Wam Paper Gen X Women In High Tech2 12 06[1]
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Western Academy of Management paper on challenges of Gen X women in high technology chosen for presentation at the 2006 annual meeting.

Western Academy of Management paper on challenges of Gen X women in high technology chosen for presentation at the 2006 annual meeting.

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Wam Paper Gen X Women In High Tech2 12 06[1] Document Transcript

  • 1. GENERATION X WOMEN IN HIGH TECHNOLOGY: OVERCOMING GENDER AND GENERATIONAL CHALLENGES TO SUCCEED IN THE CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT YVONNE H. VICK California State University Fullerton ANN FEYERHERM Pepperdine University Los Angeles CA 90045 In their paper “Cracks in the glass ceiling: in what kinds of organizations do women make it to the top” Goodman, Fields, & Blum (2004) note that controlling for age, women and men have similar aspirations, work values and work related perspectives. This suggests that women’s relative absence from the top corporate positions is not due to career aspiration, values, or socialization that would make them inferior candidates for the top jobs. However, studies by Virginia Stein and others in the area of sex bias and discrimination indicated that women are not believed to possess the qualities essential for success in management positions (Heilman, Block, Martell, & Simon, 1989) In addition, statistics indicate that more women than men are leaving corporations (Catalyst, 2001). These women are not choosing to go home to raise their families; rather, they continue to work for other companies or firms where they have found increased intellectual stimulation, greater advancement opportunities, increased compensation, and/or more flexibility to manage work/life commitments (Catalyst, 1998). As more women enter the labor force as managers, the percentage of their representation will approach that of men. They currently represent 46% of the labor force (U. S. Department of Labor, 2006). Projections for 2008 are that women will make up about 48% of the labor force (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2000). However, despite the steady growth in the number of female managers, they tend to hold lower wage positions tend and have less formal power and authority than do male executives (Shenbaum, 2000). In addition, women continue to be underrepresented in powerful, top management positions, holding only 15.7% of corporate officer positions in Fortune 500 companies (Catalyst, 2002). Significance of Generation X Generation X (1965-1980) is a relatively small generation, which comprises a population force of 44 million in contrast to the Boomer population (1946-1964) of 78 million, and represents the smallest pool of entry-level workers since the 1930s. (Losyk, 1997; Bradford & Raines, 1992). By 2010, the population of employees 25 to 44 is expected to decrease by 15% due to this demographic shortfall. Businesses will be left struggling to get work accomplished that had typically been performed by knowledge workers, supervising
  • 2. managers, and other mid-level employees (Ruch, 2000; Michaels et al., 2001). To some extent, companies could compensate for this decline in younger managers by relying on a greater number of older managers, because during this period the number of 55-64-year- olds will increase by more than 45% (Michaels et al., 2001). However, by 2015, attrition and retirement will reduce the number of Matures (1922-1945) and Boomer managers who currently hold the majority of executive positions in industry (Jeffries, 2002) leaving companies even more exposed to a workforce shortage and lack of talent (Gandossy, 2001). With women tending to leave corporations in higher rates than men and with fewer Generation X workers to fill the gap left by retiring Boomers, the purpose of this study was to explore how high-technology manufacturing firms might more effectively develop and retain Generation X women to have a longer term commitment and compete for the top jobs. The expectations they bring to the workplace will affect succeeding generations of professionals (Catalyst, 2001). Since women will comprise approximately one-half of the total workforce at that time, the findings of this study have implications for industries that will be involved in a war for talent to recruit and retain Generation X executives (Jeffries, 2002). Style of Management Women Bring to Business Many of the talents women bring to management—including comfort with sharing power and information, ability to motivate