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Antologia 11 ingles Antologia 11 ingles Document Transcript

  • UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA COORDINACIÓN ACADÉMICA INGLÉS UNDÉCIMO CÓDIGO: 80025 ANTOLOGÍAS CONED 2011
  • El CONED agradece a OLMAN CANTILLO BADILLA por la elección y presentación de los temas de la presente antología, así como el aporte a la educación secundaria a distancia. Las denominaciones empleadas en esta publicación y la forma en que aparecen presentados los datos, no implican de parte del CONED o la UNED juicio alguno sobre la condición jurídica de personas, países, territorios, ciudades o de autoridades. MATERIAL SIN FINES COMERCIALES PARA USO EXCLUSIVO DE ESTUDIANTES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA CONED Dirección General: Clara Vila Santo Domingo Coordinación Académica: Jéssica Ramírez Achoy Coordinación Administrativa: Jéssica Vega Barrientos Asistente Coordinación Académica: Jonathan Soto Coordinación de Inglés: Olman Alfonso Cantillo Badilla Teléfonos 22-58-22-09 / 22-55-30-42 / 22-21-29-95 Página Web: http//www.coned.ac.cr © 2011, CONED. 2
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS. 11º LEVEL. Index. INDEX ................................................................................................................................ 2 I - TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS AND BEHAVIOURS AT THE TABLE ....................................................................... 4 II- TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE ................................................................... 38 III -JOB DEMAND ......................................................................................................... 68 IV -CAREERS ................................................................................................................ 86 V- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ........................................................................ 106 VI- GENDER: MEN’S AND WOMEN’S ROLES ................................................. 146 VII- SENIOR CITIZENS, MINORITY GROUPS ................................................... 169 VIII- MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS ................................................... 176 ANSWER KEY ............................................................................................................ 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 ..................................................................................................... 208 BIBLIOGRAPHY2 ...................................................................................................... 210 DIGITAL LINKS .......................................................................................................... 211 3 View slide
  • FIRST UNIT TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS, AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE. http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOODS, HABITS AND TABLE MANNERS. Functions:  Asking for and giving information about food.  Suggesting someone to do something.  Describing procedures.  Evaluating the results of an action or event. TOPICS: TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Presentation Of Written Pieces Conveying Information About: Types Of Food, Eating Habits And Behaviors At The Table. 4 View slide
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Eating healthy foods is one of the greatest ways you can live healthy and combat developing a disease. Some diseases are genetic and there's not much you can do about that. But others like diabetes 2, lung cancer, and heart disease and might be prevented with the proper diet. Below is a list of healthy foods and some of the body parts they affects. 1. Basil is a great herb to add flavor to just about anything you are cooking, but also has many other benefits that may cause you to add it to your diet. It is known to reduce blood pressure and ease the symptoms of emphysema and bronchitis. Basil also makes a good natural insect repellent when rubbed on your skin. 2. Dietary fibber promotes regularity, helps control caloric intake and promotes weight loss. It may also reduce the risk of certain cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and help people with diabetes control their blood sugar. 5
  • 3. Vegetables and fruits are our most nutrient-dense foods. They contain the greatest amounts of nutrients per calorie of any food. Many nutrients, including the ones that fight against cancer and heart disease are found in fruits and vegetables. 4. Vegetables have fewer sugars than fruits. 5. Spinach is an excellent example of a nutrient-dense vegetable. Spinach provides at least 50 % of the rdi for vitamin a, and about 20% of the rdi for vitamin c. spinach is a good source of iron, calcium, and folate. 6. Asparagus is high in folate content (20 to 50% of rdi per serving). folate is a nutrient identified as being important for pregnant women. 7. Pumpkin is an excellent source of vitamin a (as carotene), providing over 300 percent of the rdi. And canned pumpkin appears to have much more vitamin a than fresh-cooked pumpkin. this may be due to the fact canned pumpkin has more water cooked out of it than boiled pumpkin, and the varieties used for canning have intense orange color, a sure sign of carotene. Pumpkin is a good source of fibber and adds a little iron and folate to the diet as well. 8. Sweet bing cherries are a good source of fibber. They provide about two grams per 1/2 cup serving. 9. Apricots are a great source of beta-carotene, vitamin c, potassium and iron. Apricots are very good sources of vitamin a (as carotene). They provide about 35% of the rdi per serving. 6
  • 10. Apricots are low in calories. 3 apricots only contain 50 calories. 11. Strawberries are a good source of vitamin c. They provide between 35 and 136 percent of the rdi per 1/2 cup serving. Strawberries are also a good source of fibber and iron. They provide about two percent and 3.5 percent respectively per 1/2 cup serving. 12. Soy nuts are high in protein and isoflavones. EXERCISE 1. Read the sentences and mark with an x, the best alternative (a, b, c, d) according to the reading. 1. What is a good diet for? A. to avoid dangerous diseases B. to get dangerous diseases C. to buy dangerous diseases D. to make dangerous diseases. 2. How do people weight loss? A. using a fruit dietary B. using a fibber dietary C. using a fish dietary D. using a sweet dietary 3. What is an excellent source of iron and calcium? A. fruits B. fish C. bread D. spinach 7
  • 4. In what food do people can get carotene? A. bread B. pumpkin C. candies D. water 5. If you need vitamin c, in what food can you get it? A. candies B. spinach C. strawberries D. soy nuts TABLE MANNERS. http://images.google.co.cr/images 1. When you sit down to eat, use a napkin to clean your mouth if necessary. 2. Clean your hands on the tablecloth or your clothes. 3. Put only small pieces of food into your mouth. 4. Eat big pieces of food. You’ll finish faster. 5. Eat with your mouth closed. 6. Don’t close your mouth when you chew. 8
  • EXERCISE 2. 1. Suggestions with the numbers _________ are good table manners. A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and 3 C) 3 and 4 D) 2 and 5 2. Recommendation Nº 6 is considered ______________ in Costa Rica. A) gracious B) impolite C) decent D) funny EXERCISE 3.Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. RICE AND VEGETABLES - 2 cups of rice - 2 Tbsp of cooking oil - 1 Tbsp minced garlic - 1 cup of green peas - 1 Tbsp chopped onions - 4 cups of water - ½ cup of chopped red pepper - 2 cubes of beef - ½ cup of finely chopped carrots - 2 Tbsp of salt Fry the garlic and onion, add the red pepper, carrots and green peas. Remove from heat when all ingredients are fried sufficiently. Add water, beef, salt and rice. Mix and cook until the Multi-Use-Rice cooker turns off automatically. http://images.google.co.cr/images 9
  • 1. In this recipe, you need a half cup each of _______________________. A) water and salt B) rice and onions C) green peas and oil D) red pepper and carrots 2. The first step to follow is to ______________________. A) add pepper B) fry the garlic C) add green peas D) mix the ingredients 3. The recipe needs two vegetables: ________________________. A) salt and oil B) rice and meat C) beef and cubes D) carrots and peas 4. In recipes, ―Tbsp‖ stands for _______________________. A) tiny table spoons B) tablespoons C) total spoons D) teaspoons 5. Once all the ingredients are well fried, they should be _____________ the heat. A) moved away from B) located on C) placed on 10
  • D) put on 6. When the rice is already cooked, ______________________________. A) you put the beef B) you add the water C) the appliance has all the ingredients D) the appliance turns off automatically http://images.google.co.cr/images "Fish and chips" is deep-fried fish in batter with deep-fried potatoes, and a popular takeaway food. Fish and chips is originally from the United Kingdom, but also very popular in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and some coastal towns of the Netherlands and Norway; and also increasingly so in the United States and elsewhere. For decades it was the dominant (if not the only) take-away food in the United Kingdom. The fried potatoes are called chips in British and international usage; and while American English calls them French fries, the combination is still called "fish and chips". (Potato chips, an American innovation, are a different potato-derived food, and are known as crisps in the United Kingdom.) Fish and chips have separately been eaten for many years – though the potato was not introduced to Europe until the 17th century. The originally Sephardi dish Pescado frito, or deep-fried fish, came to Netherlands and England with the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in the 17th and 18th centuries. The dish became popular in more widespread circles in London and the south-east in the middle of the 19th century (Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in Oliver 11
  • Twist) whilst in the north of England a trade in deep-fried "chipped" potatoes developed. It is unclear when and where these two trades were merged to become the fish and chip shop industry we know today. The first combined fish and chip shop was probably the one opened in London by Joseph Malin in 1860. During World War II, fish and chips were one of the few foods that were not rationed in the UK. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Fish and chips". You can explore more on the Wikipedia website. The text and the images are used here only for educational purposes. EXERCISE 4. 1. Fish and chips are popular only in England. True. False. We don't know. 2. Americans call "French fries" what British call "chips". True. False. We don't know. 3. Americans call "chips" what British call "crisps". True. False. We don't know. 12
  • 4. The potato was introduced to Europe in the 18th century. True. False. We don't know. 6. The dish became popular in the 19th century. True. False. We don't know. 6. The first fish and chip shop was opened in the 19th century. True. False. We don't know. 7. Fish and chips were not eaten during World War II. True. False. We don't know 13
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images When it comes to potentially lethal eating disorders, adolescent girls are the highest risk category. Many simply don't survive and while 28-year-old-basque writer espido freire lived to tell the story - literally – of her seven-year-fight with the binge-and-purge eating disorder bulimia, the experience has left her scarred for life. in her new book cuando comer es un infierno, released yesterday, freire painfully retraces those seven long years because, as she says, "if a writer isn't able to lend a voice to those who aren't capable of expressing themselves, then part of their vocation has been lost." according to freire, cuando comer es un inferno "offers a realistic and personal view of bulimia - the seven years of suffering and the strength it took to get over them." arriving at barajas airport earlier this week from scotland, where she has spent the last two months as a visiting writer to various universities, freire headed straight for her home in Madrid but couldn't avoid noticing the billboards filled with skinny models advertising next season's fashion on the road home. They immediately reminded her of her book and the exhaustion she felt after writing about the darkest period of her life. Freire has a strong desire to tell her story - but still, she warns, she doesn't want to become a poster girl for bulimia. she doesn't just have that story to tell, she stresses. As a writer, she was the youngest-ever winner of the planeta award with her second novel melocotones helados in 1998. Her first two books were works of fiction but now, in cuando comer es un infierno, she has gone down the autobiographical road to recount, with some bitterness, her difficult adolescence - cataloguing her terrible daily battles with the weighing scales. (EL PAIS English edition with the International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2002) 14
  • EXERCISE 5.Read the text and answer the following questions: 1. Guessing vocabulary from context. Read each definition below and choose the word from the list that matches the definition. There are two left. Lethal, scarred, released, retraces, headed, skinny, bitterness. (a) Very thin: ________________ (b) Went, moved in a particular direction: ___________________ (c) Marked, wounded: __________________________ (d) Anger, resentment: ___________________________ made available to the public: _______________________ EXERCISE 6. (PERSONAL ANSWERS)Answer the following questions according to the text. Try to use your own words. (a) Why is bulimia defined as a deadly eating disorder? ______________________________________________________________ (b) What did Freire think when she saw the billboards with skinny models? ______________________________________________________________ (c) What literary prize did Freire received for one of her books? ______________________________________________________________ (d) How does Cuando comer es un inferno differ from Freire's previous two books) ______________________________________________________________ 15
  • EXERCISE 7. Rewrite the following sentences maintaining the same meaning. (a) While Espido Freire lived to tell the story of her bulimia, the experience has left her scarred for life. (However) __________________________________________________________ (b) According to Freire, Cuando comer es un infierno "offers a realistic and personal view of Bulimia." (Freire says ....) __________________________________________________________ (c) Freire has spent the last two months as a visiting writer to various universities. (For) ___________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 8. Complete the following paragraph with the correct form of the verb in brackets. In order to write Cuando comer es un infierno, Freire____________________ (1. have) to relive her own difficult past. She also ____________________ (2. Listen) to 20 case histories from other bulimics, some ____________________ (3. tell) to her directly, others over the Internet, and some via telephone. In one of the book chapters, Freire ____________________(4. Describe) her life after the eating disorder. "For almost the last eight years, I____________________ (5. Live) an absolutely normal life," she says. http://images.google.co.cr/images 16
  • British food best in the world. http://images.google.co.cr/images A British restaurant that serves bacon and egg ice cream has been voted the best place in the world to eat in Restaurant magazine’s list of The World’s 50 Best Restaurants. The Fat Duck restaurant, which was runner-up last year, claimed the coveted top spot. Owner and head chef Heston Blumenthal opened his restaurant ten years ago and soon developed a reputation for highly experimental and unorthodox dishes. The menu includes leather, oak and tobacco chocolates, sardine on toast sorbet, snail porridge, and mousse dipped in liquid nitrogen. He is self-taught and has pioneered the art of “molecular gastronomy” experiments with chemistry, physics, food and flavour that result in unique and unusual taste combinations. Nearly 600 international restaurant owners, chefs and journalists participated in the poll to rank the best restaurants worldwide. A further thirteen British restaurants made it onto the elite eateries list, four in the top ten. This gives the home of fish and chips an unusual reputation as a culinary paradise. Britain is infamous for its bland and uninspiring food, which is scoffed at by the more sophisticated palates of its French neighbours. However, it seems the tide is turning: France had only eight restaurants in the top fifty and London was named in March by Gourmet magazine as the Gourmet Capital of the World. Ella Johnston, editor of Restaurant magazine, said British people are now “becoming more adventurous eaters”. 17
  • QUESTIONS. EXERCISE 9. (PERSONAL ANSWERS).Answer the following questions using your own words. a. Did Blumenthal go to a cooking school in the past? _________________________________________________ b. How does Blumenthal get these original tastes? _________________________________________________ EXERCISE 10. Are the following statements True or False? a. France had only eight restaurants in the top fifty _________________ b. All the judges that participated in the poll were British: _______________ EXERCISE 11. Find a word or expression in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: a. Tasteless: _______________ b. Prized: _______________ EXERCISE 12. Choose a, b, or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct. ―Last year, the restaurant mentioned in the text was voted...‖ A. in the third position. B. in the second position. 18
  • C. in the first position. ―Tobacco is important in this restaurant because...‖ A. you can smoke it. B. you can eat it. C. you can chew it. ―Great Britain has always been famous for‖ A. its bad food. B. its good food. C. its good cuisine. McDonald’s boss dies suddenly. http://images.google.co.cr/images The Chief executive of McDonald’s, the world’s largest fast-food chain, has died from a suspected heart attack. Jim Cantalupo, 60, was taken ill during a meeting of franchise owners in Orlando, Florida, the company said. His death is a severe blow to McDonald’s at a time when the chain is trying to shed its image as a supplier of high-fat, high-salt and high-sugar food. In his 16 months at the helm, Mr Cantalupo turned the company’s fortunes round. As well as slowing its breakneck expansion programme and closing hundreds of under-performing 19
