GENERATION X WOMEN IN HIGH TECHNOLOGY: OVERCOMING
GENDER AND GENERATIONAL CHALLENGES TO SUCCEED IN THE
YVONNE H. VICK
California State University Fullerton
Los Angeles CA 90045
In their paper “Cracks in the glass ceiling: in what kinds of organizations do
women make it to the top” Goodman, Fields, & Blum (2004) note that controlling for
age, women and men have similar aspirations, work values and work related
perspectives. This suggests that women’s relative absence from the top corporate
positions is not due to career aspiration, values, or socialization that would make them
inferior candidates for the top jobs. However, studies by Virginia Stein and others in the
area of sex bias and discrimination indicated that women are not believed to possess the
qualities essential for success in management positions (Heilman, Block, Martell, &
Simon, 1989) In addition, statistics indicate that more women than men are leaving
corporations (Catalyst, 2001). These women are not choosing to go home to raise their
families; rather, they continue to work for other companies or firms where they have
found increased intellectual stimulation, greater advancement opportunities, increased
compensation, and/or more flexibility to manage work/life commitments (Catalyst,
As more women enter the labor force as managers, the percentage of their
representation will approach that of men. They currently represent 46% of the labor force
(U. S. Department of Labor, 2006). Projections for 2008 are that women will make up
about 48% of the labor force (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
2000). However, despite the steady growth in the number of female managers, they tend
to hold lower wage positions tend and have less formal power and authority than do male
executives (Shenbaum, 2000). In addition, women continue to be underrepresented in
powerful, top management positions, holding only 15.7% of corporate officer positions in
Fortune 500 companies (Catalyst, 2002).
Significance of Generation X
Generation X (1965-1980) is a relatively small generation, which comprises a
population force of 44 million in contrast to the Boomer population (1946-1964) of 78
million, and represents the smallest pool of entry-level workers since the 1930s. (Losyk,
1997; Bradford & Raines, 1992).
By 2010, the population of employees 25 to 44 is expected to decrease by 15%
due to this demographic shortfall. Businesses will be left struggling to get work
accomplished that had typically been performed by knowledge workers, supervising
managers, and other mid-level employees (Ruch, 2000; Michaels et al., 2001). To some
extent, companies could compensate for this decline in younger managers by relying on a
greater number of older managers, because during this period the number of 55-64-year-
olds will increase by more than 45% (Michaels et al., 2001). However, by 2015, attrition
and retirement will reduce the number of Matures (1922-1945) and Boomer managers
who currently hold the majority of executive positions in industry (Jeffries, 2002) leaving
companies even more exposed to a workforce shortage and lack of talent (Gandossy,
With women tending to leave corporations in higher rates than men and with
fewer Generation X workers to fill the gap left by retiring Boomers, the purpose of this
study was to explore how high-technology manufacturing firms might more effectively
develop and retain Generation X women to have a longer term commitment and compete
for the top jobs. The expectations they bring to the workplace will affect succeeding
generations of professionals (Catalyst, 2001). Since women will comprise approximately
one-half of the total workforce at that time, the findings of this study have implications
for industries that will be involved in a war for talent to recruit and retain Generation X
executives (Jeffries, 2002).
Style of Management Women Bring to Business
Many of the talents women bring to management—including comfort with
sharing power and information, ability to motivate in non-traditional ways, and apparent
ease in responding to change—are crucial to organizations that are becoming increasingly
less hierarchical and reliant on networks of relationships across levels and organizational
boundaries (Rosener, 1995). Generation X women bring a style of support, collaboration,
flexibility, ease with technical knowledge, and a natural affinity to diversity to this
shifting corporate environment. It would seem that corporations would acknowledge the
need for this type of management style, characterized by the Generation X women, more
than ever. However, companies continue to function with the assumption that it is more
manageable to search for a particular set of known attributes than to contend with the
possibility that people with quite different attributes might be equally effective (McCall,
1998, p. xi).