in non-traditional ways, and apparent ease in responding to change—are crucial to organizations that are becoming increasingly less hierarchical and reliant on networks of relationships across levels and organizational boundaries (Rosener, 1995). Generation X women bring a style of support, collaboration, flexibility, ease with technical knowledge, and a natural affinity to diversity to this shifting corporate environment. It would seem that corporations would acknowledge the need for this type of management style, characterized by the Generation X women, more than ever. However, companies continue to function with the assumption that it is more manageable to search for a particular set of known attributes than to contend with the possibility that people with quite different attributes might be equally effective (McCall, 1998, p. xi). The Issue of Turnover A particularly serious consequence of ignoring the values women bring to organizations is the high level of turnover among women managers and executives (Catalyst, 2001) despite the growing evidence that firms with high numbers of women executives tend to outperform their industry (Adler, 2001). This is disturbing not only because it costs companies a substantial investment in these managers’ development and the maintenance of organizational diversity, but also because it can impact the overall effectiveness of an organization (Ruderman & Ohlott, 2002, p.13). The term “glass ceiling” was coined in 1986 by two Wall Street Journal reporters to describe the invisible barrier that blocks women from the most senior positions in corporate America. Indeed, nearly one-third (29%) of the women previously employed in the private sector over the past 10 years cited the glass ceiling phenomenon as a reason they left their former employers to start their own businesses. (Catalyst, 1998, p.15-16). Maupin (1993)
  • 3. postulated an inability of women to gain a more equal status has a discouraging effect on women and forms their expectations regarding the low probability of career success. Companies can improve their retention outcomes with women by deliberately addressing barriers to women’s development and advancement in the corporate culture. Instead, companies continue to invest large amounts of money in hiring and combating the effects of turnover, estimated to be 100-200 % of annual salary (Catalyst, 1998). Financial costs associated with turnover can be categorized as separation costs, temporary replacement costs, recruitment and selection costs, and induction and training costs (Institute of Employment Studies, 1997, as cited by Curtis and Wright, 2001). METHODS EMPLOYED TO STUDY GENERATION X WOMEN In response to the situation described above, this study specifically explored how high-technology manufacturing corporations could more effectively develop and retain Generation X women for longer term commitment and competition for top jobs. This was accomplished by in-depth interviews with 16 high potential Generation X women, asking about their perceptions of professional success and personal fulfillment, and what corporations did to either bolster their success or block it. The Industry The high-technology manufacturing industry was chosen in order to narrow the range of common themes, industry trends, and issues that form the context of work for these women. It was also chosen because the industry represents a traditional concentration of male power and dominance yet has a relatively level playing field in which women and men perform essentially the same profile of tasks. The economic downturn and associated downsizing of the past three years have severely impacted this industry and many of its manufacturing jobs have been transported overseas Research Participants This qualitative study examined the high-potential Generation X women (born between 1965-1980) and their relationship with work which means how they interact with bosses, peers, subordinates, and the corporate culture. Sixteen Generation X women were interviewed (Table 1A, Appendix A). Their companies identified them as high- achieving managers, between the ages of 23 and 39, in seven small to large high- technology manufacturing companies with major locations throughout the United States (Table 2A, Appendix A). Of the seven high-technology manufacturing companies chosen, two were startups; two were adolescent; and three were mature. All but one of the companies was publicly traded. Corporations were chosen with populations of over 5,000 and annual revenues of $3 billion except for the start-up firms which had fewer employees and less revenue.