  • outlets, he tried to address criticisms that McDonald’s was contributing to the obesity epidemic in the US and Europe. When Mr Cantalupo became chairman and chief executive in January last year after a management shake-up, Mc Donald’s was in the doldrums. Changing tastes, the mad cow disease scare and the perception that its menu was tired had hit sales, particularly in Europe and Asia. In December 2002, McDonald’s went into the red for the first time in its 48-year history. Mr Cantalupo, a former vice-chairman and president, who had retired a year earlier, was brought back as the new boss. TAKEN FROM: http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/mcdonaldsboss.pdf EXERCISE 13. Answer the following questions using your own words. a. What impression do people have about McDonald’s food? ___________________________________________________________________ b. What did Mr Cantalupo achieve in the 16 months he was in charge of McDonald’s? ___________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 14. Are the following statements True or false? a. Mr Cantalupo felt ill while meeting with French clients in Orlando.__________ b. Mr Cantalupo was already retired when he became McDonald’s boss again. __________ EXERCISE 15. Find a word or expression in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: a. A group of shops or restaurants owned by the same company: _____________________________________________________________________ b. Provider: _____________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 16. Choose a, b, or c, in each question below. Only one choice is correct 1. In order to save the company Mr Cantalupo tried to a. promote the company’s fast expansion. b. defend the company from accusations of contributing to obesity. c. change people’s tastes. 20
  • 2. Mr Cantalupo a. broke his neck in Orlando. b. worked for the company for 48 years. c. had been McDonald’s president before. 3. McDonald’s sales had declined specially in Europe and Asia due to a. scare mad cows. b. a change in people’s food preferences. c. a change in McDonald’s menu. 4. In December 2002 McDonald’s a. was in debt for the first time in its history. b. was furious with Mr Cantalupo. c. forced Mr Cantalupo to retire. EXERCISE 17. Composition. What are the advantages or disadvantages of fast food? Give reasons. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ TAKEN FROM: http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/mcdonaldsboss.pdf http://images.google.co.cr/images 21
  • Fast food is good for you. Not only fast food is delicious, it is also nutritional. Fast food contains many of the nutrients all human beings require to lead active, healthy lives. Some fast food also, contains vitamins, and everybody knows how important vitamins are. Fast food comes in many forms. The most common kinds of fast food are hamburgers and hot dogs, but there are many other varieties. Fish and chips have been popular in England for centuries, and now Americans too are enjoying this wonderful, nutritional delicacy. If we take a little time to examine the history of fast food we can learn a lot about many different cultures. For instance, did you know that a Chinaman invented pizza? There are many people who feel that fast food is not good for you. They have a right to their opinions, because America is a free country, but they are wrong. They are wrong because fast food is good for you. EXERCISE 18. After reading the above passage, read the following sentences and mark with a ―X‖ the best option (a, b, c, d) 1. A good title for this passage would be: a) America, Land of the Free. b) Foods of the World. c) The Truth about Pizza. d) Eating Sensibly. 2. The main idea of this passage is: a) Fast food is good for you. b) Vitamins are important. c) Free speech is an important right which many people abuse. d) You can have your cake and eat it too. 22
  • 3. Fast food contains: a) Nutrients. b) Vitamins. c) Fish and chips. d) Many different cultures. 4. America is a free country because: a) Ignorant people have the right to their opinions. b) Fast food is good for you. c) Fast food is free. d) Americans can eat other people's food. This was originally published in Condensed Book, along with other reading comprehension quizzes. It was, of course, inspired by the educational materials of my Cold War youth. TAKEN FROM: http://petercherches.blogspot.com/2006/12/reading-comprehension.html 23
  • Table manners. http://images.google.co.cr/images Your youngsters may know how to sit still, use a napkin, and how to cut with a knife and fork, but do they really know proper table manners? The holidays, weddings, anniversary celebrations, school dances, and other social events are prime occasions for kids to demonstrate appropriate table manners. However, far too many parents somehow assume that their kids will know how to act, what to do (and not to do), and how to exhibit proper table manners--only to be embarrassed by a youngster's double-dipping, slurping, or demonstrations of finger-lickin' good! You've taught them most everything they know up to now, so take time and teach them table manners basics that will dazzle at the next occasion. Here's how to get started:  Teach kids how to greet relatives and guests. Many kids simply don't know what to say or the appropriate action to take. If the occasion is at your home or you're serving as host, instruct your kids about properly opening the door and taking any coats. (Show them how to hold them and not to roll them up in a wad.) Teach them how to properly shake hands and how to appropriately hug relatives, especially elderly or individuals with disabilities.  If you're serving appetizers, ask your youngsters to act as a host/hostess. Instruct them what to ask, how to not interrupt conversations, and to tell them what the choice is. If they are on the receiving end of an offering of hors d'oeuvres, be sure to tell them how to say hors du'oeuvres and what it means to avoid the normal kid reaction of "what's that?" Instruct them how to take one or how to graciously refuse. If it is an item that  sounds unappetizing to a kid's palate (and many do), tell them to simply decline without offering any commentary about how it looks, smells, or seems to taste. 24
  •  At the table, show them how to pull out a seat for a guest and to hold it and help them scoot to the table. Boys can do this for ladies or girls, and boys or girls can do the same for older guests as a sign of respect.  Teach kids how to place the napkin in the lap and how to sit up straight and near the table. Be sure to let youngsters know not to plop their elbows on the table.  Practice table manners such as passing food, asking for something rather than reaching across the table to get it (and risk spilling a drink or worse), and to take only as much as they know they'll eat. The proper table manners protocol is to pass food from left to right (counterclockwise).  Talk with kids about how tables are set up, where forks, knives and spoons go, why sometimes there are utensils above the plates and what particular order means (using the outside utensil first). Emphasize that proper table manners are for everyone to be served and the host/hostess to pick up a fork to begin eating.  Talk about the no-no's of "double-dipping," slurping, licking fingers, or the evertempting dragging a finger across the side of an item to taste it (i.e. icing on the cake).  Practice sitting up straight and not hunched over, and remind them to bring food from their plate to their mouth and not hunker down over it.  Explain bread etiquette and how bread plates are positioned to the upper left of a dinner plate. Kids need to learn not to butter the entire piece of bread; rather, butter is placed on the bread place, and then a bite-sized piece is to be buttered only. Explain how some breads are to be "torn off" with your hands while other types may need to be cut. Younger kids won't be apt to understand the differences, but older ones should be able to make a distinction.  Practice napkin use about how they should wipe their mouth appropriately, and where to put the napkin if they need to get up or go to the bathroom. Taken from: http://childcare.about.com/od/behaviors/a/tablemanners.htm EXERCISE 19. After reading the text above, make a written report about table manners, according to the passage; try to use your own words. 25
  • Table manners. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images EXERCISE 20. Read the text and choose the correct alternative to answer the questions. 26
  • HONEY BUTTER FROSTING. Procedures: You will need: Beat the butter, which should be at room temperature, until 3 oz (85g) butter soft but not oily. 7 oz (200g) icing sugar 1 tbsp honey 1 tbsp lemon juice Gradually, shift in about 6 oz (170g) icing sugar. Mix well 1 sponge cake Add the honey and beat again. Add the lemon juice and beat again. Take the sponge cake you bought or baked (or other cake suitable for frosting) http://images.google.co.cr/images Carefully cut the cake into two layers. Spread your frosting on top of the bottom layer. Put the top layer back on and sprinkle icing sugar over the cake. Taken from Play and Learn 1. How many ingredients do you beat when preparing the frosting? ____________ . A) All of them B) None of them C) Four ingredients D) Only two ingredients 27
  • 2. What kind of texture should the butter have? ______________ . A) Liquid B) Juicy C) Soft D) Icy 3. Which ingredient is used at two different moments in the recipe? __________ . A) Lemon juice B) Icing sugar C) Honey D) Butter EXERCISE 21. Read the article and choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence. FAST FOOD. Fast food is the food people sell in many inexpensive restaurants. The food is called ―fast‖ because you get it quickly. Often, you can go in the restaurant, order your food, eat it, and leave the place, all in 20 minutes. The kind of food you get in fast food restaurants is hamburgers, cheeseburgers, hot dogs, French fries, and fried chicken. Other kinds of fast food like the pizza are not prepared so fast. To drink, you get sodas or milkshakes. Since families like to come to these restaurants, they are also called family restaurants. Fast food is a big business in the United States and many countries because it’s cheap, fast and popular. Every day, more than 48 million people visit these restaurants. They are, mainly, people who don’t have time to cook at home. In the past, fast food restaurants worked from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., so they were a good choice for lunch, a coffee break or dinner. At present, most of them are usually open 24 hours which includes snack breaks and breakfast. Business people say that one important aspect about fast food restaurants is that they have the chance of buying the food in the restaurant, but eating it somewhere else. That’s called the ―to go service.‖ Another possibility is to stay home and order by means of the ―express service.‖ Taken from PRISM. 28
  • 1. Another name people give to fast food restaurants is _____________ restaurants. A) expensive B) business C) popular D) family 2. It is impossible to order ______________, eat it, and leave the restaurant, all in 20 minutes. A) a cheeseburger B) fried chicken C) a hot dog D) a pizza 3. In the past, it was impossible to enjoy ____________ in a fast food restaurant. A) lunch B) dinner C) breakfast D) a coffee break 4. People can use _________________ if their time is too limited to stay in the restaurant. A) the family B) a good excuse C) a big business D) the ―to go service‖ 5. In the past, fast food restaurants had a shorter ____________________. A) soda B) schedule C) kind of food D) breakfast time 29
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Lasagna comes from Italy. It is made of pasta, meat, tomato sauce and cheese. Sometimes, people add eggplant. Omelet is popular in the UK. You can mix ham, onions, leeks and asparagus into the egg to make a delicious omelet. Sweet and sour pork is from China. In this dish, there are small pieces of pork, mixed with sugar, onion, garlic, pineapple and soy sauce. The sauce tastes very sweet. Curry comes from India and Thailand. You can use different meats and vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower. http://www.esl-galaxy.com/reading/World%20Food%20maze.pdf EXERCISE 22. Questions. 1. Where does lasagna come from? _____________________________________ 2. What is it made of? _____________________________________ 3. Where is omelet popular? ______________________________________ 4. What can you mix to make a delicious omelet? ______________________________________ 30
  • 5. Where is sweet and sour pork from? ______________________________________ 6. What is the dish made of? ______________________________________ 7. Where does curry come from? ______________________________________ 8. What different things can you put in curry? ______________________________________ Costa Rica food. http://images.google.co.cr/images You'd think with the thousands of miles of coastline available and the country's heavy exportation of shrimp and lobster that these items would be amongst the most inexpensive when considering food from Costa Rica. But you'd be wrong. Pick either of these delicacies on the menu with caution, since they are often pricy and prepared listlessly. If you visit soon, you may still be able to take advantage of the free appetizers still offered in some Costa Rican bars. Once found in nearly every location, the opportunity to get some free food (with drink order, of course) is diminishing, with many bars now charging normal prices for items such as fried plantains, minced pear with corn, tamales and fried yuca. But any budget traveler can expound on the beauty of a free meal - so ask around, most locals are happy to point you in the right direction. 31
  • Food from Costa Rica is not for the health conscious, obviously, but there are still a few things for those who shun large portions of meat or fried foods. Untold amounts of wealth have been derived from the country's banana and coffee exports, and for good reason. The bananas here are nothing like you've had before, and none of the other abundant tropical fruits found here are likely to disappoint. Mangoes are one of the most popular foods in Costa Rica, along with pineapples, papayas and a variety of melons. The coffee, however, is served extremely haphazardly throughout the country. Since the highest quality coffee is usually set aside for export, this beverage is all over the map in terms of taste and preparation. If the cafe you're in serves their coffee weak and sugary, go down a few blocks and you will likely find the exact opposite. The finest drink to go along with Costa Rica foods is called Horchata, a rice drink mixed with cinnamon and sugar, with emphasis on the cinnamon. Wildly popular throughout all of Central America, one taste and you'll know exactly why. http://www.destination360.com/central-america/costa-rica/dining EXERCISE 23. Answer the following questions about the reading, use long answers. 1. What happens if you visit soon, some of the bars in Costa Rica? _____________________________________________________ 2. How is food from Costa Rica? ______________________________________________________ 3. What about the coffee? ______________________________________________________ 4. Can you write what horchata is? ______________________________________________________ 32
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Breakfast. Tom wants to eat breakfast. He goes to the restaurant. He is hungry. He orders a slice of pizza, a cup of tea and a carton of milk. The waiter asks Tom if he wants something else. Tom says, he wants a piece of cheese and a bowl of soup. Tom eats all his food and pays the bill. He is full now. He goes to work. http://www.esl-galaxy.com/reading.html EXERCISE 24. Answer the following questions: 1. Where does Tom go? _________________________________ 2. What does he order? __________________________________ 3. What does the waiter ask him? ___________________________ 4. How does Tom feel after eating? _________________________ 33
  • 5. Where does Tom go after eating? ________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images At the Restaurant – Ordering food. http://images.google.co.cr/images EXERCISE 25.With the following scrambled words, make a good question or an affirmative sentence. 1. Ready Are you order? To __________________________________________ 2. I'd like a soup. Yes. A small onion soup. __________________________________________ 3. the want I also sandwich. chicken __________________________________________ 4. want Do drink ? you to something 34
  • __________________________________________ 5. tea, Yes. some like I'd please, __________________________________________ 6. What for you? get can I __________________________________________ 7. large a of bottle I'd like beer. __________________________________________ 8. . a I'd large like salad. __________________________________________ 9. like Would cream? ice you __________________________________________ 10. french you want ? Do fries __________________________________________ http://www.esl-galaxy.com/writing/new/At%20the%20Restaurant.pdf EXERCISE 26. FOOD EXERCISE VOCABULARY. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE APPROPIATE WORD FROM THE BOX. A. B. C. ____________________________________ __________________________________________ ______________________________________ 35
  • D. ______________________________________ E. _______________________________________ F. _______________________________________ G. _____________________________________ H. I. J. ___________________________________ _____________________________________ ________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images http://www.angelfire.com/pq/pic/pic9.html /A BANANA. /A PUMPKIN / AN EGG / A COOK /AN APPLE / BEANS / CHESSE / A GLASS OF JUICE / A COFFEE / MUSHROOMS/ 36
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images SECOND UNIT TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE. http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS RELATED TO WORLWIDE TOURISM. Functions:  Identification of news, brief items, and non factual materials about tourism.  Use of some advice and reports about tourism including current issues of tourism.  Evaluation of content related to tourism, etc.  Identification and validation of different aspects related to tourism.  Identification of relations between ideas within texts related to tourism TOPIC: worldwide tourism. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Identification of registers and evaluation of content.  Identification of main points, ideas or important information.texts, ideas etc.  Identification and use of cognates and derivatives. 37
  • Taming the tourists. http://images.google.co.cr/images The era of mass tourism in the mountain regions of industrialized countries began soon after World War II. This new phenomenon was a result of many factors, including increases in urban populations, income, vacation time, and mobility. Today, in the era of cheap, global air travel, almost no mountains in any corner of the world are out of reach. Moreover, `adventure tourists' and `ecotourists' are willing to pay well, and their money is very welcome to poor governments and communities. Although stories about the problems caused by tourism have become increasingly frequent in recent years, it is not necessarily a destructive force. The situation could be far better if tour operators and legislators considered how best to integrate tourism into the existing culture, with a minimal impact on the environment, and without host countries becoming too dependent on it. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution, because people's desire to see new places will not just disappear. But the real key to the problem lies in giving indigenous communities greater control over the rate at which tourism grows, and the paths it takes. Encouragingly, more and more communities are demonstrating that, with firm decision-making, this is possible. http://www.angelfire.com/pq/pic/pic9.html EXERCISE 27.(PERSONAL ANSWERS) Answer the following questions using your own words. a) Why did mass tourism in the mountains begin? ___________________________________________________________ b) According to the text, what is the principal way to reduce the negative effects of ecotourism? ___________________________________________________________ 38
