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Week 2






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    Week 2 Week 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2: The Rediscovery of Crime Victims Yingyos Leechaianan CRIJ 4380W Week 2
    • History of Victims
      • In ancient times, criminal justice focused on victims to seek redress for pain and suffering based upon biblical tenets and English Common Law
      • Industrialization and urbanization began to diminish the role of victims
      • Victims lost control of government and judicial process
      • Ultimately became a civil rather than a criminal matter
    • History of Victims
      • History in United States similar
      • In Colonial America, victims paid for warrants, for sheriff to investigate and to incarcerate
      • “ Bill of Rights” focused on hostilities toward the “state”
        • Focused on protecting rights of criminals
      • Violation of laws more important than harm to victims
    • History of Victims
      • Focus of prosecutors and courts was to deter crime through punishment, long sentences and execution
      • Prosecutors were given the powers and duties that were previously the responsibility of victims
      • Not notified or involved with plea bargaining of their cases in court
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Late 50s and early 60s social movements influenced the rediscovery of victims:
        • Law and Order Movement
        • Civil Rights Movement
        • Women’s Rights Movement
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Law and Order Groups
        • Reaction to rising crime rates
        • “ Get tough on criminals” focused on victims
        • Lock up criminals quickly and for a longer time
        • Fewer loopholes for attorneys
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Women’s Movement—Became very active in anti-rape and anti-battering campaigns
        • Efforts to break down patriarchal culture tradition to subjugate women
        • 1972—First anti-rape effort with crisis centers in Berkeley, CA and Washington D.C.
        • 1974—First “Safe House” for battered women established in St. Paul, Minnesota
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Other Social Movements
        • Rights of Children
        • Senior Citizens—Elder Abuse
        • Homosexuals
        • Better training for law enforcement
        • Media played major role in reviving victim roles
        • Businesses cater to victims: pepper spray, guns, alarm systems, security services, etc.
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Politicians enacting legislation named after victims became very popular:
        • Brady Bill
        • Amber Alert
        • Megan’s Law
        • Jenna’s Law
        • Kendra’s Law
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • The news media played a major role in the rediscovery of victims
        • More attention given to victims rather than offenders in media coverage
        • Highly publicized cases gave victims a forum to be heard
        • 24-hour news cycle delivers reports of crimes and victims around the clock
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Media’s rights to report crimes often conflicts with the victim’s rights for privacy
      • Solutions to this problem include:
        • “ Shield laws” to protect from needless and unnecessary disclosure of names and addresses and previous victim involvement
        • Self restraint of reporters and editors
        • Adoption of a “Code of Ethics” requiring reporters to read a victim their “victim rights” prior to any interviews
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Commercialization of products and services for victims
        • Businesses cash in on customers’ fear of becoming a victim
          • Automobile anti-theft devices (Do they really work?)
          • Home security systems
          • Pepper spray
          • Firearms
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Victimologists played a major role
      • Process of rediscovery unfolds through a series of steps and stages:
        • Stage 1—Calling Attention to an Overlooked Problem
        • Stage 2—Winning Victories, Implementing Reforms
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Stage 3—Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further Changes
      • Stage 4—Research and Temporary Resolution of Disputes
      • The process of rediscovery continues:
      • See Box 2.2 Page 48
    • Rediscovery of Victims
      • Rediscovering additional groups of victims
      • See Box 2.1 on page 40
    • Crime Victims and the media
      • Our focus on media discourse is primarily confined to the coverage of crime by newspapers and television
      • Practices of “sensationalism”, “yellow journalism,” and “tabloidism,” when utilized to cover highly publicized crimes, can become particularly destructive to crime victims and their families.
    • Crime Victims and the media
      • Issues of accuracy and ethics
      • An important component of the reporting of news is the coverage of crime.
      • The degree to which a news item is shocking or sensational or unusual often determines whether the story will attract an audience.
      • Because of these factors, when editors select among the vast numbers of stories that are presented to them, the selectivity process picks out those situations in which the crime, the perpetrator, or the victim are “...unusual, unexpected, strange, or perverse” (Karmen, p. 31-33).
    • Crime Victims and the media
      • Issues of accuracy and ethics
      • The rights of crime victims have been largely overlooked.
      • The media and its journalists must be constantly concerned as to whether or not crime reporting places victims and witnesses in danger by revealing their names, family members, and addresses.
      • The role of the media and its journalists must also be evaluated on the closely related issue of reporting ethics .
      • The Viano model for journalistic mistreatment of crime victims
    • Key Terms Street Crimes English Common Law Civil Court Tort Law Public Prosecutors Plea Negotiations Law and Order Movement Women’s Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil liberties Movement Children’s Rights Movement Gay Rights Movement Self Help Movement Brady Bill Amber Alert
    • Key Terms Megan’s Law Self Definition Victimization Process Moral Entrepreneurs Constructionist Approach Conflict Approach Stigma Contests Social Construction Claims-making Typification Trafficking in Human Beings False Memory Syndrome Hate Crimes Road Rage Elder Abuse