Chapter 2: The Rediscovery ofChapter 2: The Rediscovery of
Crime VictimsCrime Victims
Yingyos Leechaianan
CRIJ 4380W
Week 2
22
History of VictimsHistory of Victims
 In ancient times, criminal justice focused onIn ancient times, criminal justice ...
33
History of VictimsHistory of Victims
 History in United States similarHistory in United States similar
 In Colonial A...
44
History of VictimsHistory of Victims
 Focus of prosecutors and courts was toFocus of prosecutors and courts was to
det...
55
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Late 50s and early 60s social movementsLate 50s and early 60s social mov...
66
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Law and Order GroupsLaw and Order Groups
– Reaction to rising crime rate...
77
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Women’s Movement—Became very activeWomen’s Movement—Became very active
i...
88
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Other Social MovementsOther Social Movements
– Rights of ChildrenRights ...
99
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Politicians enacting legislation named afterPoliticians enacting legisla...
1010
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 The news media played a major role in theThe news media played a major...
1111
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Media’s rights to report crimes oftenMedia’s rights to report crimes o...
1212
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Commercialization of products and servicesCommercialization of product...
1313
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Victimologists played a major roleVictimologists played a major role
...
1414
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Stage 3—Emergence of an Opposition andStage 3—Emergence of an Oppositi...
1515
Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims
 Rediscovering additional groups of victimsRediscovering additional gro...
1616
Crime Victims and the mediaCrime Victims and the media
 Our focus on media discourse is primarily confinedOur focus ...
1717
Crime Victims and the mediaCrime Victims and the media
Issues of accuracy and ethicsIssues of accuracy and ethics
An...
1818
Crime Victims and the mediaCrime Victims and the media
Issues of accuracy and ethicsIssues of accuracy and ethics
Th...
1919
Key TermsKey Terms
Street CrimesStreet Crimes EnglishEnglish
Common LawCommon Law
Civil CourtCivil Court
Tort LawTort...
2020
Key TermsKey Terms
Megan’s LawMegan’s Law Self DefinitionSelf Definition
VictimizationVictimization
ProcessProcess
Mo...
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Week 2

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Week 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2: The Rediscovery ofChapter 2: The Rediscovery of Crime VictimsCrime Victims Yingyos Leechaianan CRIJ 4380W Week 2
  2. 2. 22 History of VictimsHistory of Victims  In ancient times, criminal justice focused onIn ancient times, criminal justice focused on victims to seek redress for pain and sufferingvictims to seek redress for pain and suffering based upon biblical tenets and English Commonbased upon biblical tenets and English Common LawLaw  Industrialization and urbanization began toIndustrialization and urbanization began to diminish the role of victimsdiminish the role of victims  Victims lost control of government and judicialVictims lost control of government and judicial processprocess  Ultimately became a civil rather than a criminalUltimately became a civil rather than a criminal mattermatter
  3. 3. 33 History of VictimsHistory of Victims  History in United States similarHistory in United States similar  In Colonial America, victims paid forIn Colonial America, victims paid for warrants, for sheriff to investigate and towarrants, for sheriff to investigate and to incarcerateincarcerate  ““Bill of Rights” focused on hostilities towardBill of Rights” focused on hostilities toward the “state”the “state” – Focused on protecting rights of criminalsFocused on protecting rights of criminals  Violation of laws more important than harmViolation of laws more important than harm to victimsto victims
  4. 4. 44 History of VictimsHistory of Victims  Focus of prosecutors and courts was toFocus of prosecutors and courts was to deter crime through punishment, longdeter crime through punishment, long sentences and executionsentences and execution  Prosecutors were given the powers andProsecutors were given the powers and duties that were previously the responsibilityduties that were previously the responsibility of victimsof victims  Not notified or involved with plea bargainingNot notified or involved with plea bargaining of their cases in courtof their cases in court
  5. 5. 55 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Late 50s and early 60s social movementsLate 50s and early 60s social movements influenced the rediscovery of victims:influenced the rediscovery of victims: – Law and Order MovementLaw and Order Movement – Civil Rights MovementCivil Rights Movement – Women’s Rights MovementWomen’s Rights Movement
  6. 6. 66 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Law and Order GroupsLaw and Order Groups – Reaction to rising crime ratesReaction to rising crime rates – ““Get tough on criminals” focused on victimsGet tough on criminals” focused on victims – Lock up criminals quickly and for a longer timeLock up criminals quickly and for a longer time – Fewer loopholes for attorneysFewer loopholes for attorneys
  7. 7. 77 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Women’s Movement—Became very activeWomen’s Movement—Became very active in anti-rape and anti-battering campaignsin anti-rape and anti-battering campaigns – Efforts to break down patriarchal cultureEfforts to break down patriarchal culture tradition to subjugate womentradition to subjugate women – 1972—First anti-rape effort with crisis centers in1972—First anti-rape effort with crisis centers in Berkeley, CA and Washington D.C.Berkeley, CA and Washington D.C. – 1974—First “Safe House” for battered women1974—First “Safe House” for battered women established in St. Paul, Minnesotaestablished in St. Paul, Minnesota
  8. 8. 88 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Other Social MovementsOther Social Movements – Rights of ChildrenRights of Children – Senior Citizens—Elder AbuseSenior Citizens—Elder Abuse – HomosexualsHomosexuals – Better training for law enforcementBetter training for law enforcement – Media played major role in reviving victim rolesMedia played major role in reviving victim roles – Businesses cater to victims: pepper spray, guns, alarmBusinesses cater to victims: pepper spray, guns, alarm systems, security services, etc.systems, security services, etc.