  • EXERCISE 28. Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)? a) There are still a lot of inaccessible areas in the mountains. ( ) b) Some people are controlling the growth of tourism in their communities. ( ) EXERCISE 29. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: a) Inexpensive __________________________ b) Increases ____________________________ EXERCISE 30. Choose a, b, or c, in each question below. Only one choice is correct. 1. Mass tourism in the mountains... a) Was a result of World War II. b) Occurred partly because people had more money. c) Helped to improve income and mobility. 2. Nowadays, mountain communities... a) Are happy to receive money from tourism. b) See tourism as an impossible problem. c) Are willing to pay well to visit new destinations. 39
  • 3. Tourism is not necessarily a problem if... a) It is integrated into the local culture. b) It is not accepted by the community but integrated into its culture. c) It can be avoided, causing minimal impact on the environment. 4. According to the text, we need to... a) Reduce people's desire to see new places. b) Restrict tourism in rural areas. c) Control the growth of tourism and how it develops. http://images.google.co.cr/images 40
  • Tourism. http://images.google.co.cr/images Tourist attractions are places of evoking interest which are impregnated with a high degree of historical significance as well as cultural value including original or built and is beautiful. These may also be the places evincing amusement opportunities. some instances of tourist attractions are historical places, zoos, museums, aquaria, buildings as well as structures, botanical gardens, forests, national parts, national and international railways, airways, theme parks, cultural pageants, carnivals, as well as exhibits of defense services including cultural events. Tourist attractions may include imaginary descriptions of various events happening in the country with their pictures as well as these descriptions will enable giving the desired fillip to these tourist attractions by viewers from worldwide. These can be exhibited in the form of exhibitions or trade fairs which will take care of all these attractions and its viewer ships. There can be a stall on the various ethnic communities prevailing in the country as well as their activities and their cultural values as well as hobbies. These will impregnate these exhibitions with the other forms of exhibits as outlined above to attract large viewer ships from worldwide. For these tourist attractions, a lot of promotional brochures and detailed informations from diverse activities outlined above can be provided to viewers for their easy viewing and also 41
  • appreciating the cultural heritage behind it for the purposes of enlightenment of knowledge on all round basis. These can be supplemented by a plethora of fast food restaurants, hotels, motels, or lobbies, and lounges. These tourist attractions can also include various memorials of top dignitaries which will enable proper assembling as well as assimilations of various subjects from varieties of angles for nurturing these tastes, choices, and preferences. Many companies can design a lot of brochures, plan, advertising activities, as well as bring about a whole range of products and services which will enable proper pricing of their goods and services from the point of view of making seasonal sales and marketing efforts for driving business growth and profitability. These tourist attractions places are also known as traps of tourists for the purposes of constructive marketing. To conclude, worldwide there are plenty of tourist attractions places which cannot be visited in one visit at a time. Therefore, you will have to plan meticulously your travel plans as well as your budget, from time to time, to visit all these places to entertain yourself as well as your families. There are a lot of travel agents who are interested in organizing your trips to all these places and such agents should be tapped. http://www.angelfire.com/pq/pic/pic9.html EXERCISE 31. Read the following questions and mark with an ―x‖ the correct option (a, b, c, d) according to the reading. 1. What are some examples of tourist attractions worldwide? A. museums, international railways and national parks. B. international railways, zoos and religious activities. C. zoos, historical places and homemade food. D. cultural pageants, a parrot and national railways. 42
  • 2. How can people get information about tourist attractions worldwide? A. eating homemade food at home. B. reading their special recipe. C. watching special issues in magazines. D. buying food at the corner store. 3. What is a tourist trap for? A. For the specific purpose of being happy. B. for the specific purpose of making marketing. C. for the specific purpose of doing food. D. for the specific purpose of drinking water. 4. Can people visit tourist attractions places in one visit at a time? A. no, they do not do it. B. no, they will not do it. C. no, they would not do it. D. no, they can not do it. 43
  • 5. Who is interested in making trips to tourist places worldwide? A. All the people worldwide. B. All the travel agents. C. All the teachers worldwide E.All the musicians worldwide. Eiffel Tower. • • • • • • This is a very famous land mark worldwide, it is in Paris downtown, France. It is named: Eiffel Tower , you can get to the top using an elevator or stairs. When you are onthe top, you have a beautiful view of Paris and the Seine river. This land mark was built with the tinking of a very important engineer , named : gustave eiffel . The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Now days is a famous icon in the world of tourism. 1 44
  • EXERCISE 32. France • Writing: Write a short paragraph about France. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Answer the following questions, use long answers. 1.Why is it The Eiffel tower a fomous landmark worldwide? 2.Write some important facts about this landmark. 3.Would you like to visit France and visit this monument ? Explain why 1 This glass pyramid is in the entrance of the famous Luovre Museum in Paris. The pyramid was build to conmemorate the year 2000 http://images.google.co.cr/images 45 1
  • EXERCISE 33. France ANSWER THE QUESTIONS,USE LONG ANSWERS. 1.Where is The Louvre museum ? 2.What is The louvre museum famous worlwide for ? 3.Do you like to go to see this famous museum ? 1 46
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Tourism worldwide. Around the world, there are many man-made constructions that are considered famous landmarks. Some, like the Great Wall of China, are leftovers from the seven wonders of the ancient world. Others, like Big Ben in London, are more modern than the wall, but still of significant historic importance. Most designate something about their country of origin that the world wants to remember. In France, with a rich history of culture and art, among the most famous landmarks are the Louvre art museum and the Eiffel tower. Marvels of ancient science including the pyramids in Egypt and the great sphinx as well as the aqueducts and great coliseum are among the most famous landmarks in the world. Other historical and famous landmarks include the Parthenon in Greece, red square in Moscow, and Westminster abbey in London. In recent years, sites have also become famous landmarks because they remind the world of the atrocities that occurred there including tienamen square in china and Auschwitz in Germany. Famous landmarks across the world sometimes become famous because of the developments to international society that occur there, as with the United Nations building in New York City. Or, it becomes a landmark because society never wants to forget the tragedy and horror of a location, like many battlefields, ground zero in New York City and the Nazi prison camps in Germany. 47
  • Other famous landmarks are famous simply because they exist and are different from other parts of the world. The Grand Canyon, redwood forests in California, the la brea tar pits and various meteor craters around the world fall into this category. These sites are world-famous landmarks because they represent an element of nature not seen often in the remainder of the world. In the United States, famous landmarks also include monuments made to the nation’s history and progress. among the most famous are those surrounding Washington D.C., the Vietnam wall, the Lincoln, Washington and Jefferson memorials, Arlington national cemetery, the national cathedral and, of course, the government buildings including the white house, the U.S. capitol and the pentagon. Outside of Washington, D.C., landmarks tend to be tied to the history of the region more so than the entire nation, with some notable exceptions including the statue of liberty in New York. For example, one of the most famous national landmarks in the midwest is the arch in st. Louis. The arch was constructed in the 20th century to commemorate the nation’s movement toward westward expansion and the role of the Mississippi river and st. Louis as the gateway to the west. T 115 48
  • EXERCISE 34. Mark with an ―x‖ the correct option (a,b,c,d) according to the text 1. Are there many landmarks worldwide? A. Yes, there is. B. yes, they are. C. yes, there are. D. yes there does. 2. Two examples of landmarks in France are: A. Eiffel tower and Louvre museum. B. Eiffel tower and Great Wall of China. C. Louvre museum and art museum. D .Louvre museum and Nile River. 3. Why is the grant canyon a landmark? A. Because it is nice. B. Because it is long. C. Because it represents Nature.. D.Because it is in Usa. 4. Are meteor craters land marks? 49
  • a. Yes, there are. b. yes, there is. c. yes, there does. d.yes, they are. 5. When was constructed the arck? a.In the twenty-one century. b.In the twenty century. c.In the twelve century. d.In the twenty first century. Going to Japan. To enter Japan, visas are not required for tourists or business visitors of many nationalities for stays of not more than 90 days. Travellers from Germany, Ireland or Mexico can stay up to six months without a visa. Travellers from Canada, France, Italy and the Usa can stay up to three months. South African and Australian visitors cannot enter without a visa. Passport and return tickets are required to get a visa. Visas are free. Taken from prism 50
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images EXERCISE 35. Mark with an ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1. Italian and French tourists can stay in Japan for _______________________. A) Six months. B) three months. C) ninety months. D) more than ninety days 2. Visitors have to ______________________ in order to get a visa A) Pay some money. B) Stay more than six months. C) Stay less than three months. D) Present their passport and return ticket. 51
  • 3. People from Australia _________________________. A) Can stay without their visas. B) Pay for a business visa. C) Always need a visa D) Never need a visa 4. Would you like to visit Japan? A. Yes, I do B. Yes,I am C. Yes,I was D. Yes,I did 52
  • JOIN A PHOTOGRAPHIC SAFARI IN KENYA http://images.google.co.cr/images Choose a vacation that provides you with memories you’ll treasure for a lifetime. Our photographic safaris, which last two weeks, are designed for different levels of expertise. A beginner? Land package A: $ 2,500. For your first safari experience, choose the package which includes the most comfortable accommodations available, deliciously prepared meals, motor transportation, guides and an expert photographer to advise you. Experienced? Land package B: $1,800. For your next safari experience, choose the package that provides you with a true challenge! You’ll build your own shelter, prepare your own food, and track your animals on foot. Guide included. Call Adventure Travel Service at 1-800-555-8452 today. Our agents are available for consultation from 9 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. every day except on Sunday. Adapted from Grammar Strategies and Practice. 53
  • EXERCISE 36.Mark with an ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1- The tour company offers tours according to the __________________. A) guides’ work B) prices of the tours C) length of the tours D) experience of the traveler 2- Package A will include ________________________. A) adequate accommodation B) building your own shelter C) tracking animals on foot D) just air transportation 3- One difference between packages A and B is _____________. A) the currency used to pay B) the company in charge C) the included guides D) the price 4-If you are interested in getting information, you should call ___________________. A) before 7:00 p.m. on weekdays B) Any time after 7:00 p.m. C) before 9 a.m. D) on Sunday http://images.google.co.cr/images 54
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Dan’s latest adventures in South Africa. Hola hola! So I figured this would be a good email to send considering today and yesterday have been two of the most Interesting and intense days at the Treatment Action Campaign, which is my internship. Yesterday I arrived to be reminded that the executive of UNAIDS was speaking in Khayelitsha. This was a huge deal because UNAIDS is a powerful international org. which I think is based in Geneva and the fact that he was coming to speak in one of the poorest districts in Cape Town first got everyone excited and riled up. Before it started I tried to stay out of the way of the busy people in my office or offer some help. I ended up being asked to highlight some files which was more busy work than anything else. However, I left early to get into the big tent that had been set up and was surprised to see an extremely well organized set up. TAC is an AIDS activist organization and they have a new set of shirts yearly which they give out at demonstrations or rallies. Around the stage they had set up the old and new shirts and it was interesting to be able to see the issues that had changed from year to year just by looking at the text on a shirt. I sat in the 2nd row next to a journalist (media was all over the place). Finally, the woman running the speaking introduced everyone and made it clear that it was being run on a tight schedule. However, once a person stood up to speak that the crowd either recognized or appreciated rather than just clap loudly a woman in the crowd would cry out a chant which would immediately get picked up by the surrounding audience. This would then lead to dancing circles throughout the hastily thrown together chairs. 55
  • Eventually the speaker would settle everyone down by gaining their attention through the typical rally chant which begins with "Viva TAC Viva!" and the crowd replies strongly "Viiiva!" There's also a great chant which originated during apartheid protests - The speaker cries "Amonda!" then a powerful response - "Awaytu!" Although the spelling is definitely incorrect, it means "Power!" - "To the people!" This has to be said strongly because if not you'll be laughed out for saying 'power' in a weak way. One by one speaker came up. This included the Minister of Health, a man and a woman both openly living with HIV, a random guy that hopped on stage with a weird hoodie/doorag mix that rapped in Xhosa while pumping up the crowd with repeated rhymes to "Yes we can!" and finally the executive of UNAIDS. Instead of being the conservative head that has made it difficult in the past for AIDS organizations to succeed he congratulated Khayelitsha on the progress they had made and how they had become a model to the world. He also agreed to follow through with the fiscal needs of clinics treating HIV and TB patients. He was given loud applause and then the crowd, including myself, was fed with a bagged lunch consisting of two sandwiches - cheese and weird meat, a juice box, and an apple. Everyone was happy and excited and I ended my day becoming better friends with one of my co-workers who takes a big part in organizing the rallies. That was yesterday. Today I went to a rally in front of Parliament at 11. This rally was held because due to mismanaged budget issues, there is not enough money to care for newly diagnosed HIV patients only enough for those that have been currently taking the ARV's - Antiretrovirals. So there was a picket outside of Parliament. The day before I was given a shirt which boldly states HIV POSITIVE to wear to the rally. This shirt was created as a way to show solidarity and strength while diminishing the negative stigma for those with HIV. Before leaving I threw the shirt on and went into the city with 2 girls on the way to their internship. We split up and I walked the remainder by myself. I was given a few weird looks, some smiles, and a few people read the shirt out loud. The most remarkable reaction was at a point when I thought I had gotten lost in the city, an old black woman stopped me to tell me how courageous I was for wearing that shirt. She explained how her son was HIV positive and too scared and ashamed to wear the shirt. She explained more about her life and how the fact that there's now medicine to aid HIV has improved the life of people with AIDS and people affected by AIDS. I continuously thanked her without informing her that I was just a white kid wearing the shirt for a rally. I continued to walk on and thought that despite the fact I don't have HIV, by wearing the shirt it is a shout to others with HIV not to be worried and to boldly accept their life and know that they can still live enjoyably. 56
  • I walked with a slight strut after that little meeting and after asking a few people how to get to Parliament I found the picketing rally and joined in. I was aware of the fact I was the only white guy but still excitedly chimed in with everyone’s chants. There was at one point a chant that involved some dancing and while I stood on the outskirts of the circle clapping and singing, my co worker Amelia somehow scoped me out and brought me into the middle. I danced about laughing and clapping (making sure to be on rhythm) and attempted the dances that the people next to me were doing. I eventually backed out and rejoined the sign holding and yelling. The head of TAC, Zackie Achmat, who I have not met as of yet showed up and was talking to one of my co-workers, Gilad. I walked over and introduced myself. He was an extremely nice guy and I was lucky enough to get some pictures with him. After some speakers spoke out on the megaphone and a miscellaneous man from congress signed the memorandum the rally was basically over. I walked back to the train with another great experience etched into my mind. Ciao and mucho love. -Danhttp://www.myownresources.com http://images.google.co.cr/images 57
  • EXERCISE 37. QUESTIONS. Paragraph 1 a. Why was it a good moment to send an e-mail? ______________________________________________________________ b. What kind of organisation is UNAIDS? ______________________________________________________________ c. Who was speaking in Khayelitsha? ______________________________________________________________ d. Did Daniel manage to get rid of his work? ______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2 a. What was there on display at the tent? ______________________________________________________________ b. Where did Daniel sit when he was in the tent? ______________________________________________________________ c. How did people react when someone spoke at the meeting? ______________________________________________________________ d. What kind of chants did they sing 58
