correct: This restaurant is better than the other. Unbalanced Comparisons Be sure that the items you compare are of a similar kind. Unbalanced: Mrs. William’s tests are easier than Mr. Olsen. Balanced: Mrs. Williams tests are easier than Mr. Olsen’s [tests]. positive comparative superlative adjectives happy happier happiest smart smarter smartest beautiful more beautiful most beautiful good better best bad worse worst adverbs sweetly more sweetly most sweetly gladly more gladly most gladly carefully more carefully most carefully well better best
  • 119. 119 Unbalanced: This coffee is better than the shop on main street. Balanced: This coffee is better than the coffee in the shop on Main Street. Not Using Other and Else When comparing one of a group with the rest of the group, remember to use other or else. Illogical: Greg was more trustworthy than any student in class. Logical: Greg was more trustworthy than any other student in class. Illogical: Bill is faster than anyone on the team. Logical: Bill is faster than anyone else on the team. Confusing Less and Fewer When making negative comparisons, use the adjectives less and fewer. Increasingly these words are used interchangeably, but the traditional standard usage made a dis- tinction that you should at least be aware of. Traditional: Use less when comparing amounts and fewer when comparing numbers of things that can be counted. Aunt Martha has less patience than Uncle Henry. (Patience can’t be counted.) Aunt Martha knows fewer jokes than Uncle Henry. (Jokes can be counted.) Grammar in Action The following passage is not edited. It contains an error in each sentence. Identify the incorrect word and write the correct form of it. The city police have decided to taking stern action against drivers which attempt to overtake in the left side in the city roads. All drivers who violate this rule will be punish. This is a strict order issue by the police department for safety of all drivers. . Correction of Sentences for Practice 1. John has been working on the pilot project since two years. 2. When he entered the classroom the lecture already was beginning. 3. Rama has returned back her book in the library. 4. If Peter works hard he would get distinction in the exam. 5. They turn up with the flying colours if they practiced well. 6. If he told them about the route they would not have missed their way. 7. She would not have sent the mail if you did not instruct her. 8. If I had painted the picture well it would cost a great deal. 9. If the Manager had received your project on time he would not fire you. 10.The boy, together with his teachers and friends, are going to the ground.
  • 120. 120 11. A group of people are rushing into the hall. 12. The team is divided in different perspectives on the issue. 13. Neither the party leader nor the party workers was able to calm the distressed people. 14. Data is being collected by the media. 15. She is a real good singer. 16. All Computer science students should learn computer operating, typing, and how to programme computers. 17. The Lawyer has been warning his clients for the last Sunday. 18. Everybody on the board have to come to the discussion sessions. 19. How could they threaten you and she for this issue? 20. She prefers studying individually than studying collaboratively. 21. He is adept at cricket, badminton, playing basket ball. 22. Neither his followers nor he were welcomed by the society. 23. Some of you will have to get their own id cards for inspection. 24. If anyone peeps into the room, capture their photographs. 25. It must have been him who has sent this mail. 26. One should respect your motherland. 27. It happen only rarely in life. 28. Children is plucking flowers in the garden. 29. They purchased a new air conditioner next month. 30. They is quarrelling over a trifle. 31. It begin to rain as soon as we stepped out of the house. 32. The mother was pray for her ailing child. 33. Among the two sisters, Habiba is a better dancer 34. The officer has given orders to his soldiers yesterday. 35. The girl sat down besides the lake. 36. The two brothers are quarrelling with one another 37. The three business partners are leading their business amicably with each other. 38. Easily, we opened the box. 39. Please write legible. 40. Everyone greatly admired my performance. 41. He did all his work satisfactory. 42. They used to played cricket during their childhood. 43. Varsha saw a lots of swans at the lake. 44. Is there some tea in the flask? 45. The building does not have much windows, and so it is dark and gloomy inside. A pair of gloves are lying on the bed.