The Issue of Turnover
A particularly serious consequence of ignoring the values women bring to
organizations is the high level of turnover among women managers and executives
(Catalyst, 2001) despite the growing evidence that firms with high numbers of women
executives tend to outperform their industry (Adler, 2001). This is disturbing not only
because it costs companies a substantial investment in these managers’ development and
the maintenance of organizational diversity, but also because it can impact the overall
effectiveness of an organization (Ruderman & Ohlott, 2002, p.13). The term “glass
ceiling” was coined in 1986 by two Wall Street Journal reporters to describe the invisible
barrier that blocks women from the most senior positions in corporate America. Indeed,
nearly one-third (29%) of the women previously employed in the private sector over the
past 10 years cited the glass ceiling phenomenon as a reason they left their former
employers to start their own businesses. (Catalyst, 1998, p.15-16). Maupin (1993)
postulated an inability of women to gain a more equal status has a discouraging effect on
women and forms their expectations regarding the low probability of career success.
Companies can improve their retention outcomes with women by deliberately
addressing barriers to women’s development and advancement in the corporate culture.
Instead, companies continue to invest large amounts of money in hiring and combating
the effects of turnover, estimated to be 100-200 % of annual salary (Catalyst, 1998).
Financial costs associated with turnover can be categorized as separation costs, temporary
replacement costs, recruitment and selection costs, and induction and training costs
(Institute of Employment Studies, 1997, as cited by Curtis and Wright, 2001).
METHODS EMPLOYED TO STUDY GENERATION X WOMEN
In response to the situation described above, this study specifically explored how
high-technology manufacturing corporations could more effectively develop and retain
Generation X women for longer term commitment and competition for top jobs. This was
accomplished by in-depth interviews with 16 high potential Generation X women, asking
about their perceptions of professional success and personal fulfillment, and what
corporations did to either bolster their success or block it.
The high-technology manufacturing industry was chosen in order to narrow the
range of common themes, industry trends, and issues that form the context of work for
these women. It was also chosen because the industry represents a traditional
concentration of male power and dominance yet has a relatively level playing field in
which women and men perform essentially the same profile of tasks. The economic
downturn and associated downsizing of the past three years have severely impacted this
industry and many of its manufacturing jobs have been transported overseas
This qualitative study examined the high-potential Generation X women (born
between 1965-1980) and their relationship with work which means how they interact
with bosses, peers, subordinates, and the corporate culture. Sixteen Generation X women
were interviewed (Table 1A, Appendix A). Their companies identified them as high-
achieving managers, between the ages of 23 and 39, in seven small to large high-
technology manufacturing companies with major locations throughout the United States
(Table 2A, Appendix A). Of the seven high-technology manufacturing companies
chosen, two were startups; two were adolescent; and three were mature. All but one of
the companies was publicly traded. Corporations were chosen with populations of over
5,000 and annual revenues of $3 billion except for the start-up firms which had fewer
employees and less revenue.
The study’s intent was to uncover the meaning Generation X women gave to the
concepts of professional success, personal fulfillment, and corporate environments that
were conducive to loyalty and long term commitment. Therefore, the research approach
was a phenomenological study, since the purpose was to methodically gather data to
acquire a description and gain meaning of an experience that will lead to new knowledge
(Moustakas, 1994; Jeffries, 2002, Creswell, 2003; Marshall & Rossman, 1999). In this
case, the phenomenon was the experience and perceptions of Generation X women
working in technology. The answers to each interview question were analyzed for
Becker’s (1992) approach for interrogating phenomenological data transcripts was
employed for this study. The approach involved using a coding process to organize the
material into categories, to manifest meanings, and to find themes. To increase the
study’s reliability, individuals not involved with the study also coded participant
responses into the selected themes, and results were compared for data reliability
The results are presented in these areas: how Generation X women defined
professional success, how they defined personal fulfillment, the intersection of
professional success and personal fulfillment, and perceived challenges to achieve
success and fulfillment.
How Generation X Women Defined Professional Success
Generation X research participants defined professional success as being valued
for their involvement in the business and impact on business results. Success was
manifested in outward signs such as position, increased compensation, inclusion in
formal and informal networks, and respect befitting a “go to” person who makes a
difference in the bottom line. These manifestations reinforced the values they brought to
the workplace and made it possible for them to influence strategy and take subsequent
action—through position power—both inside and outside the company. For example, one
respondent said, “Recognition and rewards that have been given to me serve to support
the fact that I was going beyond expectations.” Another respondent described, “. . .
making it to the executive tier of my company in a role that allows employees to know
me and recognize my significance and impact . . . .” Another respondent reported that
having influence within the company and the corresponding position of authority would
give her the ability to have that influence. This finding is consistent with Tulgan (2000),
who described a Generation X tendency to need to prove to themselves and others, that
they have valuable contributions to make and receive outward manifestations of that
Another ingredient to their definition of success concerned making a difference,
described as making a positive impact on people and business results—doing meaningful
work. Respondents typically spoke about helping the business attain tangible success,
influencing the direction of the business, or helping individuals and seeing the effect of
that help; for example, one respondent said, ”. . . helping clients get what they want and
need, and helping others along the way.” Another respondent said, “When someone who
is not on my team calls me and says, ‘I need your help on something,’ I feel extremely
successful. I have influence and impact.