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Paragraph 3 a. Who was given loud applause after speaking? ______________________________________________________________ b. What did the audience eat after the speeches? ______________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images Paragraph 4 a. What kind of rally did Daniel attend? _______________________________________________________________ b. What time was the demonstration? _______________________________________________________________ c. What kind of T-shirt did Daniel wear at the demo? _______________________________________________________________ 59
  • d. Who did Daniel meet on the way to the demo? What did he/she tell him? _______________________________________________________________ e. How did Daniel feel wearing that T-shirt? ________________________________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images Paragraph 5 a. What were the people at the rally doing? _______________________________________________________________ b. Who did Daniel take pictures of? _______________________________________________________________ c. What did Daniel do after the rally was over? _______________________________________________________________ d. Did Daniel enjoy that day? _______________________________________________________________ 60
  • EXERCISE 38. Vocabulary. Find words in the text that mean: A. To make agitated or angry (p1) _______________________________________________ b. Rapidly, in a hurry (p2) _______________________________________________ c. Jumped on, went on (p3) _______________________________________________ d. Financial plan, how much money an organisation will need or spend in a specific period of time (p4) ____________________________________________ e. Unfair treatment (p4) _______________________________________________ f. The rest or the part left of a way or distance (p4) _______________________________________________ g. Bravely, without fear (p4) _______________________________________________ h. To walk in a proud way trying to look important (p5) _______________________________________________ i. imprinted, engraved (p5) _______________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/image 61
  • An Elephant Ride. http://images.google.co.cr/images As the train left the station, Fogg noticed that Francis, one of the passengers from the ship Mongolia, was aboard. Francis, an English army officer, spent most of his time in India and knew the country as well as any local Indian. Fogg, however, was not interested in learning more about India. He was too busy figuring out how many days and hours of his round-the-world trip had gone by. "See those mountains?" asked Francis. "A few years ago, we would have met such delay here that you would have lost your bet. The railroad used to stop here and the passengers would have to cross the mountains on horses." "That wouldn't have ruined my travel plans at all," snapped Fogg. "I knew there would be certain problems." Just as he finished talking, the train came to a halt. The conductor ordered all the passengers to get off. They were in the middle of a forest! "Where are we?" asked Fogg. "At the village of Kholby," replied the conductor. "The railroad isn't finished. There is no track between here and Allahabad, a distance of 50 miles." "Then why do you sell tickets from Bombay to Calcutta?" protested Fogg. "With the understanding that passengers would find their own way of getting from Kholby to Allahabad." The reply was unbelievable to Fogg, but still, he had no choice and realized that arguing would get him nowhere either. He had better save his energy and find a way to Allahabad. Just then, Fogg saw a man with an elephant and decided to buy it at any cost. The owner didn't want to sell it at first but finally accepted two thousand pounds. Fogg then hired a young Indian man to serve as an elephant guide. Fogg and Francis sat on the elephant's neck; the Indian guide sat on its back. Together they started their journey to Allahabad. Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap 62
  • EXERCISE 39. Answer the following questions: 1. On which two occasions did Fogg meet Francis? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. Where did Fogg board the train and where was his final destination? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. Why did the train come to a halt? _______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 4. What transport did Fogg arrange from Kholby to Allahabad? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 63
  • 5. What was Fogg doing when Francis was talking about India? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Pyramids of Egypt. http://images.google.co.cr/images As soon as a Pharaoh came to power in ancient Egypt, his thoughts turned to one very important project. The building of a tomb to protect his body after death. Many Pharaohs chose pyramids to mark their tombs. Vast numbers of labourers and craftsmen were immediately set to work. First, the site was prepared and levelled. Large blocks of stone were brought along the River Nile by barges to the construction site. Once unloaded, they were dragged on sleds along a wooden pathway built on the desert sand. Armies of masons prepared the stones so they would fit together neatly. To raise heavy blocks, as the pyramid grew, ramps were built against the pyramid faces. The heavy work was done by peasants and slave labourers during the flood season when it was impossible to farm. Pyramid building was a long process. Work on the Great 64
  • Pyramids of Cheops lasted over thirty years. Inside the tomb chamber of the pyramid, artists and sculptors produced magnificent paintings, carvings and statues of the gods and the tomb's owner. The god Osiris was often shown watching, as the jackal-headed god, Anubis, brought the dead person before him for the judgement ceremony. Egyptians believed that their Pharaoh was the son of the Sun God, and that when he dies he would join the Sun God and sail with him in a boat across the skies each day. Not all Pharaohs built pyramids. Elaborate non-pyramid tombs were also built, many in the Valley of Kings. Other Pharaohs were commemorated by temples, huge statues called colossi, and obelisks. Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap EXERCISE 40. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Why did Pharaohs build pyramids? ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2. How were the large stones brought to the construction site? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3. Who did the heavy work and when? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 65
  • 4. What can be found inside the tomb chamber? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 5. Did all Pharaohs build pyramids? In what other ways could a Pharaoh be commemorated? ______________________________________________________ 117 66
  • THIRD UNIT JOB DEMAND. http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification and comparison of job demand in Costa Rica and in English speaking countries. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to jobs. (Jobs and human rights, safety rules, etc) • Identification and validation of different aspects related to jobs. • Production of interviews and reports about job demand. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about JOBS. TOPIC: JOB DEMAND IN COSTA RICA. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of interviews and reports.  Production of ads, summaries and resumes 67
  • It’s March 20, 2004. Miss Durán is applying for a job. Mr. Taylor: Now tell me Miss Durán, what experience do you have in the fashion industry? Margaret: Well, I went to the School of Design, and at present I’m the manager of Lord’s Clothing Store. Mr. Taylor: Have you ever worked as a fashion designer? Margaret: No, I haven’t. Mr. Taylor: And how long have you been at your present job? Margaret: I have been working there since March 12, 2003. Mr. Taylor: Why do you want to quit? Margaret: Because I’m not learning anything new. Mr. Taylor: When can you begin? Margaret: Immediately. Mr. Taylor: Very well, Miss Durán. You can start a part time job right now, and after 3 months you should get a full-time job. Margaret: Thank you very much. http://images.google.co.cr/images 68
  • EXERCISE 41.Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1-What kind of interview did she have? A ___________ interview. A) Learning. B) School C) News D) job 2-How long has she been at her present job? For ____________. A) Ten years B) about one year C) about two years D) more than five years 3-Which position does she currently have? She’s a _______________. A) store designer B) store manager C) School manager D) Clothes designer 69
  • 4-Why does she want a new job? Because ____________. A) She wants to learn more B) she needs more Money C) she hates working D) her salary is low EXERCISE 42. Read the ads. Choose the best alternative to answer each question. HELP WANTED ELECTRICIAN: Part-time, experience, benefits. good with Call Mr. NURSES: Part–time, with or without experience. Call 869-7351. Brown. 933-1264. ENGINEER: With experience, 4 weeks SALESPEOPLE: Full-time and part-time, vacation. Call Ms. Wong. 765-4200. with or without experience. Call 645-9763. FLIGHT ATTENDANTS: With or without WAITER/WAITRESS: Full-time and part- experience. Training program. Call 359- time, with our without experience, training 5802. program. See Mr. Mazzela. La Strada Restaurant. MECHANICS: Part-time and full-time, with experience, excellent salary. Write Mr. Johnson, 258 Park Road, Winfield, N.Y. 10820 H ttp://images.google.co.cr/images 70
  • 1-Which occupation requires a training program? The _________________. A) Nurse B) mechanic C) Salesperson D) Flight attendant 2-Which occupation offers good benefits? The one for a (n) __________ A) salesperson B) electrician C) mechanic D) nurse 3-Which option offers both, a full and a part time job, at the same time? The one for a (n) ___________________. A) Nurse B) Engineer C) Mechanic D) flight attendant 71
  • 4-How can an electrician contact Mr. Brown? By __________________. A) writing electronic mail B) writing a letter C) sending a fax D) making a call http://images.google.co.cr/images For recent college graduates or professionals beginning a new job search, a job hunt can be an exhausting process. One of the reasons is that, according to the experts, to be successful in your job search, you have to "market" yourself, and many people just don’t know how. According to Loribeth Dalton, director of career services for The Art Institute of Las Vegas, "The job search is very similar to sales and marketing. To be successful you must follow a linear strategic plan." For example, says Dalton, start with the two of the most important building blocks for a successful job search: the resume and cover letter. "The purpose of a resume is to tell an employer what a person has done in the past. The cover letter tells the prospective employer what skills and abilities the job seeker has that will allow them to be successful in the future with their company," she says. "Each cover letter should be crafted to be very specific to the job applied for." 72
  • Michael Courteau, professional development instructor at The Art Institutes International Minnesota recommends never having a resume longer than one page. Anything beyond that won’t get read. "Conventional wisdom is that most resumes are read, on average, for eight seconds, so adding another page to your resume becomes unnecessary, since you’ll only be placing an even greater textual demand on the reader’s eight seconds," he says. If you have limited work experience, like a new college grad, consider creating a functional resume that emphasizes skills. For example, says Courteau, near the top of your resume you would list such skills as knowledge of specific software, bilingual skills, or relevant volunteer experience. In your cover letter, says Kirsten Wright, graduate employment advisor at The Art Institute of Washington, "point out the strengths of your resume and direct a potential employer to things that you cannot explicitly state in your resume but that make you stand out." In both resumes and cover letters, always use high quality paper. Stay away from slang language and avoid using contractions. You want to present yourself as a professional, even if you’ve never held a formal job before. Find out if your school has a career services department, and if so, ask for guidance. "That’s what they’re there for," says Diana Graves-Sharple, director of career services of The Art Institute of Atlanta. Graves-Sharple also recommends seeking out friends, family, professional organizations, trade journals, job boards, recruiters, staffing agencies and industry specific directories to help in your job search. "Research your city, or the city you’d like to work in, the job market, and know the industry and the companies that you are contacting for potential employment," she advises. http://images.google.co.cr/images 73
  • With the entire job seeking information available on the Web -- including Career Builder.com, CreativeHotlist.com, TalenZoo.com, and FlipDog.com. -- are today’s graduates in better shape than a generation ago to find a job? "Overall, I’d have to say yes," says Jennifer Abramski, assistant director of career services of The Art Institute of Seattle. But, she adds, there are common mistakes she sees over and over again. For example, graduates need to respond quickly to job leads, i.e. within a day. They need to return a potential employers’ call immediately and be on time for interviews. Abramski adds, "five minutes late is not on time." Be enthusiastic. Often the recent graduate still has the "laid back" college mentality, but this doesn’t work well in a job interview situation. "Employers often end up thinking you’re not interested in the job or the company," she says. Remember, a first job is not necessarily a dream job. But it does add to your professional experience. All these experts agree, thank you notes for an interview need to be sent within one day of an interview. Thank you notes "can tip the scales in your favor," says Kristin Wright. "When all other skill sets and experiences are equal, this can be the factor that gets you hired," she adds. Thank you notes also give you the opportunity to point something out about yourself that you didn't make clear during the interview process. When it’s time to sit back and wait for the job interview calls to come in, remember to listen to the outgoing message of your home answering machine or cell phone. Edie Beattie, career services advisor at The Art Institute of Charlotte, remembers calling a graduate who was actively job searching and hearing an outgoing message of "What`s Up?" and then beep. If a potential employer hears that, your job offer could be doomed. So whether you’re a new college graduate or an experienced professional who has been recently downsized, the guidelines are the same. Write a good resume and cover letter, be organized and keep track of who you interview with, write thank-you notes and maintain a professional image, even if you’re just at home waiting for the phone to ring. You never know. Courtesy of ARA Content 74
  • EXERCISE 43. TRUE OR FALSE. 1. A resume describes how you can contribute to the company True: False: in the future. 2. A different cover letter should be written for each job you True: False: apply for. 3. Resumes are usually looked at only very briefly. True: False: 4. A functional resume mainly describes your experience. True: False: 5. Resumes and cover letters should use only formal language. True: False: 6. Interviews require a similar mentality to college. True: False: 7. Thank you notes give you the chance to add to what you said True: False: in the interview. TAKEN FROM: Reading Room Home. EXERCISE 44. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the purpose of a resume? ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why should a cover letter be crafted? _______________________________________________________________________ 3. What is a functional resume? _______________________________________________________________________ 75
  • 4. What do people have to avoid in a resume? ________________________________________________________________________ 5. What does not work well in a job interview situation? ________________________________________________________________________ 6. What do thank you notes give? _______________________________________________________________________ 7. Have you been to a job interview? _______________________________________________________________________ 76
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Interviewer: So, why do you want to be a computer programmer? Jason: Well, I don't like working in a fast food restaurant, and I want to make more money. Interviewer: I see. Do you have any experience? Jason: No, but I'm a fast learner. Interviewer: What kind of computer do you use? Jason: Computer? Uhm, let me see. I can use a Mac. I also used Windows 95 once. Interviewer: That's good. Jason: May I ask a question? Interviewer: Please, go ahead. Jason: Will I be able to find a job as a computer programmer? Interviewer: Umm, err, ahh.... EXERCISE 45. Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1-What job does Jason want? a. Cook b. Computer Programmer c. Cameraman 2-Where does Jason work? a. In a restaurant b. For a computer company c. At a school 3-Why does Jason want a new job? a. he's bored b. he quit his job c. he wants more money 77
  • 4-Does Jason have programming experience? a. yes b. no 5-Jason is a slow learner. a. true b. false 6-What kind of computer does Jason use? a. a Mac b. Unix c. Amiga 7-Has Jason ever used Windows 95? a.yes b. no 8-Will Jason get a new job? a. yes b. no c. I don't know. Copyright (C) 1997 by Jim Schweizer (schweiz@harenet.or.jp) This quiz is part of the HTML-Only Self-Study Quizzes which is part of Activities for ESL Students, a project by The Internet TESL Journal. http://images.google.co.cr/images 78
  • Read the following job advertisements: 1. Needed: Full time secretary position 2. Are you looking for a part time job? We available. Applicants should have at least require 3 part time shop assistants to work 2 years experience and be able to type during the evening. No experience required, 60 words a minute. No computer skills applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 required. Apply in person at United 76564 for more information. Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street 3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you 4. Teacher Needed: Tommy's Kindergarten have experience working with needs 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes computers? Would you like a full time from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have position working in an exciting new appropriate licenses. For more information visit company? If your answer is yes, give us Tommy's Kindergarten in Leicester Square No. a call at 56 5. Part Time work available: We are 6. University positions open: The University of looking for retired adults who would like Cumberland is looking for 4 teaching assistants to work part time at the weekend. to help with homework correction. Applicants Responsibilities include answering the should have a degree in one of the following: telephone and giving customer's Political information. For more information contact History. us by calling Science, Please Religion, contact Economics or University of the Cumberland for more information. http://images.google.co.cr/images 79
