LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM<br />Presentation 6:  <br />By Yvette Gham<br />
The lymphatic and immune system<br />Consist of a network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and tons...
Hodgkin’s Disease<br />It is a type of lymphoma(cancer) originating from lymphocytes.<br />It is named after Thomas Hodgki...
The lymphatic system<br />
Hodgkin’s disease<br />Survival rate is high especially if detected earlier.<br />                                     TYP...
Hodgkin’s disease<br />
TYPES<br />It is associated with EBV infection.<br />3. Lymphocyte rich:  It is rare subtype which shows many features whi...
Causes<br />Specific cause is unknown or multifunctional. <br />Risk factor include:<br />Sex<br />Age ,15-40 and over 55....
Hodgkin’s disease<br />
Hodgkin’s lymphoma, liver involved<br />
Sign and symptoms<br />Night sweat<br />Weight loss<br />Enlargement of one or more lymph node.<br />Splenomegaly: enlarge...
Hodgkin’s lymphoma<br />
Diagnosis<br />Lymph node biopsy<br />Blood test<br />Positron emission tomography(PET) used to detect deposits that do no...
Management <br />Radiation therapy and chemotherapy depending on age and sex.<br />
Sarcoidosis<br />Disease in which swelling or inflammation occur in the lymph node, lungs, liver, skin or other tissues.<b...
Symptoms<br />Shortness of breath<br />Discomfort behind breast bone<br />Abnormal breath sound<br />Fatigue<br />Fever<br...
Symptoms<br />Skin rash<br />Skin lesion<br />Hair loss<br />Headache<br />Seizure<br />Enlargement of lymph glands, liver...
Treatment<br />Symptoms get better without treatment.<br />Corticosteroids<br />Immunosuppressive medication such as azath...
Sarcoidosis <br />
sarcoidosis<br />
Causes<br />Possible causes include:<br />Excess sensitivity to environmental factor<br />Genetics<br />Extreme immune res...
Test and diagnosis<br />Lungs gallium(GA) scan<br />        Biopsies of different tissues to be done<br />Lymph node biops...
Disease may also alter the result of the following lab test<br />CPC.<br />Chem-7 or chem-20.<br />Quantitative immunoglob...
Complication.<br />Osteoporosis<br />Diffusion interstitial pulmonary fibrosis<br />Pulmonary hypertension<br />Fungal lun...
When to contact a doctor.<br />Difficulty breathing.<br />Vision change<br />Palpitation<br />Other symptoms.<br />
Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />It is a tumor caused by human herpes virus 8(HHV8).<br />Originally described by Moritz Kaposi pract...
Classification<br />Indolent disease: this is seen on men from  the Mediterranean region and East European descent.<br />E...
Classification<br />4. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is an aggressive disease in AIDS patients.<br /> Types <br />Classical Ka...
Signs and symptoms<br />Lesions are nodules or blotches<br />May be red, purple, brown, black and papular.<br />May appear...
Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />
Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />
Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />
Treatment and prevention<br />Kissing is a risk factor.<br />Lab test done on organs before transplant.<br /> Causes <br /...
Prevention <br />Safe sexual practices can prevent HIV infection<br />
References <br />www.google.com<br />Human anatomy and physiology by Marieb. 8th edition.<br />Taber’s cyclopedic Medical ...
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Lymphatic and immune system.pptx presention 6

  1. 1. LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM<br />Presentation 6: <br />By Yvette Gham<br />
  2. 2. The lymphatic and immune system<br />Consist of a network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and tonsil.<br />It collects excess fluid throughout and the body and returns it to the circulatory system.<br />It assist the circulatory system in transporting substances throughout the body.<br />It serves as the body primary defense system against invasion of pathogens.<br />
  3. 3. Hodgkin’s Disease<br />It is a type of lymphoma(cancer) originating from lymphocytes.<br />It is named after Thomas Hodgkin who first described abnormality in the lymph system.<br />It is characterized by orderly spread of disease from one lymph node group to another and the development of system symptoms.<br />Treated with radiation and chemotherapy depending on age and sex.<br />
  4. 4. The lymphatic system<br />
  5. 5. Hodgkin’s disease<br />Survival rate is high especially if detected earlier.<br /> TYPES<br />It can be subdivided into 4 pathological subtypes based on Reed- Sternberg cell morphology<br />Nodular sclerosing: it is the most common and composed of tumor nodules showing scattered lacunars.<br />Mixed- cellularity subtype: it is composed of numerous RS cell admixed with numerous inflammatory cells like lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophilsand plasma cells without sclerosis. It <br />
  6. 6. Hodgkin’s disease<br />
  7. 7. TYPES<br />It is associated with EBV infection.<br />3. Lymphocyte rich: It is rare subtype which shows many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte.<br />4. Lymphocyte depleted: it is composed of a large number of RS cells with only few reactive lymphocytes.<br />