Participants emphasized additional ingredients of success including the autonomy
to run with their ideas play by their rules, while realizing their way may not follow
traditional patterns. They also added that a highlight of success is the relationship with a
mentor, who helps them stay in touch with the right people and provides coaching and
perspective in a way that they can learn and grow through their own inventiveness when
they are faced with business challenges. The theme of mentoring, described as a work
relationship with a respected senior within or outside of their respective companies, was
referred to by one respondent as “. . . mentoring that challenged me, stretched me, created
more confidence in me, and helped me make the jumps.”
How Generation X Women Defined Personal Fulfillment
Research participants defined personal fulfillment as an internal feeling of joy,
happiness, and contentment that comes from close connections with family and friends
which energize them and encourage them to renew their sense of purpose and drive. The
most common theme was making a difference, defined as leveraging skills and
accomplishments to help others outside the daily business environment. Miller (1976)
believed this is one of the intrinsic factors of women’s' lives that brings a sense of
fulfillment to their professional work as well as to their personal lives.
Connection of Professional Success and Personal Fulfillment
A key finding of this study was that 70% percent of the research participants
linked personal fulfillment directly with their definition of professional success.
Fulfillment was a defining characteristic of their success. Several respondents said that
one defines the other. One respondent cited, “One impacts the other and both are two
sides of the same coin.” Another noted, “There is no space between fulfillment and
success. It is one and the same. My mom is a ‘work defines me’ person. I am not.” This
finding may differ from other generations because Generation X women are not willing
to defer personal fulfillment like the generation before them (Macalister, 1994). Table 3A
(Appendix A) presents four common denominators in definitions of both success and
fulfillment, including: making a difference, relationships, learning and growing, and
challenge or the opportunity to excel and achieve significance.
While “making a difference” in professional success included outward and
tangible signs of achievement and impacting the performance of the business, research
participants described the personal fulfillment side of making a difference in terms of
leaving a legacy within the community and within their own families where people can
experience future success because of their efforts and contributions. One respondent said,
“Teaching is a part of helping others—a common theme between my mom (a teacher)
and me (an engineering manager).” Another cited, “. . . community service and giving
back . . .” The fact that they see professional success and personal fulfillment connected
supports how they see themselves as different from their Boomer predecessors
(Macalister, 1994) and how they define their values (Tulgan, 2000).
Relationships in professional success included support mechanisms, such as a
mentor or a collaborative, coaching boss, and working in a supportive environment of
relationships and fun, fueled by the energy of constant challenge. In terms of personal
fulfillment, women described relationships as internal happiness or joy with family and
close friends who provide energy and purpose in their lives. One respondent said, “It is
the little things—my daughter trying to play soccer and responding to my coaching from
the sidelines.” Another reported, “My family time and being with my friends makes me
happy.” Shenbaum (2000, p. 45) described these values of human relationships—
reaching out and connecting to other people and making a difference in the lives of
others—as extremely important to this generation.
Learning and growing described in professional success included the act of
learning, gaining skills, and ultimately employability. Macalister (1994), Tulgan (2000),
and Jurkiewicz and Brown (1998) supported this finding in that greater expertise equates
to greater future earning power and greater employability. In terms of personal
fulfillment, learning and growing was described as feeling the sense of accomplishment
that comes with expending energy toward a desired result. This sense of accomplishment
also provided a sense of confidence.
Challenge or the opportunity to compete expressed in terms of professional
success was defined as having tangible opportunities and assignments that are
challenging as well as operating in an environment that is injected with the high energy
of constant challenge. Challenge expressed in terms of personal fulfillment included the
internal drive and feeling of energy to achieve that comes with setting goals and engaging
with the challenge itself.
It is important that organizations recognize this connection between families,
community, and work because it can have a significant impact on employee willingness
to contribute their discretionary effort. Generation X employees want a development plan
that is both fast track and has meaning in terms of a higher order purpose. For them,
employee loyalty is not about tenure; it’s about contribution and social responsibility.