  • 4. The study’s intent was to uncover the meaning Generation X women gave to the concepts of professional success, personal fulfillment, and corporate environments that were conducive to loyalty and long term commitment. Therefore, the research approach was a phenomenological study, since the purpose was to methodically gather data to acquire a description and gain meaning of an experience that will lead to new knowledge (Moustakas, 1994; Jeffries, 2002, Creswell, 2003; Marshall & Rossman, 1999). In this case, the phenomenon was the experience and perceptions of Generation X women working in technology. The answers to each interview question were analyzed for multiple themes. Becker’s (1992) approach for interrogating phenomenological data transcripts was employed for this study. The approach involved using a coding process to organize the material into categories, to manifest meanings, and to find themes. To increase the study’s reliability, individuals not involved with the study also coded participant responses into the selected themes, and results were compared for data reliability (Creswell, 2003). RESULTS The results are presented in these areas: how Generation X women defined professional success, how they defined personal fulfillment, the intersection of professional success and personal fulfillment, and perceived challenges to achieve success and fulfillment. How Generation X Women Defined Professional Success Generation X research participants defined professional success as being valued for their involvement in the business and impact on business results. Success was manifested in outward signs such as position, increased compensation, inclusion in formal and informal networks, and respect befitting a “go to” person who makes a difference in the bottom line. These manifestations reinforced the values they brought to the workplace and made it possible for them to influence strategy and take subsequent action—through position power—both inside and outside the company. For example, one respondent said, “Recognition and rewards that have been given to me serve to support the fact that I was going beyond expectations.” Another respondent described, “. . . making it to the executive tier of my company in a role that allows employees to know me and recognize my significance and impact . . . .” Another respondent reported that having influence within the company and the corresponding position of authority would give her the ability to have that influence. This finding is consistent with Tulgan (2000), who described a Generation X tendency to need to prove to themselves and others, that they have valuable contributions to make and receive outward manifestations of that value. Another ingredient to their definition of success concerned making a difference, described as making a positive impact on people and business results—doing meaningful work. Respondents typically spoke about helping the business attain tangible success, influencing the direction of the business, or helping individuals and seeing the effect of that help; for example, one respondent said, ”. . . helping clients get what they want and
  • 5. need, and helping others along the way.” Another respondent said, “When someone who is not on my team calls me and says, ‘I need your help on something,’ I feel extremely successful. I have influence and impact. Participants emphasized additional ingredients of success including the autonomy to run with their ideas play by their rules, while realizing their way may not follow traditional patterns. They also added that a highlight of success is the relationship with a mentor, who helps them stay in touch with the right people and provides coaching and perspective in a way that they can learn and grow through their own inventiveness when they are faced with business challenges. The theme of mentoring, described as a work relationship with a respected senior within or outside of their respective companies, was referred to by one respondent as “. . . mentoring that challenged me, stretched me, created more confidence in me, and helped me make the jumps.” How Generation X Women Defined Personal Fulfillment Research participants defined personal fulfillment as an internal feeling of joy, happiness, and contentment that comes from close connections with family and friends which energize them and encourage them to renew their sense of purpose and drive. The most common theme was making a difference, defined as leveraging skills and accomplishments to help others outside the daily business environment. Miller (1976) believed this is one of the intrinsic factors of women’s' lives that brings a sense of fulfillment to their professional work as well as to their personal lives. Connection of Professional Success and Personal Fulfillment A key finding of this study was that 70% percent of the research participants linked personal fulfillment directly with their definition of professional success. Fulfillment was a defining characteristic of their success. Several respondents said that one defines the other. One respondent cited, “One impacts the other and both are two sides of the same coin.” Another noted, “There is no space between fulfillment and success. It is one and the same. My mom is a ‘work defines me’ person. I am not.” This finding may differ from other generations because Generation X women are not willing to defer personal fulfillment like the generation before them (Macalister, 1994). Table 3A (Appendix A) presents four common denominators in definitions of both success and fulfillment, including: making a difference, relationships, learning