  • EXERCISE 47. Comprehension Questions Which position is best for these people? Choose ONLY ONE position for each person. A. Jane Madison. Jane recently retired and is looking for a part time position. She would like to work with people and enjoys public relation work. 1-The best job for Jane is __________________ Jack Anderson. Jack graduated from the University of Trent with a degree in Economics two years ago. He would like an academic position. 2-The best job for Jack is____________________ Margaret Lillian. Margaret is 21 years old and would like a part time position to help her pay her university expenses. She can only work in the evenings. 3-The best job for Margaret is _______________________________ Alice Fingelhamm. Alice was trained as a secretary and has six years of experience. She is an excellent typist but does not know how to use a computer. She is looking for a full time position. 4-The best job for Alice is __________________ Peter Florian. Peter went to business school and studied computer and secretarial skills. He is looking for his first job and would like a full time position. 5-The best job for Peter is ________________ Vincent san George. Vincent loves working with children and has an education license from the city of Birmingham. He would like to work with young children. 6-The best job for Vincent is _________________ 80
  • Looking for a Job http://images.google.co.cr/images It is 7.30pm. Emma phones a recruitment agency and leaves the following message on its answer phone: Emma: Hello. I wonder if you can help me. My name is Emma Heath. I am looking for a job as an administrator. At the moment I am working at a solicitor as a clerk. Do you know Blame, Payne and Co.? I have been working there for about two years but there doesn´t seem to be any chance of promotion, so I´m trying to find something else. The other thing is, I´m moving soon, so I´m looking for a job in Leicester. I would prefer it if it was in the city centre really. My current address is 23 Terraced Walk, Derby, DE23 3GP, but I´m going to be moving out on the 30th, and then I´ll be living with my mum until I´ve found a house to rent in Leicester. After the 30th you´ll be able to contact me at my mum´s. Her address is 8 Cedars Lane, Swinscote, and Derby, DE40 9UR. By the way, my mobile number is 079421 645784. If you do ring me on my mobile, please can you ring after six because I´ll be at work all day and my boss doesn´t know that I´m planning on leaving. My current salary is 11K per annum and I would like to find something for at least thirteen or more. I´ll bring my CV in to your office once I´ve finished updating it. Oh yes, last month I went on a four-day intensive first aid course, which makes me fully qualified to give first aid.? Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap 81
  • EXERCISE 47. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Who is the paragraph about? _______________________________________________________________ 2. Why does she leave the message? _______________________________________________________________ 3. What job does she do at the moment? _______________________________________________________________ 4. What job would she like to do? _______________________________________________________________ 5. Name the company that she works for. _______________________________________________________________ 6. How long has she been working there? _______________________________________________________________ 7. Why does she want to leave? _______________________________________________________________ 8. Which city is she moving to? _______________________________________________________________ 82
  • 9. What is her address at the moment? _______________________________________________________________ 10. Is she planning to buy a house in Leicester? _______________________________________________________________ 11.What is her mum’s address? _______________________________________________________________ 12. When can she be contacted there? _______________________________________________________________ 13. When can she be contacted on her mobile number? _______________________________________________________________ 14. How much would she like her salary to increase by? _______________________________________________________________ 15. What is a CV? _______________________________________________________________ 16. What do the letters CV stand for? _______________________________________________________________ 83
  • 17. Is Emma’s boss upset that she will be leaving? _______________________________________________________________ 18. In your opinion, is Emma right to look for another job? Why? /Why not? _______________________________________________________________ 19. Do you think she will be happier living in Leicester? Why? /Why not? ________________________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 84
  • FOURTH UNIT CAREERS http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification and comparison of careers worldwide. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to careers. • Identification and validation of different aspects related to careers. • Production of interviews and reports about careers. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about careers. TOPIC: CAREERS. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of interviews and reports.  Production of ads, summaries and resumes 85
  • Careers. What are these jobs like? http://images.google.co.cr/images Pharmacists give medicine to people when a doctor says that they need it. They tell people how to use the medicine correctly.Pharmacists are experts in medicine and its side effects. They sometimes help doctors choose which medicines to give patients. Pharmacists also warn doctors if the doctors have asked their patients to take any medicine that might hurt their patients.Sometimes, pharmacists mix the medicine 86
  • themselves. Most often, though, they use medicines that are already made.Pharmacists most often work in drug stores. These stores are clean and have a lot of light. Many pharmacists must stand while they work. Pharmacists must wear gloves and masks when they work with dangerous chemicals. Some pharmacists work at night or on weekends. This is because sick people may need medicine at any time. Most pharmacists work about 40 hours a week, but some work longer hours. http://www.esl-galaxy.com/writing/new/At%20the%20Restaurant.pdf EXERCISE 48. Write a five line composition about the reading above. ―Pharmacists‖ Use your own words. Pharmacists. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 87
  • Engineering technicians. Engineering technicians solve technical problems. Some help engineers and scientists do research and development. They build or set up equipment. They do experiments. They collect data and calculate results. They might also help to make a model of new equipment. Some technicians work in quality control. They check products, do tests, and collect data. In manufacturing, they help to design and develop products. They also find ways to produce things efficiently. Most technicians focus on one type of engineering. For example, some focus on civil engineering. They help engineers to plan bridges and roads. They might also get data about traffic. Other technicians focus on electrical engineering. They help to design or test electronics. Most engineering technicians work about 40 hours a week. They work in labs, offices, factories, or on construction sites. Some might be exposed to dangerous materials. http://www.esl-galaxy.com/writing/new/At%20the%20Restaurant.pdf EXERCISE 49. Write a five line composition about the reading above. ―Engineering technicians‖ Use your own words. http://images.google.co.cr/images ―Engineering technicians‖ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 88
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Pilots fly airplanes and helicopters in order to get various jobs done. Most pilots fly people and cargo from place to place. Some pilots test new planes, fight fires, do police work, or rescue people who are hurt or in danger.Before they take off, pilots plan their flight carefully. They check their plane to make sure that it is working properly. They also make sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They check the weather forecast to see if they will run into any bad weather on their trip. They then decide what route they should take and how high and fast they should fly. Takeoff and landing are the hardest parts. Pilots must be especially careful during those times. The rest of the flight is fairly easy, if the weather is good. Planes have indicators to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. These indicators show whether there is enough fuel, whether the weather is changing, and whether the plane is on course. Pilots must check these indicators often during the trip to be sure that all is going well. If problems come up, the pilots take steps to solve them. The law says that pilots who work for an airline cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or more than 1,000 hours a year. Most airline pilots fly about 65-75 hours a month, and work another 75 hours a month at other parts of the job. When they are flying, airline pilots must very often stay away from home overnight. Airlines have flights at all hours of the day and night. This means that airline pilots often are asked to work odd hours. Pilots who do not work for the airlines can have unusual work schedules, too. For example, they may fly 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next. Most of them do not have to stay away from home overnight, but they may have to work odd hours. Pilots who fly very long distances may have "jet lag." This is fatigue caused by moving through different time zones. The work of pilots who test new planes may be dangerous. Pilots who work on farms or who help police and fire fighters also might get hurt on their jobs. Flying does not involve much hard physical work. However, pilots can feel a lot of stress because they know that they are responsible for the safety of their passengers. They must be careful and quick to react if something goes wrong. 89
  • http://www.esl-galaxy.com/writing/new/At%20the%20Restaurant.pdf EXERCISE 50. Answer the following questions about the reading above. 1. What is the topic of this reading? _______________________________________________________________ 2-what do pilots do? _______________________________________________________________ 3-what does ―jet lag‖ mean? _______________________________________________________________ 4-How are pilots time table like? _______________________________________________________________ 5-would you like to be a pilot? Why? _______________________________________________________________ 6-is this occupation dangerous? Why? _______________________________________________________________ 7-what do you think about this job? _______________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 90
  • EXERCISE 51. Write a five line paragraph about pilots. PILOTS. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 91
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Computer databases that store information on customers, inventory, and projects are found in nearly every industry. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the system as needed. Database administrators often plan security measures. Data integrity, backup, and security are critical parts of the job. Database administrators work in offices or labs. They usually work about 40 hours a week. But evening or weekend work may need to be done to meet deadlines. Telecommuting— working from home—is common for computer professionals. Like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer, database administrators can suffer eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems. TAKEN FROM: BLS Career Information Home Pagewww.bls.gov/k12/ Computer Network Administrator. Read the ad. Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence. Seeks experienced computer technician for maintenance and administration of Internet servers and customer service work stations. Must have experience with high traffic, mission critical servers. Must be available 24 hours, 7 days a week for emergency response. Windows NT Server experience is a MUST. Linux experience is desired, but not required. English speaking is a MUST. La Aurora, Heredia. Sent resume to carycomputer@sol.racsa.co.cr FROM DIARIO LA NACION. 92
  • EXERCISE 52. Mark with ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1. One of the requirements for the job is to be able to ___________________. A) speak English B) serve technicians C) critique internet high traffic D) desire internet and its servers 2. The technician has to be available to work _____________ week. A) 24 hours every day B) 7 emergency days C) 7 hours of a week D) 24 weeks 3. The technician must be qualified to work with __________. A) traffic B) customers C) administrators D) windows NT server 4. The applicants are asked to send their resumes by _____________. A) fax B) car C) mail D) E-mail 93
  • Part Time Jobs. http://images.google.co.cr/images 1 As teenagers enter high school, they often strive to get every freedom available to them. They want to declare their independence from their parents. One of the most common ways to do this is to find a part-time job so that they can begin earning their own spending money. There are several different types of jobs available to teenagers. By researching these types of jobs, teenagers will be able to find the ones best suited to them and will be more likely to be successful. 2 The first type of part-time job is in the food service industry. These jobs are found at fast food and other restaurants. People working in the food service industry can be servers, cooks, dishwashers, hosts, table clearers and food 'prepares'. Generally, most of these positions require no previous experience because the managers like to train their employees to the intricacies of their establishment. Since this is a service industry, there is a lot of contact with the customers. 3 Manual labors can be physically exhausting. This involves construction, factory work, farming, and lawn care among other things. Part time jobs in this industry often don't require previous experience, but they do require people with a knack for the required skills. For example, people working in construction need to be detail-oriented. 4 Teenagers can also be seen working in shopping malls and other stores selling products. Often, they are selling clothing, shoes and other accessories 94
  • geared towards teenagers. People in this industry need to be extremely outgoing and persuasive since part of their pay often comes as a percentage of the sales they make. One of the biggest benefits of these jobs is the employee discount at the store. Connected to that is the biggest downfall - if it is clothing store, employees are often required to wear clothing from the store (which can be very costly). 5 Finally, the most motivated teenagers can get internships. Internships can be in any industry, buy generally interns lean towards the area they most want to pursue as adults. For example, someone interested in veterinary medicine may get an internship at a vet clinic. This is an extremely wonderful experience to have on a future resume, but the pay is often low. Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index. EXERCISE 53. 1. Which of the following choices best explain the main point of the passage? a. Part-time jobs are wonderful experiences for teenagers. They allow them to explore possible career choices and also teach responsibility. b. Teenagers all like jobs in the food service industry because they are very social at the age. c. Retail jobs are not a good choice for teens because they often spend their money in the store. d. Teenagers only want part-time jobs to have more time away from their parents. 95
  • 2. Paragraph 3 reads 'This involves construction, factory work, farming, and lawn care among other things.' What does 'this' refer to? a. food service jobs b. manual labor jobs c. retail jobs d. any jobs 3. The word 'discount' appears in paragraph 4. Which of the following words means the same as discount? a. reduction b. increase c. raise d. requirement EXERCISE 54. What are four types of jobs people can have in the food service industry, according to the passage? a. __________________________ b. __________________________ c. __________________________ d. _________________________ 96
  • EXERCISE 55. According to the passage, what is an important skill for people working in construction? a. strength b. detail-oriented c. endurance d. creativity EXERCISE 56. List two of the listed items that teenagers might sell in the retail industry. a. ________________________ b. _______________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 97
  • Read the following job advertisements. 1. Needed: Full time secretary position available. Applicants should have at least 2 years experience and be able to type 60 words a minute. No computer skills required. Apply in person at United Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street, Leeds 2. Are you looking for a part time job? We require 3 part time shop assistants to work during the evening. No experience required, applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 - 76564 for more information. 3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you have 4. Teacher Needed: Hania's Playschool needs experience working with computers? Would 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes from 9 you like a full time position working in an a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have exciting new company? If your answer is yes, appropriate licences. For more information visit give us a call at 457-896754 Hania's Playschool in Leicester Square 5. Part Time work available: We are looking for retired adults who would like to work part time at the weekend. Responsibilities include answering the telephone and giving customer's information. For more information contact us by calling 345-674132 6. University positions open: The University of Bristol is looking for 4 teaching assistants to help with homework correction. Applicants should have a degree in one of the following: Political Science, Religion, Economics or History. Please contact the University of Bristol for more information. http://images.google.co.cr/images 98
  • EXERCISE 57. Comprehension Questions. Which position is best for these people? Choose ONLY ONE position for each person. A.Jane McInnery. Jane recently retired and is looking for a part time position. She would like to work with people and enjoys public relation work. A-The best job for Jane is ______________ B.Mark Cohen. Mark graduated from the University of Bristol with a degree in Economics two years ago. He would like an academic position. B-The best job for Mark is ______________ C.Kasia Page. Kasia is 21 years old and would like a part time position to help her pay her university expenses. She can only work in the evenings. C-The best job for Kasia is ______________ D.Alice Plant. Alice was trained as a secretary and has six years of experience. She is an excellent typist but does not know how to use a computer. She is looking for a full time position. 99