When work is an opportunity to feel healthy and happy, employees work harder, work
longer hours, and produce better results (Gandossy, 2001; Tulgan, 2000).
PERCEIVED CHALLENGES TO ATTAINING SUCCESS AND
Male-dominant corporate cultures, while slowly and seemingly adjusting to
increasing numbers of women in the workforce, continue to be a barrier for to women
leveraging their talents within the corporate setting. The participant interviews supported
the notion that gender discrimination has gone underground. Discrimination has been so
integrated with company cultural norms and organizational status quo that most people
do not notice it (Maupin, 1993; Rosener, 1995). Rosener stated, “The experience of most
career women, whether they like to admit it or not, is that being viewed as different has
meant being viewed as deficient or deviant” (p.105). Consequently, the signals sent to
Generation X women by these traditional cultures conflict with their vision of
achievement through supportive relationships; making a difference (work, family, and
community); learning through real challenges they can convert into recognition.
The women in this research study consistently pointed to feeling stereotyped,
undervalued, and underutilized by male-dominant cultures which they believe perceive
them as too young and inexperienced. One respondent said, “I do not have a ‘C’ title
[refers to CEO, CFO, COO, or CIO titles], and I have earned that title. I make less than
men I have laid off. I have more power, more responsibility, less money.” Another
One of the greatest challenges I face is as a women who is a mom. I come to work
and there is a filter on me as being a woman and a mom. “Oh, she is a mom and
she will not be willing to travel. She is a mom and she will not be willing to work
As a result, women think they are not taken seriously, do not receive challenging
opportunities, and subsequently do not receive the pay or position commensurate with
their talents. This finding also supports the previously mentioned existence of invisible
cultural norms which include such dynamics as feeling the need to be available at all
times or the need to attend delayed or emergency meetings. These women do not believe
there is a way around this status quo, even in companies that sincerely want to support
and develop them. Jackson (2001) suggests that this phenomenon translates into medium
to low levels of perceived support for advancement. Ultimately, this belief leads women
to seek other employment opportunities (Michaels et al., 2001). The findings of this study
revealed that 50% of the study participants were definite or, at minimum, undecided
about seeking other employments opportunities.
FIVE STRATEGIES TO LEVERAGE GENERATION X WOMEN’S
CAPABILITIES AND TALENT
Table 3A (Appendix A) presents elements of a desired corporate environment
requested by the research participants to support their attainment of professional success
and personal fulfillment. Elements of a preferred corporate environment include
recognition for their efforts, relationships though interactions with many different people,
challenges to excel, mentors for guidance, autonomy to play by their own rules, and
flexibility of work arrangements. Corporate environmental elements suggested by
participants plus other findings of this study suggest five strategies companies can adopt
to leverage the talent and capabilities of Generation X women in a way that will
strengthen bottom line results, ensure that the corporate entity remains competitive, and
retain valued employees. Table 4A (Appendix A) demonstrates how the implementation
of the five recommended strategies would address the 12 overall themes that
characterized this research. By utilizing these strategies, companies could impact both
sustainable employment of high potential women and maintain ongoing corporate
1. Shift the Corporate Culture. Although corporations may have the best
intentions to support women, they could re-examine their cultures with new awareness of
the embedded nature of the one-best-male model and belief systems around youth and
competence, which significantly impact managers’ perceptions of Generation X women.
They would benefit from continuing to evolve their cultures to be more supportive of
Generation X women who aspire to climb the corporate ladder. These cultures would be
characterized by increased attention to such values as mutual respect, openness,
continuous learning, and building employee capabilities that address their hearts and
minds. Employees respond to a sense of passion—whether it is directed toward
customers, the marketplace or to themselves. Where passion is present, an engaged work
force often exists (Gandossy, 2001, p. 35). This cultural examination might suggest
needed structures that provide an environment for collaborative relationships, making a
difference, learning and growing, and receiving challenges, or the opportunity to excel.
Additional possibilities include structures that accommodate flexibility in work and
Other measures such as informal policies of promotions and compensation levels
could also be reviewed and adjusted accordingly. Literature and research data continue to
support the notion that Generation X women feel slighted by the promotion process as
well as the financial compensation packages. Companies that want to maintain and
support Generation X women need to re-evaluate high-potential women for promotions
and relevant compensation. The overall focus should be the creation of an environment
that values the contributions of this generation, and provides latitude for them to do
things differently than may be the existing tradition.