and growing, and challenge or the opportunity to excel and achieve significance. While “making a difference” in professional success included outward and tangible signs of achievement and impacting the performance of the business, research participants described the personal fulfillment side of making a difference in terms of leaving a legacy within the community and within their own families where people can experience future success because of their efforts and contributions. One respondent said, “Teaching is a part of helping others—a common theme between my mom (a teacher) and me (an engineering manager).” Another cited, “. . . community service and giving back . . .” The fact that they see professional success and personal fulfillment connected supports how they see themselves as different from their Boomer predecessors (Macalister, 1994) and how they define their values (Tulgan, 2000). Relationships in professional success included support mechanisms, such as a mentor or a collaborative, coaching boss, and working in a supportive environment of
  • 6. relationships and fun, fueled by the energy of constant challenge. In terms of personal fulfillment, women described relationships as internal happiness or joy with family and close friends who provide energy and purpose in their lives. One respondent said, “It is the little things—my daughter trying to play soccer and responding to my coaching from the sidelines.” Another reported, “My family time and being with my friends makes me happy.” Shenbaum (2000, p. 45) described these values of human relationships— reaching out and connecting to other people and making a difference in the lives of others—as extremely important to this generation. Learning and growing described in professional success included the act of learning, gaining skills, and ultimately employability. Macalister (1994), Tulgan (2000), and Jurkiewicz and Brown (1998) supported this finding in that greater expertise equates to greater future earning power and greater employability. In terms of personal fulfillment, learning and growing was described as feeling the sense of accomplishment that comes with expending energy toward a desired result. This sense of accomplishment also provided a sense of confidence. Challenge or the opportunity to compete expressed in terms of professional success was defined as having tangible opportunities and assignments that are challenging as well as operating in an environment that is injected with the high energy of constant challenge. Challenge expressed in terms of personal fulfillment included the internal drive and feeling of energy to achieve that comes with setting goals and engaging with the challenge itself. It is important that organizations recognize this connection between families, community, and work because it can have a significant impact on employee willingness to contribute their discretionary effort. Generation X employees want a development plan that is both fast track and has meaning in terms of a higher order purpose. For them, employee loyalty is not about tenure; it’s about contribution and social responsibility. When work is an opportunity to feel healthy and happy, employees work harder, work longer hours, and produce better results (Gandossy, 2001; Tulgan, 2000). PERCEIVED CHALLENGES TO ATTAINING SUCCESS AND FULFILLMENT Male-dominant corporate cultures, while slowly and seemingly adjusting to increasing numbers of women in the workforce, continue to be a barrier for to women leveraging their talents within the corporate setting. The participant interviews supported the notion that gender discrimination has gone underground. Discrimination has been so integrated with company cultural norms and organizational status quo that most people do not notice it (Maupin, 1993; Rosener, 1995). Rosener stated, “The experience of most career women, whether they like to admit it or not, is that being viewed as different has meant being viewed as deficient or deviant” (p.105). Consequently, the signals sent to Generation X women by these traditional cultures conflict with their vision of achievement through supportive relationships; making a difference (work, family, and community); learning through real challenges they can convert into recognition. The women in this research study consistently pointed to feeling stereotyped, undervalued, and underutilized by male-dominant cultures which they believe perceive them as too young and inexperienced. One respondent said, “I do not have a ‘C’ title
  • 7. [refers to CEO, CFO, COO, or CIO titles], and I have earned that title. I make less than men I have laid off. I have more power, more responsibility, less money.” Another described, One of the greatest challenges I face is as a women who is a mom. I come to work and there is a filter on me as being a woman and a mom. “Oh, she is a mom and she will not be willing to travel. She is a mom and she will not be willing to work long hours.” As a result, women think they are not taken seriously, do not receive challenging opportunities, and subsequently do not receive the pay or position commensurate with their talents. This finding also supports the previously mentioned existence of invisible cultural norms which include such dynamics as feeling the need to be available at all times or the need to attend delayed or emergency meetings. These women do not believe there is a way around this status quo, even in companies that sincerely want to support and develop them. Jackson (2001) suggests that this phenomenon translates into medium to low levels of perceived support for advancement. Ultimately, this