Adjectives and adverbsMany languages, including English, distinguish between adjectives, which qualify nouns andpronouns, and adverbs, which modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Not all languageshave exactly this distinction and many languages, including English, have words that canfunction as both. For example, in English fast is an adjective in "a fast car" (where it qualifiesthe noun car), but an adverb in "he drove fast" (where it modifies the verb drove). In Dutchand German, almost all adjectives are implicitly also adverbs, without any difference in form. DeterminersMain article: Determiner (linguistics)Linguists today distinguish determiners from adjectives, considering them to be two separateparts of speech (or lexical categories), but formerly determiners were considered to beadjectives in some of their uses. In English dictionaries, which typically still do not treatdeterminers as their own part of speech, determiners are often recognizable by being listedboth as adjectives and as pronouns. Determiners are words that are neither nouns norpronouns, yet reference a thing already in context. Determiners generally do this by indicatingdefiniteness (as in a vs. the), quantity (as in one vs. some vs. many), or another such property. Types of useA given occurrence of an adjective can generally be classified into one of four kinds of uses: 1. Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify; for example, happy is an attributive adjective in "happy people". In some languages, attributive adjectives precede their nouns; in others, they follow their nouns; and in yet others, it depends on the adjective, or on the exact relationship of the adjective to the noun. In English, attributive adjectives usually precede their nouns in simple phrases, but often follow their nouns when the adjective is modified or qualified by a phrase acting as an adverb. For example: "I saw three happy kids", and "I saw three kids happy enough to jump up and down with glee." See also Postpositive adjective. 2. Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula or other linking mechanism to the noun or pronoun they modify; for example, happy is a predicate adjective in "they are happy" and in "that made me happy." (See also: Predicative expression, Subject complement.) 3. Absolute adjectives do not belong to a larger construction (aside from a larger adjective phrase), and typically modify either the subject of a sentence or whatever noun or pronoun they are closest to; for example, happy is an absolute adjective in "The boy, happy with his lollipop, did not look where he was going." 4. Nominal adjectives act almost as nouns. One way this can happen is if a noun is elided and an attributive adjective is left behind. In the sentence, "I read two books to them; he preferred the sad book, but she preferred the happy", happy is a nominal adjective, short for "happy one" or "happy book". Another way this can happen is in phrases like "out with the old, in with the new", where "the old" means, "that which is old" or "all that is old", and similarly with "the new". In such cases, the adjective functions either as a mass noun (as in the preceding example) or as a plural count noun, as in "The
meek shall inherit the Earth", where "the meek" means "those who are meek" or "all who are meek". Adjectival phrasesMain article: Adjectival phraseAn adjective acts as the head of an adjectival phrase. In the simplest case, an adjectivalphrase consists solely of the adjective; more complex adjectival phrases may contain one ormore adverbs modifying the adjective ("very strong"), or one or more complements (such as"worth several dollars", "full of toys", or "eager to please"). In English, attributive adjectivalphrases that include complements typically follow their subject ("an evildoer devoid ofredeeming qualities"). Other noun modifiersIn many languages, including English, it is possible for nouns to modify other nouns. Unlikeadjectives, nouns acting as modifiers (called attributive nouns or noun adjuncts) are notpredicative; a beautiful park is beautiful, but a car park is not "car". In plain English, themodifier often indicates origin ("Virginia reel"), purpose ("work clothes"), or semantic patient("man eater"), however, it may generally indicate almost any semantic relationship. It is alsocommon for adjectives to be derived from nouns, as in boyish, birdlike, behavioral, famous,manly, angelic, and so on.Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers. Inmany languages, including English, participles are historically adjectives, and have retainedmost of their original function as such. English examples of this include relieved (the pastparticiple of the verb relieve, used as an adjective in sentences such as "I am so relieved to seeyou"), spoken (as in "the spoken word"), and going (the present participle of the verb go, usedas an adjective in sentences such as "Ten dollars per hour is the going rate").Other constructs that often modify nouns include prepositional phrases (as in "a rebel withouta cause"), relative clauses (as in "the man who wasnt there"), other adjective clauses (as in"the bookstore where he worked"), and infinitive phrases (as in "a cake to die for").In relation, many nouns take complements such as content clauses (as in "the idea that Iwould do that"); these are not commonly considered modifiers, however. Adjective orderIn many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order. In general, theadjective order in English is: 1. general opinion 2. specific opinion 3. size 4. shape 5. age 6. color
7. origin (nationality) 8. materialSo, in English, adjectives pertaining to size precede adjectives pertaining to age ("little old",not "old little"), which in turn generally precede adjectives pertaining to color ("old white",not "white old"). So, we would say "One (quantity) nice (opinion) little (size) old (age) white(color) brick (material) house."This order may be more rigid in some languages than others; in some, like Spanish, it mayonly be a default (unmarked) word order, with other orders being permissible.Due partially to borrowings from French, English has some adjectives that follow the noun aspostmodifiers, called postpositive adjectives, such as time immemorial. Adjectives may evenchange meaning depending on whether they precede or follow, as in proper: They live in aproper town (a real town, not a village) vs. They live in the town proper (in the town itself, notin the suburbs). All adjectives can follow nouns in certain constructions, such as tell mesomething new. Comparison of adjectivesMain articles: Comparison (grammar) and ComparativeIn many languages, adjectives can be compared. In English, for example, we can say that acar is big, that it is bigger than another is, or that it is the biggest car of all. Not all adjectiveslend themselves to comparison, however; for example, the English adjective extinct is notconsidered comparable, in that it does not make sense to describe one species as "moreextinct" than another. However, even most non-comparable English adjectives are stillsometimes compared; for example, one might say that a language about which nothing isknown is "more extinct" than a well-documented language with surviving literature but nospeakers. This is not a comparison of the degree of intensity of the adjective, but rather thedegree to which the object fits the adjectives definition.Comparable adjectives are also known as "gradable" adjectives, because they tend to allowgrading adverbs such as very, rather, and so on.Among languages that allow adjectives to be compared in this way, different approaches areused. Indeed, even within English, two different approaches are used: the suffixes -er and -est,and the words more and most. (In English, the general tendency is for shorter adjectives andadjectives from Anglo-Saxon to use -er and -est, and for longer adjectives and adjectives fromFrench, Latin, Greek, and other languages to use more and most.) By either approach, Englishadjectives therefore have positive forms (big), comparative forms (bigger), and superlativeforms (biggest). However, many other languages do not distinguish comparative fromsuperlative forms.AdverbFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
"Adverbs" redirects here. For the Daniel Handler novel, see Adverbs (novel). Examples I found the film incredibly dull. The meeting went well and the directors were extremely happy with the outcome. Crabs are known for walking sideways. Only members are allowed to enter. I often have eggs for breakfast. However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.An adverb is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb,clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it does not include the adjectives anddeterminers that directly modify nouns. Adverbs are traditionally regarded as one of the partsof speech, although the wide variety of the functions performed by words classed as adverbsmeans that it is hard to treat them as a single uniform category.Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to whatextent?. This function is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single words(i.e., adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.