The Generation X (men and women) values of collaboration and teamwork,
developing human relationships, and quality of life are underscored, if not magnified, by
the fact that most women share the same values. It would seem that Generation X women
operating in top leadership positions within the corporate landscape could leverage these
qualities and values throughout their companies. In a low-growth economy with
shrinking or unchanging capital resources, organizations must leverage their cultures to
focus on the contributions of their human resources if they are to improve their efficiency
and work output (Powell, 1993; Gandossy, 2001).
2. Re-Design Training and Development. Provide women with more coordinated
practical experience—in addition to formal training classes—by offering real-time
business challenges under the guidance of a mentor-coach. Generation X women like to
learn by doing—practical experience in solving problems is a preferred way to add to
their skills and capabilities and enhance their employability (Jeffries, 2002). McCall
(1998) documented that effective executives learn how to do what they do primarily by
doing it, watching others try to do it, and messing up (p. ix). When participants spoke of
learning and growing, they were expressing their need to find opportunities that would
test their capabilities and help them grow through challenging work assignments. For
instance, one participant mentioned a challenging work assignment as adding tangible
experience and credibility to her resume.
Generation X women seem to have a desire for a hands-on practical approach to
learning and growing in addition to—or instead of—formal, theoretical education. People
designing formal education programs would be wise to incorporate hands-on practical
applications within formal learning. McCall (1998) stated the primary classroom for the
development of leadership skills is on-the-job experience, and that critical resources are
understood and controlled by line managers, not by staff specialists. Unless formal
training is integrated into the larger context of experience and directly associated with
corporate performance measurement, training can be an expensive and unrelated event
with little, if any, impact (p.75). In addition, most participants spoke of challenges
relevant to their work as necessary for growth.
Since Generation X women prefer learning by experience, mentoring would need to
be re-defined, implemented, and supported in order to develop their skills and
opportunities (Hay, 2002; Michaels et al. 2001; Ruch, 2000). The role of a mentor-coach
was defined by the research participants as one or more individuals who can collaborate
with an employee to help her reach and exceed her goals. Companies can support this
mentoring approach by developing feedback-rich environments that regularly provide
input to Generation X women so they know how they are doing, what is working, and
what needs improvement (Macalister, 1994). In addition, the mentor-coach and the
corporation would be wise to put the learning experiences into the context of the business
strategy to provide direct feedback on the impact of their work on the results. McCall
(1998) stated a talented person, given the “right” experiences, might develop the desired
executive abilities, and that business strategy is the most important factor in determining
what those experiences should be (p.108). This is a characteristic that can become part of
overall corporate strategy, culture, and executive development.
3. Leverage Generation X Management Style. Leverage the value of Generation X
women in managing a growing diverse worker base. For some years, popular business
literature has suggested that the most effective leadership style in the global economy is
one of collaboration, cooperation, and inclusion—attributes traditionally associated with
the way women tend to lead (Rosener, 1995; Britten, 2001). If this is the most effective
leadership style for the future of global corporations, one would expect women to be
pursuing and attaining executive roles at a faster rate (Britten, 2001, p. 2).
4. Consider Nontraditional Career Track Programs. For Generation X women
employees, loyalty is not about tenure; it’s about contribution (Gandossy, 2001). Create
an environment where this generation will feel valued for their individual contributions if
they choose not to climb the ladder. A woman (or man) should be acknowledged and
valued as a high performer without being a high-potential (upwardly oriented) individual.
Someone who wants to do a great and satisfying job “in place” may not be as well
valued as someone who wants to be upwardly oriented. This tendency has been translated
into “up or out” work environment philosophies. For those who want to get off the fast
track, development can include numerous lateral moves for growth of a different kind.
Women may also want to temporarily get off the fast track, while still being committed to
high performance—leaving the possibility of returning to the upward-mobility ladder
when the time is right for them. Part-time options might apply in this case as well.
With the downturn of the economy and the events of September 11, 2001, some
women in the high-technology sector are rethinking what they want out of their lives.
They want to be valued for their contributions, increase their autonomy of operating style
through more trust, and be included in the decision-making process even if they choose
not to be on the fast track.
