甚麼是幸福的人生?   釋衍空 香港大學佛學研究中心 教學顧問
<ul><li>但是一切眾生都有那 離苦得樂的願望, 都是為著幸福快樂而辛勞 可惜後果往往是強差人意 </li></ul>
The law of diminishing return <ul><li>According to Robert Lane, happiness is derived largely from: material comfort and so...
The Pursuit of Happiness <ul><li>The  possibility  of greater happiness depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro level: soci...
The Secrets of happiness <ul><li>Research pointed out six main factors that can increase happiness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Foundation of happiness Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Survival ( 生存 ) (shelter, warmth, food, water) Safety ( 安全 ) (freedom ...
What is true happiness? <ul><li>For most of us, happiness is a feeling of joy derive from pleasant and/or agreeable extern...
Can we really be happier? <ul><li>Is life predetermined? By whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a master-planner to life? </l...
緣起 的世界:緣起 法 <ul><li>一切事物的出現,都是憑藉因和緣的和合而能生起。例如,蘋果一定是由蘋果種子 ——「因」,與及泥土、水分、空氣、陽光、時間等等 —— 「助緣」的和合而生起。沒有蘋果種子,就不可能有蘋果,而蘋果種子亦只能引生蘋...
心淨則國土淨 <ul><li>佛陀解說的緣起法,不單是解釋事物出現的法則,亦同樣是解說「人」和「眾生」生起和運作的法則。「心」就是斷定我們未來的因,而身體和世上萬物,都是我們出現的助緣。若「心」清淨祥和,果報亦安樂自在;若「心」無知沉迷,果報亦...
緣起法 的 真實性和普遍性 <ul><li>這看上簡單的緣起法,其中一個重要的特點,就是其真實性和普遍性;不論是誰,信或不信宗教,什麼家境、種族、住在什麼國土,都是受著佛陀指出的真理 ——「緣起法」之影響和管轄。 </li></ul>
緣起法與生命教育 <ul><li>我們每一個人,都能活在自己內心創造的夢幻世界一段時間,但客觀的事實,現實的生活,最終還是會追上我們。人,到底還是需要面對這世界和現實的生活。因此,生命教育是應該引發同學,帶領同學去認清楚生命,如實地了解這世界。...
「緣起之生命教育」大綱 <ul><li>認識生命 </li></ul><ul><li>處理生命 </li></ul><ul><li>意義感 </li></ul>
「條理感」 <ul><li>在觀察為甚麼有些人,在壓力之下能健康地活下去(例如一些曾經歷納粹集中營的猶太人),但有些人則不能忍受而病倒乃至死亡,安東諾維斯基 ( Aaron Antonovsky) 發覺那些能活下去的人,都有一些共同的特點,就是...
「條理感」 <ul><li>是指一個人能否從生命中體會到一整體性的定位和方向 (global orientation) ,繼而對世事的發生都感覺到是有條理和可理解。條理感亦能反映出一個人,能否對以下三點感到有一貫徹、持久而強勁的信心 (a pe...
1. 認識生命 <ul><li>見生命的緣起,見無我,見無盡的可能 </li></ul><ul><li>見因果之關係,見心之主導,心之重要 </li></ul>
2. 意義感 <ul><li>從緣起,見緣生的微妙,欣賞讚嘆 </li></ul><ul><li>從緣起,見眾緣的重要,心懷感恩 </li></ul><ul><li>從緣起,見無常,懂得珍惜和放下 </li></ul><ul><li>從緣起,見...
3. 處理生命 <ul><li>為了培植良好的條件,讓吉祥的事能成就, </li></ul><ul><li>為了去除壞的因素,令痛苦的事情難以出現, </li></ul><ul><li>我們應該養成有規矩、有尺度的生活習慣,並以「己所不欲勿施於...
Meditation Gives Brain a Charge   <ul><li>Richard Davidson, a neuroscientist at the University of Wisconsin, said that the...
Meditation Gives Brain a Charge   <ul><li>Most important, the electrodes picked up much greater activation of  fast-moving...
“ Buddhists really are happier” <ul><li>Davidson's research is consistent with his earlier work that pinpointed the left p...
The concept of neuroplasticity  <ul><li>Mental training through meditation (and presumably other disciplines) can itself c...
The Practice of Mindfulness: Breathing <ul><li>In/Out  出 / 入 </li></ul><ul><li>Calm/Ease  輕 / 鬆 </li></ul><ul><li>Let it b...
The Practice of Mindfulness: Thoughts and feelings <ul><li>Simply be aware of you thoughts, feelings, perceptions and sens...
Wisdom <ul><li>Wisdom is the ability to know and decide on which thoughts and actions are beneficial and would lead to pea...
<ul><li>‘ You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are...