  8. 8. Causes<br />Specific cause is unknown or multifunctional. <br />Risk factor include:<br />Sex<br />Age ,15-40 and over 55.<br />Family history<br />Weakened immune system<br />Infection with HIV<br />Prolong use of human growth hormones<br />
  9. 9. Hodgkin’s disease<br />
  10. 10. Hodgkin’s lymphoma, liver involved<br />
  11. 11. Sign and symptoms<br />Night sweat<br />Weight loss<br />Enlargement of one or more lymph node.<br />Splenomegaly: enlargement of spleen.<br />Hepatomegaly: enlargement of liver.<br />pain,.<br />Fever<br />Red -colored patches<br />
  12. 12. Hodgkin’s lymphoma<br />
  13. 13. Diagnosis<br />Lymph node biopsy<br />Blood test<br />Positron emission tomography(PET) used to detect deposits that do not show on CT scanning<br />Gallium scan may be used<br />
  14. 14. Management <br />Radiation therapy and chemotherapy depending on age and sex.<br />
  15. 15. Sarcoidosis<br />Disease in which swelling or inflammation occur in the lymph node, lungs, liver, skin or other tissues.<br /> Symptoms <br />Almost all patients have lungs and chest symptoms.<br />Dry cough<br />
  16. 16. Symptoms<br />Shortness of breath<br />Discomfort behind breast bone<br />Abnormal breath sound<br />Fatigue<br />Fever<br />Weight loss<br />Join pain<br />Skin rash<br />
  17. 17. Symptoms<br />Skin rash<br />Skin lesion<br />Hair loss<br />Headache<br />Seizure<br />Enlargement of lymph glands, liver, spleen<br />Dry mouth<br />
  18. 18. Treatment<br />Symptoms get better without treatment.<br />Corticosteroids<br />Immunosuppressive medication such as azathioprine. <br /> Cause<br />It is unknown.<br />In sac, clumps of abnormal tissue (granulomas) form certain organs of the body<br />
  19. 19. Sarcoidosis <br />
  20. 20. sarcoidosis<br />
  21. 21. Causes<br />Possible causes include:<br />Excess sensitivity to environmental factor<br />Genetics<br />Extreme immune response to infection.<br /> test and diagnosis.<br />Chest x-ray to see if lungs and lymph node s are involved<br />CT scan<br />
  22. 22. Test and diagnosis<br />Lungs gallium(GA) scan<br /> Biopsies of different tissues to be done<br />Lymph node biopsy<br />Skin lesion biopsy<br />Bronchoscopy to perform a biopsy<br />Open lungs biopsy<br />Kidney, liver and heart biopsy<br />
  23. 23. Disease may also alter the result of the following lab test<br />CPC.<br />Chem-7 or chem-20.<br />Quantitative immunoglobulin<br />PTH<br />Serum phosphorus<br />Calcium- urine.<br />Liver function test<br />Calcium ionized<br />
  24. 24. Complication.<br />Osteoporosis<br />Diffusion interstitial pulmonary fibrosis<br />Pulmonary hypertension<br />Fungal lungs infection<br />Anterior uveltis<br />Glaucoma <br />Cranial or peripheral nerve palsies<br />High calcium level<br />Organ failure<br />Kidney stones<br />
  25. 25. When to contact a doctor.<br />Difficulty breathing.<br />Vision change<br />Palpitation<br />Other symptoms.<br />
  26. 26. Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />It is a tumor caused by human herpes virus 8(HHV8).<br />Originally described by Moritz Kaposi practicing in the University of Vienna in 1872.<br />Caused by viral infection.<br /> Classification <br />HHV8is responsible for all variety of Kaposi's sarcoma<br />
  27. 27. Classification<br />Indolent disease: this is seen on men from the Mediterranean region and East European descent.<br />Endemic Kaposi's sarcoma was later described from young African people from sub- Sahara Africa.<br />Transplant related Kaposi's sarcoma has been described. It arises when an HHV8 infected organ is transplanted into someone who has not been exposed to the virus.<br />
  28. 28. Classification<br />4. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is an aggressive disease in AIDS patients.<br /> Types <br />Classical Kaposi's sarcoma<br />African cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma<br />African lymphadenopathic Kaposi's sarcoma<br />AIDS associated with Kaposi's sarcoma<br />Immunosuppression – associated with Kaposi's sarcoma<br />
  29. 29. Signs and symptoms<br />Lesions are nodules or blotches<br />May be red, purple, brown, black and papular.<br />May appear on skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract<br /> Treatment and prevention <br />Blood test to detect antibodies against KSHV have been developed.<br />
  30. 30. Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />
  31. 31. Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />
  32. 32. Kaposi’s sarcoma<br />
  33. 33. Treatment and prevention<br />Kissing is a risk factor.<br />Lab test done on organs before transplant.<br /> Causes <br />Interaction of HIV and weak immune system<br />HHV8<br /> POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS<br />Cough and shortness of breath<br />Leg swelling that may be painful<br />
  34. 34. Prevention <br />Safe sexual practices can prevent HIV infection<br />
  35. 35. References <br />www.google.com<br />Human anatomy and physiology by Marieb. 8th edition.<br />Taber’s cyclopedic Medical Dictionary by F. A Davis company.<br />

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