5. Promote Women. Research shows a high correlation of Fortune 500 firms with
high numbers of women in their executive ranks tending to outperform their industry
median firms in profits as a percentage of revenues, assets, and stockholder equity (Adler,
2001, p.3). Also, Elvira and Cohen postulated in their study on effects of organizational
sex composition on turnover that women were less likely to leave when more women
were employed at their job (Elvira & Cohen, 2001). In light of these facts, corporations
would do well to re-think the importance of their women leaders and look for
opportunities to promote qualified women candidates. Improving an organization’s
bottom line in today’s business environment requires the recognition and full utilization
of all human resources, especially those previously ignored or overlooked (Rosener,
1995). The implication is clear: Firms that underutilize the talents of any of their
employees, male or female, will find themselves at a competitive disadvantage (Rosener,
1995). Corporations that fail to hold their talented employees when competitors or other
opportunities come courting will be the losers (Fulmer & Conger, 2004).
If there is any corporate confusion or doubt about the desire of Generation X
women to achieve and be successful, they can rest assured that these women have made a
commitment to being successful in the corporate game. However, the Generation X drive
and desire may not look like that of past generations and they are asking companies to
rethink the way that work is done (Catalyst, 2001). What these women seem to want
meaning in their work, the close relationship of a mentor-guide, and the trust of the
corporation that they will deliver results while preserving their quality of life and
autonomy to create their own pattern of success.
These findings have implications for both individual women and the corporations
that hire them. For the individual, the findings could build hope that a woman could live
out her personal vision in a satisfying and fulfilling job. For corporations, the attrition of
women is not inevitable. If companies can provide a cultural environment to support
attainment of success and fulfillment as defined by these women, it may provide the link
to improving bottom line performance. Few organizations will be able to tackle all these
areas at once. Therefore, they should focus initially on those areas that are going to
present the greatest return the quickest.
Average Age 32
Marital Status M=75%
# Children—Average .6
Average Years With Current 7
Highest Education Level BS/BA=56%
Average Span of Supervision 16
Average Years Management 4
Corp. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Location Red., Dallas, Qbc, Dallas, Blvu, ElSg., Sta
Wash. Texas Canada Texas Wash. Ca. Clra,
Size 50,500 34,589 30,000 100 22,000 120,00 88,50
Revenue $31B $7B $9.8B $16M $14.2B $26.2B $73B
Founded 1995 1930 1895 1991 1996 1900 1939
#Execs 35 20 200 6 n/a n/a 14
#GenX 2 GenX 1 GenX
Public/ Public Public Public Private Public Public Public
# Study 2 3 6 1 1 1 2
Emergent Themes by Research Question
Theme Success Fulfillment Desired
Recognition for efforts, competitiveness, X X
drive, and achievements
Relationships X X X
Making a difference X X
Learning and growing X X
Challenge and the opportunity to excel X X X
Mentor or guide for development X X
Autonomy or play by own rules, define own X X
Sense of achievement or accomplishment X
How Recommended Strategies Support Emergent Research Themes
Re- Real Leverage Support Promote
Examine Time Women of More
Corp. Mentor- Leadership Those Women
Theme Culture Coach in a who to Exec
Oppys Diverse Don’t Level
Recognition for efforts, competitiveness, X X X
drive, and achievements
Relationships X X X X X
Making a difference X X X X
Learning and growing X X X X X
Challenge and the opportunity to excel X X X X
Balance X X
Mentor or guide for development X X X X X
Autonomy or play by own rules, define X X X X
Fun X X
Flexibility X X
Self-Confidence X X X X X
Sense of achievement or X X X X X
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Ann Feyerherm, Ph.d, is an Associate Professor of Organization and
Management at Pepperdine University and Director for the MSOD Program. She has her
doctorate from USC and spent 11 years as a manager of organization development at
Procter & Gamble. Research interests include change management, transorganizational
leadership, and emotional intelligence. Also a consultant, she has worked with
Healthways, 3M, Frito-Lay, and Boeing. E-mail Ann at email@example.com.
Yvonne H. Vick, MSOD, is a consultant who specializes in developing leaders,
teams, organizational cultures, and guides corporations to implement global and domestic
change initiatives. She earned her MS degree from Pepperdine University and teaches at
California State University Fullerton. Yvonne’s corporate experience included executive
positions with AT&T, Lucent, and Pacific Telesis. Client experience includes Bristol-
Myers-Squibb, British Telecom, Bell Atlantic, Agilent Technologies, and J.P. Morgan
Chase. Research interests include corporate cultures and leadership that build the work
place of the future. Email Yvonne at firstname.lastname@example.org.