  • D-The best job for Alice is ______________ E.Julian Smith. Julian went to business school and studied computer and secretarial skills. He is looking for his first job and would like a full time position. E-The best job for Julian is _____________ F.Vincent Fish. Vincent loves working with children and has an education licence from the city of Birmingham. He would like to work with young children. F-The best job for Vincent is _____________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 100
  • EXERCISE 58 A. http://images.google.co.cr/images DENTISTS AT WORK. 101
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images 1 we all know it's out there and we all want it. The problem is many of us don't know how to achieve it or even really recognize it once we have it within our reach. That's because many people spend too much time looking at what other people claim success is instead of digging deep into their souls to discover what their own personal success is. 2 As we go through life, success evolves and we need to change our goals as we age. For example, success for young kids can be fairly simple; being able to reach the cookie jar or finally figuring out how to skip or zip. School kids see success in athletics and grades. As we enter adulthood, success becomes more complicated. 3 As adults, there are so many ways to be successful. It could be reaching a goal such as a Mary Kay Cosmetic consultant finally earning a pink Cadillac or a young couple finally being able to purchase their own home. Success could also be family related: in the short term, having children; in the long term, raising well-adjusted adults. Success can also be material in nature such as finally being able to buy that little red sports car. Since it can come in so many forms, it's important to examine which forms are most important to you. 4 There really is only one course to success and that's hard work. Once you've decided what would make you successful, set your goals and get working on them! Most people don't have their success handed to them on a silver platter and most people appreciate the hard work it takes to finally sit back and say 'Yep, I am a success!' EXERCISE 59. 102
  • 1. The first sentence of the passage reads 'We all know it’s out there and we all want it.' 'It' refers to __________________________________________ EXERCISE 60 2. Which of the following is not one of the ways to be successful mentioned in paragraph 3? a. getting a pink Cadillac. b. having children. c. raising well-adjusted adults. d. renting your own apartment. 3. According to the passage, where is the only place you can find success? a. by looking at other people. b. by digging deep into your soul. c. by reaching your job goals. d. by having a family. 4. The word 'appreciate' appears in paragraph 4. Which of the following words does not mean appreciate? a. value. b. understand. c. release. d. realize. 103
  • 5. What does the passage imply? a.Everyone will eventually be successful. b.Success is different for everyone. c.People don't take the time to figure out how to be successful. d.It's too much work to strive for success. 6.The word 'complicated' appears in paragraph 2. Which of the following words is not a synonym for 'complicated'? a. complex. b. difficult. c. convoluted. d. simplified. Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap 104
  • FIFTH UNIT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification of science and technology updated. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to science and technology. • Identification and validation of different aspects related to science and technology. • Production of writing pieces about science and technology now days. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about science and technology. TOPIC: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of interviews and reports.  Production of ads, summaries and resumes 105
  • Organs and Organ Systems. http://images.google.co.cr/images All animals, not including single-celled organisms, are made up of different organs. Organs are made up of different tissues, which in turn are made up of many specialized cells. Different organs working together in a group make up an organ system. Examples of organ systems are the circulatory system and the respiratory system. Several organ systems working together make up an organism. EXERCISE 61. Make a five lines paragraph about: Organs and Organ Systems. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 106
  • Microscopes. http://images.google.co.cr/images It happened over 300 years ago in Holland. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (AN-tun van LAYvun-hook) had a new microscope that he had made. One day he looked through it at a drop of lake water. What he saw surprised him. The water was alive with what Leeuwenhoek called "wee beasties." The microscope made tiny organisms look 200 times larger than life size. Leeuwenhoek was one of the first scientists to see living things that were that small (you answered 'larger'). His work was a giant step (you answered 'tower') for science. Today, microscopes are much stronger. An electron microscope can make tiny organisms look 200,000 times life (you answered 'over') size. A few electron microscopes can see individual atoms. Pictures can be made to show the objects or organisms much bigger. The pictures add greatly to what we know about tiny objects and organisms. Microscopes have come a long way in 300 years! 107
  • EXERCISE 62. In your own words, write the main topic for this reading and the four secondary ideas. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 108
  • The Earth's Energy Budget. The way the Earth interacts with the sun's energy can be displayed in a diagram called the Earth's energy budget. It displays the sun's energy that reaches us and how much of that energy is absorbed and reflected by the earth and its atmosphere. Solar energy reaches earth as electromagnetic radiation. Once the energy reaches earth, some of it is absorbed by the atmosphere, including clouds. Some of it makes it to the earth's surface, and is absorbed by land and oceans. The amount of energy absorbed affects temperature. The energy that is not absorbed by the earth or its atmosphere is reflected back out to space in the same wavelengths in which it came to earth. On average, the amount of energy coming in is equal to the amount of energy going out. So, we say the earth's energy budget is balanced. If more energy was coming in than was going out, the earth's temperature would increase. On the other hand, if too much energy is reflected, and not absorbed, we'd see a decrease in the earth's temperatures. Of all of the sun's energy that hits the Earth, about 70% is absorbed by the land, ocean, atmosphere and clouds and about 30% is reflected back into space. Which of the four pie charts correctly shows this relationship? 109
  • Pie chart C shows that 30% of the sun's energy is reflected by the Earth and 70% is absorbed by the Earth. EXERCISE 63. Answer the following questions about the Reading: ―The Earth's Energy Budget.‖ 1. What do you think about this specific topic? Write a brief explanation. 110
  • Parts of a Plant. http://images.google.co.cr/images Plants grow almost everywhere on our planet. Plants need the same things to live. The four things plants need are light, water, air, and soil. The roots are underground. This is the part of the plant that takes in water and nutrients from the soil. The stem connects the roots with the leaves. The trunk of a tree is a good example of this part of a plant. This part carries water and nutrients from the roots to other parts of the plant.The leaves are the parts of the plant that grow out of the stem. They take in nutrients and light. TAKEN FROM: education.jlab.org/reading http://images.google.co.cr/images 111
  • EXERCISE 64. Make a drawing of a plant and write the main parts of it. Columbia space shuttle. http://images.google.co.cr/images 112
  • The wife of an Israeli astronaut who perished in the Columbia space shuttle disaster today paid tribute to the crew of "angels" who died onboard. Rona Ramon said she was consoled by the fact her husband Ilan had died chasing his dream and "with people he loved in a place that he loved". And she spoke of the comfort relatives of the Columbia crew gave each other. "We are one big family," she said. "What unites us is the knowledge they really enjoyed being there and loved being with each other. They are all angels and will remain that way. "The children are not saying much. They are trying to get used to the fact that he is no longer here." Rona revealed her last contact with Ilan was via email moments before the shuttle prepared for landing. He also sent emails to former US President Bill Clinton and ex-Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres who decided in 1995 to send an Israeli astronaut into space. Rona choked back tears as she recalled the moment she realised her husband was dead: "Just like at the lift-off, we counted back from 10, but we got to zero and nothing. "No sign - the shuttle wasn't drawing near, nor did we hear the sonic booms that we knew would be heard before the landing.”There was an odd, terrible quiet...As the minutes passed we already knew that there was nobody to wait for and nothing to wait for." http://images.google.co.cr/images QUESTIONS. EXERCISE 65. Answer the following questions using your own words. a. According to the text, who is comforting the widow right now? ______________________________________________________________________ b. How many e-mails did the astronaut send before the shuttle exploded and who to? EXERCISE 66. Are the following statements true or false? ______________________________________________________________________ A. Bill Clinton decided to send an Israeli astronaut into space in the nineties. ________ B. Bill Clinton sent an e-mail to Shimon Peres in 1995. ______ 113
  • 3. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: STAY: APPROACHING:________________________________. EXERCISE 67. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct. 1. Rona Ramon was comforted because her husband had died doing what he liked. a. Yes. b. No. c. Possibly. 2. The astronauts on the shuttle got along each other. a. Yes. b. No. c. Sometimes. 3. The children are getting used to: a. Their father’s absence. b. The shuttle. c. Their mother’s tears. 4. The noise that is heard before the landing was: a. None. b. Very low. c. Very loud. TAKEN FROM: http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/readingcompindex.htm 114
  • 1. Composition .what is your opinion about the space trips? Write five lines in your answer. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images TECHNOLOGY MAKES US FATTER. Mobile phones prevent us from walking an average of 10 miles a year and are just one of the many–labor savings machines that now contribute towards making us fatter. Fewer stairs and an increase in the number of escalators have also helped to reduce our exercise intake and thus, raise our fat levels. However, the greatest contributing factor of all is television viewing. People now spend an average of four hours a day watching television. This is another change in lifestyle that has cut exercise and led to a weight increase. Lazy parents are blamed for preferring to watch television and cook processed foods to spending the time cooking, shopping and talking to their children at meal times. 115
  • http://images.google.co.cr/image EXERCISE 69. Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1. Mobile phones make _______________________________. A) people walk 10 miles a year B) users walk less than usual C) you enjoy walking D) you lose weight 2. The invention that has raised our fat levels the most is ___________________. A) the mobile phone B) the electric stairs C) all the stairs D) television 3. According to the text, television viewing makes people _________________. A) lose weight B) gain weight C) spend more hours with their family D) exercise for 20 minutes per month 4. Lazy parents prefer to _________________ rather than talking to their children. A) cook B) shop C) blame D) watch TV 116
  • THE TITANIC: ANOTHER DISASTER MOVIE? http://images.google.co.cr/images The biggest gamble in movie making history has received no fewer than fourteen Oscar nominations. And not only that: contrary to what almost everyone said during the troubled course of its production, it looks like the gamble is going to pay off. Titanic, James Cameron`s $200 million epic about what he has called Ate quintessential tragedy of the 20th century@ has been a great success across Europe and America. Test screenings in America have been overwhelmingly positive. Daily Variety, the most influential film newspaper in America, has no doubts. They call it Aa spectacular demonstration of what modern technology can contribute to dramatic story-telling,@ and concludes that, unlike the liner which sank in the North Atlantic eighty-five years ago, this Titanic Arrives at its destination.@ But it hasn’t been all that easy. Shot over eight months (about two months longer than originally planned), Titanic saw its budget spiral almost out of control. With such lavish sets, huge casts and expensive, state-of-the-art computerized special effects, the movie seemed set to become as big a disaster as the story on which it was based. 117
  • The perfectionist James Cameron went to extraordinary lengths to get his film exactly right. The filmmakers built a perfect scale model of the ship, which at 236 metres was almost as big as the original, and mounted it on giant hydraulic lifts to reproduce the effect of the vessel sinking. The model stood in a tank filled with 77million litres of sea water. Everything in Cameron`s movie is bigger, grander and more expensive than anything that has been done before. http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/mcdonaldsboss.pdf EXERCISE 70. Read each definition below and choose the word from the list that matches the definition (Gamble, success, budget, lavish, vessel) a. A large ship or boat: _______________________________________________ b. Extravagant, excessive: ____________________________________________ c. A risk taken in order to gain some advantage: ___________________________ d. The cost or estimated cost of something: _______________________________ e. A favourable, satisfactory result or accomplishment: ______________________ 2. Answer the following questions according to the text _____________________ EXERCISE 71. A- What does the Daily Variety mean with Athis Titanic arrives at its destination@? 118
  • B- C- How much sea water did they use in the film? Why is Cameron being described as a perfectionist? EXERCISE 72. Rewrite the following sentences maintaining the same meaning a. The scale model of the ship was almost as big as the original. The original ship was... ____________________________________________________ b. Unlike the liner which sank in the North Atlantic eighty-five years ago, this Titanic arrives at its destination@. In contrast to... ___________________________________________________________ c. Cameron wasn`t content unless every detail of the film was as lifelike as possible. If... ___________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 73. Complete the following paragraph with the correct form of the verb in brackets Negative publicity (begin)_______ early on in production, when 50 crew members, including Cameron himself, (eat) ________a meal of lobster soup which (poison) ______with the drug PCP, possibly by a discontented worker. Then other stories about terrible working conditions (start) ______ to make the headlines. 119
  • 5. Composition: Going to the movies is one kind of entertainment. Do you have any hobbies? How do you like to spend your free time? - _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 74. Write a 10 lines paragraph about:‖titanic ship‖. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 120
  • EXERCISE 75. Match words to the appropriate definition. ______icon A-Controls the location of the cursor on the screen ______surf B-Programs on a computer ______software C-To receive material from the internet onto your computer _________mouse D.To look at internal pages _____to download E.Program which can harm your computer _____internet F.The world wide web _____network G.A picture representing a program _____virus H.Two or more computers directly linked http://images.google.co.cr/images http://www.englishmedialab.com/Quizzes/ 121
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Human beings have been inventing since we first appeared on Earth starting with the simple Stone Age tools. In the last one hundred years, the pace of inventions has accelerated. Not all inventions were immediately recognized as useful. For example, the photograph was not even perceived as a practical tool at the time it was invented by Thomas Edison. Edison is one of the greatest inventors of mankind. Many inventions came from individuals who work alone. Ideas were often a moment of inspiration but the invention always took painstaking hard work over many years. Leonardo Da Vinci's helicopter took a few hundred years to develop from his early sketches to what we see today. Some inventions such as the wheel and paper clip are simple. Others like transistors and locomotives are more complex. But each invention has an important impact on man's daily life. All inventions have one thing in common, an inquisitive and creative mind. Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap 122
  • EXERCISE 76. Answer the following questions, use long answers. 1. When did human beings start inventing new things? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. Who invented photograph and how was it being perceived? _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3. What was Leonardo's contribution to the invention of helicopter? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. What is needed for any invention to succeed? _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 123
  • 5. Name products in your house which have transistors or microchips? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images The Insect World. http://images.google.co.cr/images 124
  • Insects are the most successful life-form on Earth. More than half of all life on our planet belongs to insects. Insects have more than one million different species. This is much more than all other species of animals and plants put together. Insects have been on this planet for more than 350 million years. Even before the appearance of dinosaurs. The millions of insects are grouped and named using a system that was invented by a Swede, Carl Linnaeus, about 250 years ago. This naming system uses Latin names so that it can be understood anywhere on Earth. The basic insect class is the species. Several species make a genus, several genuses make a family. Higher up the grouping of family comes the order, then the class and finally the phylum. All insects within the same species can mate and reproduce. Most insects have two kinds of eyes. The simple eyes which can only sense the presence of light. The compound eyes which have thousands of lenses and the ability to receive thousands of different images. Many small creatures like bugs, spiders, ticks and centipedes are often mistaken for insects. These look like insects but they are different. The easiest to spot an insect is to count the body parts and legs. Insects have three body parts and six legs. Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap EXERCISE 77. Answer the following questions, use long answers. 1. How many species of insects are there? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. Who invented the insect naming system and when? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. What is the language used for naming insects? Why was this language chosen? 125