  9. 9. 99 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Politicians enacting legislation named afterPoliticians enacting legislation named after victims became very popular:victims became very popular: – Brady BillBrady Bill – Amber AlertAmber Alert – Megan’s LawMegan’s Law – Jenna’s LawJenna’s Law – Kendra’s LawKendra’s Law
  10. 10. 1010 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  The news media played a major role in theThe news media played a major role in the rediscovery of victimsrediscovery of victims – More attention given to victims rather thanMore attention given to victims rather than offenders in media coverageoffenders in media coverage – Highly publicized cases gave victims a forum toHighly publicized cases gave victims a forum to be heardbe heard – 24-hour news cycle delivers reports of crimes24-hour news cycle delivers reports of crimes and victims around the clockand victims around the clock
  11. 11. 1111 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Media’s rights to report crimes oftenMedia’s rights to report crimes often conflicts with the victim’s rights for privacyconflicts with the victim’s rights for privacy  Solutions to this problem include:Solutions to this problem include: – ““Shield laws” to protect from needless andShield laws” to protect from needless and unnecessary disclosure of names andunnecessary disclosure of names and addresses and previous victim involvementaddresses and previous victim involvement – Self restraint of reporters and editorsSelf restraint of reporters and editors – Adoption of a “Code of Ethics” requiringAdoption of a “Code of Ethics” requiring reporters to read a victim their “victim rights”reporters to read a victim their “victim rights” prior to any interviewsprior to any interviews
  12. 12. 1212 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Commercialization of products and servicesCommercialization of products and services for victimsfor victims – Businesses cash in on customers’ fear ofBusinesses cash in on customers’ fear of becoming a victimbecoming a victim  Automobile anti-theft devices (Do they really work?)Automobile anti-theft devices (Do they really work?)  Home security systemsHome security systems  Pepper sprayPepper spray  FirearmsFirearms
  13. 13. 1313 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Victimologists played a major roleVictimologists played a major role  Process of rediscoveryProcess of rediscovery unfolds through aunfolds through a series of steps and stages:series of steps and stages: – Stage 1—Calling Attention to an OverlookedStage 1—Calling Attention to an Overlooked ProblemProblem – Stage 2—Winning Victories, ImplementingStage 2—Winning Victories, Implementing ReformsReforms
  14. 14. 1414 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Stage 3—Emergence of an Opposition andStage 3—Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to FurtherDevelopment of Resistance to Further ChangesChanges  Stage 4—Research and Temporary Resolution ofStage 4—Research and Temporary Resolution of DisputesDisputes  The process of rediscovery continues:The process of rediscovery continues: See Box 2.2 Page 48See Box 2.2 Page 48
  15. 15. 1515 Rediscovery of VictimsRediscovery of Victims  Rediscovering additional groups of victimsRediscovering additional groups of victims See Box 2.1 on page 40
  16. 16. 1616 Crime Victims and the mediaCrime Victims and the media  Our focus on media discourse is primarily confinedOur focus on media discourse is primarily confined to the coverage of crime by newspapers andto the coverage of crime by newspapers and televisiontelevision  Practices of “sensationalism”, “yellow journalism,”Practices of “sensationalism”, “yellow journalism,” and “tabloidism,” when utilized to cover highlyand “tabloidism,” when utilized to cover highly publicized crimes, can become particularlypublicized crimes, can become particularly destructive to crime victims and their families.destructive to crime victims and their families.
  17. 17. 1717 Crime Victims and the mediaCrime Victims and the media Issues of accuracy and ethicsIssues of accuracy and ethics An important component of the reporting of news is theAn important component of the reporting of news is the coverage of crime.coverage of crime. The degree to which a news item is shocking or sensationalThe degree to which a news item is shocking or sensational or unusual often determines whether the story will attract anor unusual often determines whether the story will attract an audience.audience. Because of these factors, when editors select among the vast numbers of stories that are presented to them, the selectivity process picks out those situations in which the crime, the perpetrator, or the victim are “...unusual, unexpected, strange, or perverse” (Karmen, p. 31-33).
  18. 18. 1818 Crime Victims and the mediaCrime Victims and the media Issues of accuracy and ethicsIssues of accuracy and ethics The rights of crime victims have been largely overlooked. The media and its journalists must be constantly concerned as to whether or not crime reporting places victims and witnesses in danger by revealing their names, family members, and addresses. The role of the media and its journalists must also be evaluated on the closely related issue of reporting ethics. The Viano model for journalistic mistreatment of crime victims
  19. 19. 1919 Key TermsKey Terms Street CrimesStreet Crimes EnglishEnglish Common LawCommon Law Civil CourtCivil Court Tort LawTort Law PublicPublic ProsecutorsProsecutors PleaPlea NegotiationsNegotiations Law and OrderLaw and Order MovementMovement Women’sWomen’s MovementMovement Civil RightsCivil Rights MovementMovement Civil libertiesCivil liberties MovementMovement Children’sChildren’s RightsRights MovementMovement Gay RightsGay Rights MovementMovement Self HelpSelf Help MovementMovement Brady BillBrady Bill Amber AlertAmber Alert
  20. 20. 2020 Key TermsKey Terms Megan’s LawMegan’s Law Self DefinitionSelf Definition VictimizationVictimization ProcessProcess MoralMoral EntrepreneursEntrepreneurs ConstructionistConstructionist ApproachApproach ConflictConflict ApproachApproach StigmaStigma ContestsContests SocialSocial ConstructionConstruction Claims-makingClaims-making TypificationTypification Trafficking inTrafficking in Human BeingsHuman Beings False MemoryFalse Memory SyndromeSyndrome Hate CrimesHate Crimes Road RageRoad Rage Elder AbuseElder Abuse
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