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United nations clos

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laws regarding international waters

laws regarding international waters

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United nations clos United nations clos Presentation Transcript

  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
    Laws for the International Waters
  • UNCLOS
    Convention
    Big meeting 1973-1982
  • What does UNCLOS do?
    Defines:
    Rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the worlds oceans
    Guidelines for business
    the environment and the management of marine natural resources
  • This is a little different
    The UN helps support UNCLOS
    Don’t directly implement
    Don’t enforce
  • Who does?
    International Maritime Organization
    International Whaling Commission
    The International Sea Bed Authority
    Created by the UN
  • Freedom of the Seas’
    Before UNCLOS in 1985
    17th century
    National rights 3 nautical miles
    1.15 miles
  • What about the rest of the ocean?
    Outside of the 3 nautical miles
    Free to all nations
    Belonging to no one
  • Early 20th Century
    1900’s
    Many nations wanted to extend the line
    Mineral resources
    Protect fish supplies
    Water pollution
  • 1945
    Truman
    Continental Shelf
  • 1946 - 1950
    Argentina
    Peru
    Chile
    Ecuador
    200 nautical miles
    Other countries extend 12 nm
  • By 1967
    Only 25 nations used the 3 nm guideline
  • 2008
    Only 2 countries use 3nm
    Jordan
    Palau
  • So what does UNCLOS say?
    Sets the base line-----low water mark
  • Internal Waters
    Anything on the landside of the baseline
    Nation is free to set laws
    Use any resource
    Foreign vessels may not enter wo permission
  • Territorial Waters
    Baseline
    12 nm is still territory
    Set laws
    Regulate use
    Use any resource
    Vessels can pass— “innocent passage”
  • Contiguous Zone
    24 nm outside the baseline
    State can enforce laws
    Pollution
    Taxation
    Customs
    immigration
  • Exclusive Economic Zones
    200 nm outside of the baseline
    Sole exploitation rights over all natural resources
    Settle fishing disputes
    Oil drilling rights
    Foreign nations can freely
    Navigate
    Fly over
    Lay submarine pipes & cables