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甚麼是幸福的人生? / 釋衍空

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請參看港府教育局的網頁:
http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=5127&langno=2

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  • A: A good job, winning a lottery, finding a lover B losing a job, money, a broken heart. Falling in love is a risky business. There should be a warning printed with marriage certificates like in a cigarette package C: More money or new clothes, another boy or girl friend
  • After five minutes I invite a bell and ask people to slowly open their eyes. Then I ask the group for a show of hands to a series of questions. “How many of you were aware of physical sensations (sounds, smells, tastes, your contact with your seat, your heartbeat, your breathing, your feet, your mouth, your hair)? How many of you were aware of your emotions or thoughts? more than one thought? more than five? more than ten? How many of you saw a thought arise? a thought end?” These are intriguing questions for many of the participants. Returning to feelings, I ask, “How many people experienced negative feelings? neutral feelings? positive feelings? negative thoughts? neutral ones? positive ones?” Focusing on the negative feelings and thoughts, I ask, “How many of these negative feelings and thoughts had to do with things that have already happened, things you’re feeling upset or guilty about?” Usually quite a few relate to this question. I then ask, “How many negative thoughts and feelings had to do with the future, things you are anxious about?” This also gets a good response. Finally, I ask, “How many negative thoughts and feelings had to do with the present?” As a teacher, I want to be open to the discomfort some may be having with this experience.
  • Why should I heal those soldiers?
  • 甚麼是幸福的人生? / 釋衍空

    1. 1. 甚麼是幸福的人生? 釋衍空 香港大學佛學研究中心 教學顧問
    2. 2. <ul><li>但是一切眾生都有那 離苦得樂的願望, 都是為著幸福快樂而辛勞 可惜後果往往是強差人意 </li></ul>
    3. 3. The law of diminishing return <ul><li>According to Robert Lane, happiness is derived largely from: material comfort and social and familial intimacy, and </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development increases material comfort, but it systematically wakens social and familial ties by encouraging mobility, commercializing relationships, and weaken the bonds of both the extended and the nuclear family </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Pursuit of Happiness <ul><li>The possibility of greater happiness depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro level: societal qualities such as wealth, justice and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meso level: institutional qualities, autonomy at work or in working environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro level: personal capabilities like efficacy, independence and social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruut Veenhoven </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The Secrets of happiness <ul><li>Research pointed out six main factors that can increase happiness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental health, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfying and secure work, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a secure and loving private life, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a secure community, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and moral values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layard Richard, </li></ul><ul><li>Director the Centre for Economic Perfomance at London School of Economics. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Foundation of happiness Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Survival ( 生存 ) (shelter, warmth, food, water) Safety ( 安全 ) (freedom from physical or emotional threat) Belonging ( 歸屬感 ) (love and acceptance from family and peers) Self esteem( 自尊 ) (recognition and approval) Deficiency Needs Intellectual achievement ( 智力的成就 ) (knowing and understanding) Aesthetic appreciation ( 真善美的鑒賞、索求 ) (order, truth, beauty) Self actualization ( 自我實現 ) Growth Needs
    7. 7. What is true happiness? <ul><li>For most of us, happiness is a feeling of joy derive from pleasant and/or agreeable external situations and conditions associate with the fulfillment of one’s desire </li></ul><ul><li>However, happiness that come from and depend on external situations and conditions is unstable, and may bring future suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, getting what you desire may not increase your happiness </li></ul>