  • 121. 121 Bibliography A. Books A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. Long man Group: Essex, England. 1993. 126. Albert, Brother., et al. “English Art and Skills.”Philippines: MacMillan Company, 1971. Ann Raimes. Keys for Writers: A Brief Handbook : Houghton Mifflin ,New York. 1996. Blake Kathryn,. et al. “I Have a Dream.” In Essays. California: Library of Congress, 1978. Burnette, Dawn. Daily Grammar Practice. Peachtree City, GA: DGP Publishing, 2003.. Dykstra, Pamela. An Easy Guide to Writing. A basic skills handbook offering stu dents a fresh approach to writing ------. Rhythms of Writing. Houghton Miff lin, 2000. Kischner, Michael, and Edith Wollin. Writers' Choices: Grammar to Improve Style. Harcourt, 2002. Forloni, Gary., Grammar and Composition IV. Anvil Publishing, Inc. Makati, 1998 Garcia-Villa, Jose. “First a Poem Must Be Magical.” In Pathways to Communicate Effectively. Manila: SIBS Publishing House, n. Haussamen, Brock. Revising the Rules: Traditional Grammar and Modern Linguis tics. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 2000. Ong, Bob. “Bakit Baligtad Magbasa ang Pilipino? Williams, Joseph M. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. 6th ed. New York: Longman, 2000. Devet, Bonnie. “Welcoming Grammar Back into the Writing Classroom.” Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 30.1 (2002): 8-17. B. Journal Hornilla, Carlo Bonn Felix. A Different Taste of Goto, Philippine Daily Inquirer C. Webliography http://blog.writeathome.com/index.php/2011/09/dumb-and-dumber-avoid-errors- with-comparatives-and-superlatives/ http://chompchomp.com/exercises.htm
  • 122. 122 http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/common-mistakes-english-grammar-tenses- 13375.html http://faculty.chemeketa.edu/jrupert3/cwc/CKUPs/SVAGR/SVagrACT.htm http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adverbs.htm http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/clauses.htm http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/plurals.htm http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/sv_agr.htm http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/536/01/ http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/forming-adverbs http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/plurals-of-nouns http://public.wsu.edu/~gordonl/ESL/answer3.htm http://tlc.uoregon.edu http://words.journalism.ku.edu/pronouns.html http://www.education.com/study-help/article/prepositions-prepositional- phrases_answer/ http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/auxiliary-verbs http://www.englishdaily626.com/adjectives.php?042 http://www.englishleap.com/grammar/pronouns http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/kinds-adverbs/#ixzz2bMRSWPUF http://www.rong-chang.com/grammar/simple_tenses.htm http://www.studyandexam.com/types-of-phrase.html http://www.talkenglish.com/Grammar/simple-tense.aspx http://www.talkenglish.com/Grammar/singular-plural-nouns.aspx http://www.towson.edu/ows/exercisep-aagr.htm http://www.towson.edu/ows/verbs.htm http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/adjectve.html
  • 123. 123 Rina Bell M. Abraham She was born on May 25, 1992 in Putingbuhangin, San Juan Batangas. She is the second daughter of Mr. Cholito M. Abraham and Mrs. Rechilda M. Abraham. She is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last 2008 at Calubcub 1.0 National High School and Elementary level at Calubcub 1.0 Elementary School last 2003 in Calubcub 1.0, San Juan Batangas. Roma P. Caguimbal She was born on April 26,1993 in Calubcub 2.0 , San Juan Batangas. She is the eldest daughter of Mr. Ronilo Caguimbal and Mrs. Ma. Lourdes Caguimbal. She is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last 2009 at Calubcub 1.0 National High School and Elementary level last 2006 at Conrazon Elementary School in Conrazon Bansud Oriental Mindoro. Cristine Pearl B. De Castro She was born on March 16, 1994 in San Juan District Hospital , San Juan Ba- tangas. She is the eldest daughter of Mr. Crisencio De Castro and Mrs. Estrellita De Castro. She is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Eng- lish in Batangas State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last 2010 at Batangas Eastern Colleges and Elementary level at Pal-Sico Elementary School last 2007 as Salutatorian. Eloisa Marie M. Marasigan She was born on February 23, 1991 in Calit-Calit , San Juan Batangas. She is the second daughter of Mr. Jose Ferdinand Marasigan and Mrs. Rowena Marasigan. She is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last 2007 at Tipas National High School and Elementary level last 2006 at San Juan East Central School. Tom Christopher A. Parma He was born on September 17, 1990 in AFP Medical Center. He is the eldest son of Mr. Teodoro Parma and Mrs. Ma. Corazon Parma. He is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas State University San Juan Campus. He graduated his Secondary Level last 2007 at Joseph Marello Institute and Elementary level last 2002 at St Theres of the Child Jesus and the Holy face School.

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