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Hist2 3 early philippines to 1565


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Philippine History

Philippine History

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  • 2. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines A. Mythological and Legendary
  • 3. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines According to the early Spanish friar-chroniclers: 1. The ancestor of the Filipinos sprang from the soil like wild plants 2. The early Filipinos were created by the sun, their father 3. They were produced from certain base metals by the magic of alchemy 4. They descended from Adam of Asia
  • 4. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines Other popular stories of the origin of the Filipinos are the following: 1. Lalake and Babae or Malakas and Maganda stepped out of a bamboo nodule after a bird had pecked on it.2. A god and a goddess were so lonely that they decided to bake people out of clay. The first and second attempt came overcooked, the black race, and undercooked, the white race. The third attempt was perfectly cooked which came the brown race.
  • 5. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines B. Archaeological and Scientific Theories 1. The “Land Bridge” Theory a. During the Pleistocene or Ice Age, the waters surrounding what is now Philippines fell about 156 feet below, the present level, exposing certain sections of land (land bridges) connected to mainland Asia. b. The land bridges were used by a group of people to reach the Philippines.
  • 6. Land Bridge Theory
  • 7. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines 2. Negritos as the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines a. They moved to the Philippines through land bridges 25,000 to 30,000 years ago (H. Otley Beyer) b. Severely criticized by F. Landa Jocano, because fossils of ancient men showed they also went to New Guinea, Java, Borneo, and Australia but it is uncertain whether or not they were Negritos.
  • 8. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines c. Tabon man, the earliest human fossil remain in the Philippines was discovered in Palawan. It is estimated to be more than 20,000 y.o. It is also uncertain whether or not he was a Negrito.
  • 9. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines 3. Waves of Migration Theory a. People came to the Philippines on waves of migration (Beyer) b. Malays came to the archipelago in three waves from 200 B.C. to about 1500 A.D.
  • 10. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines c. Indonesian settlers had also come in two waves about 3,500 to 5,000 years ago. d. Questioned by Jocano and young anthropologists because of the discovery of Tabon Man who came to the Philippines as early as 21,000 or 22,000 years ago whereas migration to the Malay Peninsula was dated to be around 5,000 B.C. only
  • 11. Theories Concerning the Peopling of the Philippines 4. Long process of evolution a. Theorize by Jocano b. Present Filipinos, Indonesians, and Malays of Malaysia are “end results” of both long process of evolution and later movements of people c. Differences of people are due to differences of their responses to their environment
  • 13. Inter-Island and Intra-Island Trading  Early Filipinos traded among themselves. People in coastal areas bartered with one another and also with those in upland areas  Commercial exchanges between and among islands in the Philippines also developed
  • 14. Relation with the Orang Dampuans, Banjarmasin, Siam, and Tonkin  The Orang Dampuans or Men of Champa from Southern Annam came to the southern past of the Philippines between 900 and 1200 AD where they established trading posts in Sulu.  Men of Banjars from Banjarmasin, Borneo succeeded in putting Sulu under their influence through diplomatic coup. Sulu developed into an emporium.
  • 15. Relation with the Orang Dampuans, Banjarmasin, Siam, and Tonkin  Trade with Siam and Tonkin developed in the middle of 14th century in which they exchanged their porcelain products for Philippine native wares
  • 16. Relation with the Indians and the Chinese  Trade with the Chinese started in the 10th century and reached its zenith in the 14th and 15th centuries.  Chinese writer Chao Ju- Kua, sometime in 1209 and 1214, described the Chinese trade with Ma-i (presumably Mindoro) and praised the honesty of the Filipinos
  • 17. Relation with the Indians and the Chinese  Early Chinese trading junks brought goods and immigrants to the Philippines  Under Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), China exercised suzerainty over the Philippines, and some of the Filipinos paid tribute to China  The last Filipino tribute embassy came to China in 1421
  • 18. Early Relations with the Japanese  Japanese pirates (wako), kingdom builders, and settlers had come to Luzon before and immediately after the Spanish colonization.  Japanese traders, especially from Nagazaki frequently bartered Japanese goods for Filipino gold, pearls, and native earthen jars.  According to Japanese records, the early Spaniards found Japanese settlement in Manila and Agoo, La Union Province
  • 19. Early Relation with the Arabs  In 1380, according to the tarsilas (Muslim chronicle), the Arab missionary-scholar Mudum landed in Sulu and there laid thee foundation of Islam in the Philippines  In 1390, Raja Baginda, prince of Menankabaw, Sumatra, led an army of Muslim invaders to Sulu, and overcame native opposition with firearms
  • 20. Early Relation with the Arabs  Abu Bakr, Muslim leader from Palembang, Sumatra, reached Sulu in 1450 and married the daughter of Rajah Baginda. After Baginda’s death, he founded the Sultanate of Jolo with himself as sultan.  Sharif Kubungsuan, Muslim leader of Johore who landed in Cotabato in 1475, conquered Maguindanao. Married the native princess and founded the first Sultanate of Maguindanao. It is instrumental in the Islamization of Mindanao.
  • 22. Unification of Mindanao and Sulu  Establishment of a common religion.  The founding of sultanate system facilitated the unification of the people  Promoted common language – Arabic.  In the 16th century, it brought about close correspondence between the royal houses of Sulu and Brunei.
  • 23. The Spread of Islam to the Visayas and Luzon  Kingdoms of Rajah Soliman and Rajah Lakandula in Tondo and Manila were under the sway of Islam. Influence also seen Mindoro and Batangas.  If not for the Spaniards, Islam could have established itself in the northern part of the Philippines.
  • 24. Young Moro Men of Zamboanga (1900)
  • 25. The Successful Resistance of the Muslim to Spanish Colonialism  Spaniards failed miserably in controlling Mindanao and Sulu  Alliances were formed among different Muslim groups to fight against the Spaniards  Enmity and animosity further developed between Muslim and Christian Filipinos who helped the Spaniards
  • 26. The present secessionist movement in Mindanao and Sulu, and the protracted conflict between the Philippine Government and the Moro rebels may be understood as partly as offshoot of earlier conflicts between Christians and Muslims.
  • 27. THANK YOU!!