    8. 8. Can we really be happier? <ul><li>Is life predetermined? By whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a master-planner to life? </li></ul><ul><li>Or, things happen randomly? </li></ul><ul><li>How much of life is under our control? </li></ul><ul><li>Why we are who we are? </li></ul>
    9. 9. 緣起 的世界:緣起 法 <ul><li>一切事物的出現,都是憑藉因和緣的和合而能生起。例如,蘋果一定是由蘋果種子 ——「因」,與及泥土、水分、空氣、陽光、時間等等 —— 「助緣」的和合而生起。沒有蘋果種子,就不可能有蘋果,而蘋果種子亦只能引生蘋果的出現。同時,若助緣不具足,蘋果種子亦不能衍生任何果報。 </li></ul>
    10. 10. 心淨則國土淨 <ul><li>佛陀解說的緣起法,不單是解釋事物出現的法則,亦同樣是解說「人」和「眾生」生起和運作的法則。「心」就是斷定我們未來的因,而身體和世上萬物,都是我們出現的助緣。若「心」清淨祥和,果報亦安樂自在;若「心」無知沉迷,果報亦無奈痛苦。 </li></ul>
    11. 11. 緣起法 的 真實性和普遍性 <ul><li>這看上簡單的緣起法,其中一個重要的特點,就是其真實性和普遍性;不論是誰,信或不信宗教,什麼家境、種族、住在什麼國土,都是受著佛陀指出的真理 ——「緣起法」之影響和管轄。 </li></ul>
    12. 12. 緣起法與生命教育 <ul><li>我們每一個人,都能活在自己內心創造的夢幻世界一段時間,但客觀的事實,現實的生活,最終還是會追上我們。人,到底還是需要面對這世界和現實的生活。因此,生命教育是應該引發同學,帶領同學去認清楚生命,如實地了解這世界。因此,以 緣起 法為依,為理論根據的生命教育,有其客觀的好處和實用性。 </li></ul>
    13. 13. 「緣起之生命教育」大綱 <ul><li>認識生命 </li></ul><ul><li>處理生命 </li></ul><ul><li>意義感 </li></ul>
    14. 14. 「條理感」 <ul><li>在觀察為甚麼有些人,在壓力之下能健康地活下去(例如一些曾經歷納粹集中營的猶太人),但有些人則不能忍受而病倒乃至死亡,安東諾維斯基 ( Aaron Antonovsky) 發覺那些能活下去的人,都有一些共同的特點,就是有很強的「條理感」。 </li></ul>
    15. 15. 「條理感」 <ul><li>是指一個人能否從生命中體會到一整體性的定位和方向 (global orientation) ,繼而對世事的發生都感覺到是有條理和可理解。條理感亦能反映出一個人,能否對以下三點感到有一貫徹、持久而強勁的信心 (a pervasive, enduring though dynamic feeling of confidence) : </li></ul><ul><li>理解能力 (comprehensibility) :生命中所觸及內在和外在的事事物物,都是有條理、可預計、和可以解釋的; </li></ul><ul><li>處理能力 (manageability) :有足夠的資源來應付由於接觸到這些事物而引申的各種索求; </li></ul><ul><li>意義感 (meaningfulness) : 這些索求都是生命的一種挑戰,而且是值得去投資和積極參予的 。 </li></ul>
    16. 16. 1. 認識生命 <ul><li>見生命的緣起,見無我,見無盡的可能 </li></ul><ul><li>見因果之關係,見心之主導,心之重要 </li></ul>
    17. 17. 2. 意義感 <ul><li>從緣起,見緣生的微妙,欣賞讚嘆 </li></ul><ul><li>從緣起,見眾緣的重要,心懷感恩 </li></ul><ul><li>從緣起,見無常,懂得珍惜和放下 </li></ul><ul><li>從緣起,見因緣相依,懂得合作、布施和分享 </li></ul>
    18. 18. 3. 處理生命 <ul><li>為了培植良好的條件,讓吉祥的事能成就, </li></ul><ul><li>為了去除壞的因素,令痛苦的事情難以出現, </li></ul><ul><li>我們應該養成有規矩、有尺度的生活習慣,並以「己所不欲勿施於人」作為 行為的準則。 </li></ul><ul><li>為了成就理想,我們應該學到堅持和專心一致去做事。 </li></ul><ul><li>處理事情,最重要就是要有正確的方向和方法。為了掌握正確的方向和方法,我們應該時刻保持醒覺,多學習,多反思,和積極付諸實行。 </li></ul>
    19. 19. Meditation Gives Brain a Charge <ul><li>Richard Davidson, a neuroscientist at the University of Wisconsin, said that the results unambiguously showed that meditation activated the trained minds of the monks in significantly different ways from those of the volunteers . </li></ul>
    20. 20. Meditation Gives Brain a Charge <ul><li>Most important, the electrodes picked up much greater activation of fast-moving and unusually powerful gamma waves in the monks, and found that the movement of the waves through the brain was far better organized and coordinated than in the students. </li></ul>
    21. 21. “ Buddhists really are happier” <ul><li>Davidson's research is consistent with his earlier work that pinpointed the left prefrontal cortex as a brain region associated with happiness and positive thoughts and emotions. Using functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) on the meditating monks, Davidson found that their brain activity – as measured by the EEG – was especially high in this area. </li></ul>
    22. 22. The concept of neuroplasticity <ul><li>Mental training through meditation (and presumably other disciplines) can itself change the inner workings and circuitry of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What we found is that the trained mind, or brain, is physically different from the untrained one,&quot; he said. In time, &quot;we'll be able to better understand the potential importance of this kind of mental training and increase the likelihood that it will be taken seriously.&quot; </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Practice of Mindfulness: Breathing <ul><li>In/Out 出 / 入 </li></ul><ul><li>Calm/Ease 輕 / 鬆 </li></ul><ul><li>Let it be/Relax 自然 / 安樂 </li></ul><ul><li>Present Moment/Wonderful Moment 一心誠心 </li></ul>
    24. 24. The Practice of Mindfulness: Thoughts and feelings <ul><li>Simply be aware of you thoughts, feelings, perceptions and sensations as they arise. </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to get carried away by them. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Wisdom <ul><li>Wisdom is the ability to know and decide on which thoughts and actions are beneficial and would lead to peace of mind, freedom and happiness. And, which are those thoughts and actions that are harmful and would lead to suffering and entanglement. </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>‘ You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life.’…… Albert Camus( 卡繆 ) </li></ul>

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