belief leads women to seek other employment opportunities (Michaels et al., 2001). The findings of this study revealed that 50% of the study participants were definite or, at minimum, undecided about seeking other employments opportunities. FIVE STRATEGIES TO LEVERAGE GENERATION X WOMEN’S CAPABILITIES AND TALENT Table 3A (Appendix A) presents elements of a desired corporate environment requested by the research participants to support their attainment of professional success and personal fulfillment. Elements of a preferred corporate environment include recognition for their efforts, relationships though interactions with many different people, challenges to excel, mentors for guidance, autonomy to play by their own rules, and flexibility of work arrangements. Corporate environmental elements suggested by participants plus other findings of this study suggest five strategies companies can adopt to leverage the talent and capabilities of Generation X women in a way that will strengthen bottom line results, ensure that the corporate entity remains competitive, and retain valued employees. Table 4A (Appendix A) demonstrates how the implementation of the five recommended strategies would address the 12 overall themes that characterized this research. By utilizing these strategies, companies could impact both sustainable employment of high potential women and maintain ongoing corporate competitiveness. 1. Shift the Corporate Culture. Although corporations may have the best intentions to support women, they could re-examine their cultures with new awareness of the embedded nature of the one-best-male model and belief systems around youth and competence, which significantly impact managers’ perceptions of Generation X women. They would benefit from continuing to evolve their cultures to be more supportive of Generation X women who aspire to climb the corporate ladder. These cultures would be characterized by increased attention to such values as mutual respect, openness, continuous learning, and building employee capabilities that address their hearts and minds. Employees respond to a sense of passion—whether it is directed toward customers, the marketplace or to themselves. Where passion is present, an engaged work
  • 8. force often exists (Gandossy, 2001, p. 35). This cultural examination might suggest needed structures that provide an environment for collaborative relationships, making a difference, learning and growing, and receiving challenges, or the opportunity to excel. Additional possibilities include structures that accommodate flexibility in work and schedule arrangements. Other measures such as informal policies of promotions and compensation levels could also be reviewed and adjusted accordingly. Literature and research data continue to support the notion that Generation X women feel slighted by the promotion process as well as the financial compensation packages. Companies that want to maintain and support Generation X women need to re-evaluate high-potential women for promotions and relevant compensation. The overall focus should be the creation of an environment that values the contributions of this generation, and provides latitude for them to do things differently than may be the existing tradition. The Generation X (men and women) values of collaboration and teamwork, developing human relationships, and quality of life are underscored, if not magnified, by the fact that most women share the same values. It would seem that Generation X women operating in top leadership positions within the corporate landscape could leverage these qualities and values throughout their companies. In a low-growth economy with shrinking or unchanging capital resources, organizations must leverage their cultures to focus on the contributions of their human resources if they are to improve their efficiency and work output (Powell, 1993; Gandossy, 2001). 2. Re-Design Training and Development. Provide women with more coordinated practical experience—in addition to formal training classes—by offering real-time business challenges under the guidance of a mentor-coach. Generation X women like to learn by doing—practical experience in solving problems is a preferred way to add to their skills and capabilities and enhance their employability (Jeffries, 2002). McCall (1998) documented that effective executives learn how to do what they do primarily by doing it, watching others try to do it, and messing up (p. ix). When participants spoke of learning and growing, they were expressing their need to find opportunities that would test their capabilities and help them grow through challenging work assignments. For instance, one participant mentioned a challenging work assignment as adding tangible experience and credibility to her resume. Generation X women seem to have a desire for a hands-on practical approach to learning and growing in addition to—or instead of—formal, theoretical education. People designing formal education programs would be wise to incorporate hands-on practical applications within formal learning. McCall (1998) stated the primary classroom for the development of leadership skills is on-the-job experience, and that critical resources are understood and controlled by line managers, not by staff specialists. Unless formal training is integrated into the larger context of experience and directly associated with corporate performance measurement, training can be an expensive and unrelated event with little, if any, impact (p.75). In addition, most participants spoke of challenges relevant to their work as necessary for growth. Since Generation X women prefer learning by experience, mentoring would need to be re-defined, implemented, and supported in order to develop their skills and opportunities (Hay, 2002; Michaels et al. 2001; Ruch, 2000). The role of a mentor-coach was defined by the research participants as one or more individuals who can collaborate