  • _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. Name three small creatures that are often mistaken as insects? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. How would you spot an insect? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ International space station. http://images.google.co.cr/images 126
  • The International Space Station (ISS) is an internationally developed research facility that is being assembled in low Earth orbit. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by 2011. The station is expected to remain in operation until at least 2015, and likely 2020.[7][8] With a greater mass than that of any previous space station, the ISS can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye,[9] and, as of 2010, is the largest artificial satellite orbiting the Earth.[10] The ISS serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology.[11][12][13] The station has a unique environment for the testing of the spacecraft systems that will be required for missions to the Moon and Mars.[14] The ISS is operated by Expedition crews, and has been continuously staffed since 2 November 2000, meaning the ISS programme has maintained an uninterrupted human presence in space for the past 9 years and 129 days, which is approaching the current record, set aboard Mir, of 9 years and 257 days.[15] As of 1 December 2009, the crew of Expedition 22 is aboard.[16] The ISS is a synthesis of several space station projects that includes the American Freedom, the Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the European Columbus and the Japanese Kibō.[17][18] Budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national programme.[17] The ISS project began in 1994 with the Shuttle-Mir programme,[19] and the first module of the station, Zarya, was launched in 1998 by Russia.[17] Assembly continues, as pressurised modules, external trusses and other components are launched by American space shuttles, Russian Proton rockets and Russian Soyuz rockets.[18] As of November 2009, the station consisted of 11 pressurised modules and an extensive integrated truss structure (ITS). Power is provided by 16 solar arrays mounted on the external truss, in addition to four smaller arrays on the Russian modules. [20] The station is maintained at an orbit between 278 km (173 mi) and 460 km (286 mi) altitude, and travels at an average speed of 27,724 km/h (17,227 mph), completing 15.7 orbits per day.[21] Operated as a joint project between the five participant space agencies, the station's sections are controlled by mission control centres on the ground operated by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the European Space Agency (ESA).[22][23] The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements[24] that allow the Russian Federation to retain full ownership of its own modules,[25] with the remainder 127
  • of the station allocated between the other international partners.[24] The cost of the station has been estimated by ESA as €100 billion over 30 years,[26] and, although estimates range from 35 billion dollars to 160 billion dollars, the ISS is believed to be the most expensive object ever constructed.[27] The financing, research capabilities and technical design of the ISS programme have been criticised because of the high cost. [28][29] The station is serviced by Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft, space shuttles, the Automated Transfer Vehicle and the H-II Transfer Vehicle,[23] and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations.[10] The International Space Station (ISS) is an internationally developed research facility that is being assembled in low Earth orbit. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by 2011. The station is expected to remain in operation until at least 2015, and likely 2020.[7][8] With a greater mass than that of any previous space station, the ISS can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye,[9] and, as of 2010, is the largest artificial satellite orbiting the Earth.[10] The ISS serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology.[11][12][13] The station has a unique environment for the testing of the spacecraft systems that will be required for missions to the Moon and Mars.[14] The ISS is operated by Expedition crews, and has been continuously staffed since 2 November 2000, meaning the ISS programme has maintained an uninterrupted human presence in space for the past 9 years and 129 days, which is approaching the current record, set aboard Mir, of 9 years and 257 days.[15] As of 1 December 2009, the crew of Expedition 22 is aboard.[16] The ISS is a synthesis of several space station projects that includes the American Freedom, the Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the European Columbus and the Japanese Kibō.[17][18] Budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national programme.[17] The ISS project began in 1994 with the Shuttle-Mir programme,[19] and the first module of the station, Zarya, was launched in 1998 by Russia.[17] Assembly continues, as pressurised modules, external trusses and other components are launched by American space shuttles, Russian Proton rockets and Russian Soyuz rockets.[18] As of November 2009, the station consisted of 11 pressurised modules and an extensive integrated truss structure (ITS). Power is provided by 16 solar arrays mounted on the external truss, in addition to four smaller arrays on the Russian modules. [20] The station is 128
  • maintained at an orbit between 278 km (173 mi) and 460 km (286 mi) altitude, and travels at an average speed of 27,724 km/h (17,227 mph), completing 15.7 orbits per day.[21] Operated as a joint project between the five participant space agencies, the station's sections are controlled by mission control centres on the ground operated by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the European Space Agency (ESA).[22][23] The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements[24] that allow the Russian Federation to retain full ownership of its own modules,[25] with the remainder of the station allocated between the other international partners.[24] The cost of the station has been estimated by ESA as €100 billion over 30 years,[26] and, although estimates range from 35 billion dollars to 160 billion dollars, the ISS is believed to be the most expensive object ever constructed.[27] The financing, research capabilities and technical design of the ISS programme have been criticised because of the high cost. [28][29] The station is serviced by Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft, space shuttles, the Automated Transfer Vehicle and the H-II Transfer Vehicle,[23] and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations.[10] International Space Station The International Space Station on 19 February 2010 as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Endeavour during STS130. 129
  • The International Space Station on 19 February 2010 as seen from ISS Insignia the departing Space Shuttle Endeavour during STS-130. EXERCISE 78. Write from the text, the most important ten sentences, which give information about ―the international space station‖ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydropower. Hydro-electricity is electricity generated by the energy of running water. Advantages: Recreational and wild life refuges are often created by hydroelectric power projects. 130
  • Dams also allow river navigation to be more manageable, provide hydroelectric power, and create lakes for fishing and recreation. Dams are important because they provide us with water for industry and irrigation. Dams can also help to reduce or prevent damaging floods. There is no chemical residual, toxic waste disposal or air pollution as a result of a plant in operation. Disadvantages: The ecology of the project area can be disturbed. Large areas of land upstream flood when a mayor hydroelectric dam is built. A project like this can diminish the water flow downstream. Fish migration to natural breeding grounds might be disturbed. Adapted from P Z Guide Costa Rica. http://images.google.co.cr/images EXERCISE 79. Read the following sentences and mark with an x the best option: A, B, C, D that complete the sentence. 1. Hydroelectric power projects contribute to create ____________________. A) air pollution B) chemical residuals C) recreational refuges D) only fishing activities 131
  • 2. Dams become very important because they ___________________________. A) make river navigation easier B) increase damaging floods C) obstruct river navigation D) flood land upstream 3. Dams can ____________________. A) provoke chemical contamination B) diminish recreational fishing C) prevent disastrous floods D) promote pollution 4. One of the problems caused by hydropower is that _______________. A) the habitat of some fish may be changed B) the amount of water flow increases C) men can use water for irrigation D) it provides drinkable water 132
  • EXERCISE 80 .Read the article and choose the correct alternative to answer each question. http://images.google.co.cr/images COMPUTERS Computers are machines that help people find answers to their questions. There are many kinds of computers. Some are very large; others are so small that we can put them in our pockets. The two basic, main kinds of computers are analog and digital. Computers can do many things. They can solve mathematics problems, record airline reservations, help in space flights and direct nuclear weapons. They can even speak and make translations from one language to another. Computers are becoming more and more popular. Many small businesses such as shoe stores and restaurants are using small office computers. These businesses use computers for jobs, such as keeping inventory (counting how many shoes they have sold, and counting how many and what kinds they still have.) These computers can help the business-people make decisions about what to order, buy, deliver and so on. Home computers are also very popular. Everyone in the family can use these small, inexpensive devices. Children enjoy playing video games, like Pac-Man and River Raiders, on them. In addition, they can use these aids to learn and review schoolwork. Adults often use these computers to help with the household budget, amount of money to spend. These versatile machines can also type letters. Taken from the Ability to Risk 1. What do children use computers for? For _________________________. A) making more money B) keeping records of their video games C) playing games and doing school work D) keeping records of their family budget 133
  • 2. How do computers help human communication? By ___________________. A) directing nuclear weapons to other countries B) playing Pac-Man and River Raiders alone C) putting them in our pockets D) translating languages 3. How do office computers help business people? By ____________________. A) keeping updated sales inventories B) ordering from small restaurants C) promoting the delivery of shoes D) buying in small stores 4. Why are computers getting more and more popular? Because they _____________. A) serve humans in many fields B) are getting larger everyday C) represent money to spend D) can be analog 5. How many kinds of computers are there? There are ___________________. A) three: office, home, and letter-typing ones B) only two, analog and digital C) only large and small ones D) many sizes and kinds 134
  • 6. How are computers used in war and defense? To ______________________. A) guide nuclear weapons B) reserve tickets in airlines C) control the household budget D) know the amount of shoes in the stores http://images.google.co.cr/images EXERCISE 81.Read the text and choose the correct option to answer each question. http://images.google.co.cr/images MICROCHIPS. In 1960, the world of electronics saw the first success in developing miniature transistors on the surface of a thin slice of silicon. As years passed, such mini-transistors became microchips. 135
  • Among the microchips different is types MEMORY, of which stores data, and PROCESSING, which works with the data. Of the two basic memory chips, read-only memory (ROM) usually holds information that makes a device, such as computers or video games, work properly. The other, randomaccess memory (RAM), can be erased or added to, and when the power is turned off it disappears. RAM chips are used in computers and programmable calculators, so they can store a lot of data for brief periods. Microchips are hidden away in almost all modern electrical equipment, from televisions and cars to the satellites for which the chips were first developed. 1. What was the first hit in the world of electronics? ___________________. A) The invention of silicon B) The creation of microchips C) The development of mini-transistors D) To make transistors of water and silicon 136
  • 2. What is the importance of ROM memory chips? They ____________________. A) store information B) turn off the power C) erase video games D) have random access 3. Which memory microchip is capable of adding or eliminating information? A) The RAM ones. B) The ROM ones. C) Regular transistors. D) Miniature transistors. 4. What was the original objective of creating microchips? To use them in ____________________________. A) satellites B) computers C) programmable calculators D) almost all modern televisions 137
  • EXERCISE 82. Read this text. Choose the appropriate option to complete each sentence. http://images.google.co.cr/images COMPUTERS: HUMAN’S NEW ADDICTION. Computers have gradually revolutionized our lives. In the future, we will see many more changes and a faster rate. The postal system will virtually disappear due to e-mail use. Communications will be done through the computer. Libraries will become obsolete; information will be obtained via network. Computer physicians will be the new doctors and perform medical examinations to diagnose and recommend the most efficient treatment. Teachers too will be replaced by learning machines, and children won’t have to go to school anymore. Students will interact with their classmates by computer. Many of these technologies are already in use. For many years, airline companies have been training their pilots on simulators. Computers have become part of our daily lives, and some people cannot live without them. They become addicted to the screen and to the multitude of video games and simulations that the computer provides. 138
  • 1. The use of computers has _________________________. A) made libraries disappear B) made doctors quit C) changed our lives D) become obsolete 2. People will continue communicating by ______________________. A) learning machines B) electronic mail C) video games D) train 3. In the medical field, computers will be in charge of ________________________ A) examining the addiction of the computers B) substituting patients for machines C) the most inefficient treatments D) diagnoses and treatments 4. One disadvantage of using computers will be that ____________________ . A) they will make communication faster B) doctors will give worse diagnosis C) a lot of libraries will be overused D) users can become addicted 139
  • 5. The expression, ―Computers have become part of our daily lives‖ means that _______________________________________. A) people never use them B) people use them everyday C) people occasionally use them D) only skillful people can use computers 6. The text talks about the technology which ___________________________. A) people used, are using and will use in the future B) will make the kids go to school more often C) teachers will change D) libraries will replace http://images.google.co.cr/images 140
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images AN EARTHQUAKE. Shaken, stirred, tilted the magnitude 8.8 quake that struck central Chile February 27, one of the six largest temblors that have occurred since 1900, caused Earth's rotation to speed up by 1.26 microseconds each day and tilted the planet's axis about 8 centimeters.US Geological Survey The magnitude 8.8 quake that slammed central Chile February 27 knocked the entire planet for a loop — literally. The sudden, large-scale movement of tectonic plates that triggered the quake shifted immense masses of rock a few meters closer to Earth’s core, tilting the planet’s axis a few centimeters and imperceptibly shortening the day, analyses indicate. Disaster struck just after 3:34 a.m. local time, when seismic stresses that had been building for decades, if not centuries, let loose. Rocks along the interface between two 141
  • tectonic plates slipped past each other a distance of seven to 11 meters, says Jian Lin, a geophysicist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts. Those pieces of Earth’s crust — the South American plate and the Nazca plate, a continent-sized slab of seafloor that lies just west of South America — are colliding at an average speed of about 8 centimeters per year. ―This is one of the fastest plate convergence rates on Earth,‖ Lin notes. Rather than moving steadily, the plates can remain locked in place for long intervals and then slide past each other in quick bursts. The early-morning temblor, which involved slippage along a 400-kilometer stretch of the tectonic interface, is among the strongest ever recorded: Only four quakes since 1900 — including the largest on record, a magnitude 9.5 shock that shook southern Chile in May 1960 — have been larger, Lin says. ―The new quake picked up where the 1960 rupture ended,‖ he notes. That 1960 quake shifted stress northward to a part of the tectonic interface that remained locked. The redistribution of stress probably caused this year’s quake to occur earlier than it otherwise would have, says Lin. Such effects aren’t unknown — just three months after a magnitude 9.1 quake rocked northern Sumatra in late December 2004 (SN: 1/8/05, p. 19), a magnitude 8.6 temblor on an adjacent segment of the same subduction zone shook southern portions of the island (SN: 4/2/05, p. 211). Taken from: http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/56903/title/Earth_knocked_for_a_loop_+ EXERCISE 83. . Write a ten line composition about the reading: AN EARTHQUAKE. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 142
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images Twenty years ago, kids in school had never even heard of the internet. Now, I'll bet you can't find a single person in your school who hasn't at least heard of it. In fact, many of us use it on a regular basis and even have access to it from our homes! The 'net' in internet really stands for network. A network is two or more computers connected together so that information can be shared, or sent from one computer to another. The internet is a vast resource for all types of information. You may enjoy using it to do research for a school project, downloading your favorite songs or communicating with friends and family. Information is accessed through web pages that companies, organizations and individuals create and post. It's kind of like a giant bulletin board that the whole world uses! But since anyone can put anything on the internet, you also have to be careful and use your best judgment and a little common sense. Just because you read something on a piece of paper someone sticks on a bulletin board doesn't mean it's good information, or even correct, for that matter. So you have to be sure that whoever posted the information knows what they're talking about, especially if you're doing research! But what if you're just emailing people? You still have to be very careful. If you've never met the person that you're communicating with online, you could be on dangerous ground! You should never 143