  • 9. with an employee to help her reach and exceed her goals. Companies can support this mentoring approach by developing feedback-rich environments that regularly provide input to Generation X women so they know how they are doing, what is working, and what needs improvement (Macalister, 1994). In addition, the mentor-coach and the corporation would be wise to put the learning experiences into the context of the business strategy to provide direct feedback on the impact of their work on the results. McCall (1998) stated a talented person, given the “right” experiences, might develop the desired executive abilities, and that business strategy is the most important factor in determining what those experiences should be (p.108). This is a characteristic that can become part of overall corporate strategy, culture, and executive development. 3. Leverage Generation X Management Style. Leverage the value of Generation X women in managing a growing diverse worker base. For some years, popular business literature has suggested that the most effective leadership style in the global economy is one of collaboration, cooperation, and inclusion—attributes traditionally associated with the way women tend to lead (Rosener, 1995; Britten, 2001). If this is the most effective leadership style for the future of global corporations, one would expect women to be pursuing and attaining executive roles at a faster rate (Britten, 2001, p. 2). 4. Consider Nontraditional Career Track Programs. For Generation X women employees, loyalty is not about tenure; it’s about contribution (Gandossy, 2001). Create an environment where this generation will feel valued for their individual contributions if they choose not to climb the ladder. A woman (or man) should be acknowledged and valued as a high performer without being a high-potential (upwardly oriented) individual. Someone who wants to do a great and satisfying job “in place” may not be as well valued as someone who wants to be upwardly oriented. This tendency has been translated into “up or out” work environment philosophies. For those who want to get off the fast track, development can include numerous lateral moves for growth of a different kind. Women may also want to temporarily get off the fast track, while still being committed to high performance—leaving the possibility of returning to the upward-mobility ladder when the time is right for them. Part-time options might apply in this case as well. With the downturn of the economy and the events of September 11, 2001, some women in the high-technology sector are rethinking what they want out of their lives. They want to be valued for their contributions, increase their autonomy of operating style through more trust, and be included in the decision-making process even if they choose not to be on the fast track. 5. Promote Women. Research shows a high correlation of Fortune 500 firms with high numbers of women in their executive ranks tending to outperform their industry median firms in profits as a percentage of revenues, assets, and stockholder equity (Adler, 2001, p.3). Also, Elvira and Cohen postulated in their study on effects of organizational sex composition on turnover that women were less likely to leave when more women were employed at their job (Elvira & Cohen, 2001). In light of these facts, corporations would do well to re-think the importance of their women leaders and look for opportunities to promote qualified women candidates. Improving an organization’s bottom line in today’s business environment requires the recognition and full utilization of all human resources, especially those previously ignored or overlooked (Rosener, 1995). The implication is clear: Firms that underutilize the talents of any of their employees, male or female, will find themselves at a competitive disadvantage (Rosener,
  • 10. 1995). Corporations that fail to hold their talented employees when competitors or other opportunities come courting will be the losers (Fulmer & Conger, 2004). SUMMARY If there is any corporate confusion or doubt about the desire of Generation X women to achieve and be successful, they can rest assured that these women have made a commitment to being successful in the corporate game. However, the Generation X drive and desire may not look like that of past generations and they are asking companies to rethink the way that work is done (Catalyst, 2001). What these women seem to want meaning in their work, the close relationship of a mentor-guide, and the trust of the corporation that they will deliver results while preserving their quality of life and autonomy to create their own pattern of success. These findings have implications for both individual women and the corporations that hire them. For the individual, the findings could build hope that a woman could live out her personal vision in a satisfying and fulfilling job. For corporations, the attrition of women is not inevitable. If companies can provide a cultural environment to support attainment of success and fulfillment as defined by these women, it may provide the link to improving bottom line performance. Few organizations will be able to tackle all these areas at once. Therefore, they should focus initially on those areas that are going to present the greatest return the quickest.
  • 11. Appendix A
  • 12. Table 1A Participant Demographics Demographics Generation X Average Age 32 Marital Status M=75% S=25% # Children—Average .6 Average Years With Current 7 Company Highest Education Level BS/BA=56% BSE=25% MBA=19% Supervise? Yes=62.5% No=37.5% Average Span of Supervision 16 Average Years Management 4 Experience Table 2A Company Profiles Corp. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Location Red., Dallas, Qbc, Dallas, Blvu, ElSg., Sta Wash. Texas Canada Texas Wash. Ca. Clra, Ca. Size 50,500 34,589 30,000 100 22,000 120,00 88,50 0 0 Revenue $31B $7B $9.8B $16M $14.2B $26.2B $73B Founded 1995 1930 1895 1991 1996 1900 1939 #Execs 35 20 200 6 n/a n/a 14 #GenX 2 GenX 1 GenX Women Woman Public/ Public Public Public Private Public Public Public Private # Study 2 3 6 1 1 1 2 Partic.
  • 13. Table 3A Emergent Themes by Research Question Theme Success Fulfillment Desired Corporate Environment Recognition for efforts, competitiveness, X X drive, and achievements Relationships X X X Making a difference X X Learning and growing X X Challenge and the opportunity to excel X X X Balance X Mentor or guide for development X X Autonomy or play by own rules, define own X X career Fun X Flexibility X Self-Confidence X Sense of achievement or accomplishment X
  • 14. Table 4A How Recommended Strategies Support Emergent Research Themes Re- Real Leverage Support Promote Examine Time Women of More Corp. Mentor- Leadership Those Women Theme Culture Coach in a who to Exec Oppys Diverse Don’t Level Work Climb Force the Ladder Recognition for efforts, competitiveness, X X X drive, and achievements Relationships X X X X X Making a difference X X X X Learning and growing X X X X X Challenge and the opportunity to excel X X X X Balance X X Mentor or guide for development X X X X X Autonomy or play by own rules, define X X X X own career Fun X X Flexibility X X Self-Confidence X X X X X Sense of achievement or X X X X X accomplishment
  • 15. References References
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  • 18. Ruderman, M. N., & Ohlott, P. J. (2002). Standing at the crossroads: Next steps for high achieving women. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Shenbaum, J. (2000). The foundation for a leadership development model: A meta- ethnography. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA. Smith, J. W. (2000, May). Is the Gen-X war over? HR Focus, 77(5),1-13. Tulgan, B. (2000). Managing Generation X: How to bring out the best in young talent. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2000, February 14). Women’s share of labor force to edge higher by 2008. Monthly Labor Review. Retrieved May 6, 2003, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2000/Feb/wk3/art01.htm. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006, February 8). Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by sex and age. Retrieved February 11, 2006, from ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/1f/aat5.txt AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES Ann Feyerherm, Ph.d, is an Associate Professor of Organization and Management at Pepperdine University and Director for the MSOD Program. She has her doctorate from USC and spent 11 years as a manager of organization development at Procter & Gamble. Research interests include change management, transorganizational leadership, and emotional intelligence. Also a consultant, she has worked with Healthways, 3M, Frito-Lay, and Boeing. E-mail Ann at ann.feyerherm@pepperdine.edu. Yvonne H. Vick, MSOD, is a consultant who specializes in developing leaders, teams, organizational cultures, and guides corporations to implement global and domestic change initiatives. She earned her MS degree from Pepperdine University and teaches at California State University Fullerton. Yvonne’s corporate experience included executive positions with AT&T, Lucent, and Pacific Telesis. Client experience includes Bristol- Myers-Squibb, British Telecom, Bell Atlantic, Agilent Technologies, and J.P. Morgan Chase. Research interests include corporate cultures and leadership that build the work place of the future. Email Yvonne at yvonne@embla5.com. .