  • give out any personal information to someone you don't know, not even your name! And just like you can't believe the information on every website out there, you can't rely on what strangers you 'meet' on the internet tell you either. Just like you could make up things about yourself to tell someone, someone else could do the same to you! EXERCISE 84. Answer the following questions about the reading above. 1-what is internet? _____________________________________________________ 2-what is a network? _____________________________________________________ 3-what tasks can you do using internet? ______________________________________________________ 4-do you use internet? ______________________________________________________ 5-why do people use internet? ______________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 144
  • SIXTH UNIT. MEN´S AND WOMEN´S ROLES http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification of men’s and women’s roles in a society. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to men’s and women’s roles. • Identification and validation of different aspects related to men’s and women’s roles. • Production of writing pieces about men and women roles. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about: ―men’s and women’s roles.‖ TOPIC: men’s and women’s roles LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of written reports.  Production of summaries and resumes. 145
  • GENDER, VIOLENCE. Abstract Various Latin American authors treat violence as a principal theme in their works. This inquiry examines the topic familiarity levels and comprehension of university level male and female second language (L2) readers with two different authentic violence-oriented texts. During two different testing periods 68 participants received: a 700 word reading passage, a written recall task, a multiple-choice test, and a questionnaire. The passages were by Horacio Quiroga, "The Decapitated Chicken" (DC), and the other by Mempo Giardinelli, "Slaughter at Naptime" (SN). While results revealed no significant gender differences in reported topic familiarity levels, females recalled more idea units and scored higher on the multiple choice than the males did for the DC passage, and these differences were significant. For the SN passage, no significant gender differences were found with both comprehension assessment tasks. The results of this study showed that while male and female readers at the advanced levels of instruction indicated being equally familiar with violence-oriented content of the target culture, females outscored their male counterparts on L2 comprehension tasks for texts that involved male-to-female violence. The overall findings indicate that females may have an advantage over males in the free written recall procedure. Though the results provide support for a multifarious model of L2 reading (Bernhardt, 1991), one cannot make the generalization that the apparent gender difference in the comprehension of passage DC is due to the victim’s gender. Consequently, future research should demonstrate this effect in the opposite direction with learners at various levels. Taken from: The Reading Matrix Vol. 4, No. 2, September 2004 http://www.google.co.cr/#hl=es&source=hp&q=male+gender+reading+exercises&btnG=Buscar+con+Google& 146
  • EXERCISE 85. Write a composition of ten lines about: ―Gender violence‖ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 147
  • ://images.google.co.cr/images BOYS AND GIRLS. Boys tend to play outside, in large groups that are hierarchically structured. Their groups have a leader who tells others what to do and how to do it, and resists doing what other boys propose. It is by giving orders that high status is negotiated. Another way boys achieve status is to take centre stage by telling stories and jokes, and by challenging the, stories and jokes of others. Boys’ games have winners and losers and elaborate systems of rules that are frequently the subjects of arguments. Finally, boys are frequently heard to boast about their skills, likes and possessions, and argue about who is best at what. Girls, on the other hand, play in small groups or pairs. The centre of a girl’s social life is her best friend. Within the group, intimacy is key: differentiation is measured by relative closeness. In their most frequent games, such as jump rope and hopscotch, everyone gets a turn. Many of their activities (such as playing with dolls) do not have winners or losers. Although some girls are certainly more skilled than others, girls are expected not to boast about it, or show that they think they are better than the others. Girls don’t give orders: they express their preferences as suggestions, and suggestions are likely to be accepted. http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/boysandgirls.pdf QUESTIONS. EXERCISE 86 .Answer the following questions using your own words: 148
  • 1. What do boys frequently argue about? ________________________________________________________________ 2. Why does everybody get a turn in girls’ games? ________________________________________________________________ 3. Are the following statements true or false? _______________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 87. WRITE FALSE, TRUE OR IT DOESN´T MENTION, ACCORDING TO THE READING. 1. Boys often boast about their abilities:____________________ 2. Girls’ activities are highly competitive: ____________________ EXERCISE 88. Find a word or phrase in the test which, in context, is similar in meaning to: 1. Humorous or funny anecdotes: ____________________ 2. Abilities: ____________________ EXERCISE 89. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct: 1. Boys gain leadership by a. caring and sharing b. voting democratically c. giving orders. 149
  • 2. Boys often argue about … a. their skill, likes and possessions. b. who wins and loses. c. playing with dolls. 3. Girls usually play… a. in big groups. b. in twos or not very large groups. c. chess because they don’t enjoy playing hopscotch or jump rope. 4. Girls… a. never boast about their skills. b. do not often boast about their skills. c. are more skilled than boys. EXERCISE 90. Composition (TEN LINES). Choose one of the following topics: 1. Are boys and girls so different? Give reasons. 2. Describe your ideal type of boy or girl. 150
  • ://images.google.co.cr/images Men’s and women’s roles Gender Differences. http://images.google.co.cr/images 1 It's true: Men and women are very different beings. Even with the numerous differences, it's quite possible that communication styles top the list. While both men and women communicate to share information, the similarities basically stop there. 2 When men communicate, they do so primarily to discuss ideas and to solve problems. They are more likely than women to dominate the conversation in social settings. Men also tend to interrupt other more often than women. 3 Women, on the other hand, communicate with the purpose of building relationships. They are more likely than men to allow interruptions and often are less assertive than men. On the other hand, women often communicate in a manner that is more warm, 151
  • friendly and understanding than the way men communicate. 4 It's no wonder men and women have difficulties understanding one another. Their communication styles are completely different and if they are not aware of it, it could cause problems in their relationship - whatever kind it is. EXERCISE 91. 1. Paragraph 2 reads 'They are more likely than women to dominate the conversation in social settings.' Who does 'they' refer to? a. men b. women c. neither d. both EXERCISE 92. 2. According to the passage, what are three qualities of women's communication that are less likely in men? a. __________________________ b. __________________________ c. __________________________ EXERCISE 93. 3. Which word in paragraph means 'mainly'? a. communicate b. primarily c. dominate d. interrupt 4. According to the passage, what could happen if you're not aware of the differences in communication styles? a. You will be able to share information. b. You might put a strain on your relationship. c. You could be too understanding. d. You might ask for too much information. 152
  • 5. Who are more likely to interrupt in conversation? a. men b. women c. both 6. Who are more likely to try to build a relationship with conversation? a. men b. women c. both 7. Who are more likely to allow more interruptions? a. men b. women c. both taken from : http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap http://images.google.co.cr/images 153
  • THE SOCIAL ROLES OF MEN AND WOMEN. http://images.google.co.cr/images. 1. In all societies the obvious biological difference between men and women issued as a justification for forcing them into different social roles which limit and shape their attitudes and behavior. That is to say, no society is content with the natural difference of sex, but each insists on adding to it a cultural difference offender. The simple physical facts therefore always become associated with complex psychological qualities. It is not enough for a man to be male; he also has to appear masculine. A woman, in addition to being female, must also be feminine. EXERCISE 94. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What does the society insist on? _______________________________________________________________ 2.Is it enough for a man to be male? _______________________________________________________________ 2. However, once the contrast between men and women has been increased and accentuated in this fashion, it is usually taken as a further manifestation of biological differences which confirm the need for different social roles. Or, to put it another way, sex differences are used to create gender differences which are then explained as sex differences which, in turn, require gender differences, and so on. This may be no more than circular reasoning, but it is socially very effective. For example, in our own patriarchal 154
  • society males enjoy a socially dominant position. Thus, from an early age, boys are helped to acquire a masculinity that allows them to assume and maintain that position. By the same token, girls are taught to cultivate a submissive femininity. The resulting difference in the male and female character is then described as inborn and used to defend the existing power arrangement. Only those who accept it are normal, and only they can expect to succeed. The male social role is designed to reward masculine men, while the female social role offers its relative advantages only to feminine women. (The aggressive man will run the bigger business; the pretty, agreeable woman will find the richer husband.) In other words, masculinity and femininity are gender qualities which are developed in response to social discrimination. However, once they have been developed, they justify and cement it. The masculine and feminine gender roles mutually reinforce each other and thereby perpetuate the inequality on which they are based. Obviously, this psychological mechanism can operate only as long as the behavior of men and women does not transgress the generally accepted limits. Every society tries therefore to prevent such transgressions by calling the socially defined gender roles "natural", eternal, and unchangeable. Any person who refuses to accept them is persecuted as a deviant and punished as an offender not only against society, but against "nature" itself. An historical example of such deviance is the case of Joan of Arc who, as a young girl, not only led the French army to victory over the English, but also wore male clothing. In her later trial she was promptly accused of having thus violated the laws of nature. 3. When the contrast between men and women has been increased, what happens? _______________________________________________________________ 4. What happens to boys at early eages? _______________________________________________________________ 4. Over the centuries, many people have, of course, wondered why allegedly "natural" roles should need such rigorous social enforcement. After all, if they were truly natural, they would "come naturally" to both men and women. However, it is noteworthy that the advocates of the so-called natural inequality of the sexes resent nothing more than letting "nature" take its course. Yet, if their arguments were true, there would be no need to deny women equal opportunities, since they would be unable to compete with men. If women were "naturally" inferior, men would have 155
  • nothing to fear. Therefore, the fact that many men do fear such competition raises sufficient doubt as to the validity of their claim. EXERCISE 95.ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What has happened during centuries? _______________________________________________________________ 2. What does it mean: nature, take its course? _______________________________________________________________ 4. The truth is that human desires and capacities have a tendency to go beyond the narrow limits of our traditional gender roles. Indeed, it takes a constant combined effort by all social authorities to keep this tendency under control. Such social control appears not only externally, in the form of parental guidance, peer-group pressure, and law enforcement, but also internally in the form of concepts and values which determine the self-image of every individual, and it is in the individual mind where the confusion of sex and gender can create the most serious problems. EXERCISE 96. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What is the truth concerning to human desires and capacities? _______________________________________________________________ 2. Where is the confusion of sex and gender? _______________________________________________________________ 5. For instance, men and women who feel that they do not fit the masculine and feminine stereotypes, or who resent them as too restrictive, may also develop ambiguous feelings 156
  • about their biological sex. They may begin to wish for different bodies which would allow them to play a role more to their liking. Or, to take another example, since men have been told that women are socially and sexually passive, they are usually gravely disturbed by encountering a woman who is socially aggressive and who takes the initiative in sexual intercourse. Confronted with this "lack of femininity" in a woman, a man may feel tempted to dispute her womanhood. If this contention does not hold up in face of the evidence, he may instead begin to doubt his own masculinity and become sexually dysfunctional. Conversely, a handsome, gentle, and passive male may invite ridicule and may be denounced as a "pervert" or "queer". "Real women" may regard him as less than a "real man" and therefore reject him as a sexual partner. EXERCISE 97. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS 1. How can people create ambiguous feelings? _______________________________________________________________ 2. May a handsome and passive man invite ridicule? _______________________________________________________________ 5. However, the confusion goes still further. The notion that in every sexual encounter there has to be one active (masculine) and one passive (feminine) partner is so persistent that it not only ruins many heterosexual relationships, but also influences the behavior of certain homosexuals who feel compelled to model themselves after these stereotypes. By doing so, they give support to the curious belief that even in sexual relationships between members of the same sex, there always has to be one to play the "man", while the other must assume the role of the "woman". There is, in fact a general impression that every homosexual couple (whether male or female) consists of one active, masculine and one passive, feminine partner. People who hold this belief are, of course, at a total loss to explain phenomena like the famous homosexual elite troops of ancient Greece, which consisted entirely of male lovers. 157
  • EXERCISE 98. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS: 1. Is there a global impression that all homosexual couple consists of one active and one passive? _______________________________________________________________ 2. How are considered people who hold this belief? _______________________________________________________________ 6. All of these views are based on a wrong conclusion drawn from a false assumption. The false assumption states that women are naturally passive, while men are naturally active. The wrong conclusion asserts that every passive person is playing a feminine role and that every active person is playing a masculine role. However, in actual fact neither sex nor gender need be characterized in this fashion. After all, in some human societies the role assignment for men and women is the reverse of our own. In short, there is nothing "natural" or definite about our sexual stereotypes. By the same token, full human equality will not be achieved until it becomes conceivable to both sexes that active and passive attitudes can be appropriate for either of them, and that even two "active" or two "passive" partners can have a rewarding relationship. EXERCISE 99. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS : 1. How is the role assignment for men and women in some human societies? _______________________________________________________________ 2.Is there something definitive about our sexual stereotypes? _______________________________________________________________ 3. This does not mean that, in an ideal future, all human differences will disappear. Indeed, once the old stereotypes have been discarded, the differences between individuals within each sex are likely to increase. Furthermore, under conditions of 158
  • social equality, these individuals may also happily continue to play different gender roles. There should be no need to point out that there is nothing wrong with gender differences as such. They can greatly enrich our lives, as long as we understand that, in human beings, "different" does not have to mean superior or inferior. In other words, those who demand equal rights for men and women are not asking for drab uniformity, but for a social climate in which variety can flourish without being exploited. EXERCISE 100. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS: 1. How is seen an ideal future? Taken from: http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ATLAS_EN/html/the_social_roles_of_men_and_wo.html http://images.google.co.cr/images By the time a child is six or seven she has all the essential avoidances well enough by heart to be trusted with the care of a younger child. And she also develops a number of simple techniques. She learns to weave firm square balls from palm leaves, to make pinwheels of palm leaves or frangipani blossoms, to climb a coconut tree by walking up the trunk on flexible little feet, to break open a coconut with one firm well-directed blow of a knife as long as she is tall, to play a number of group games and sing the songs which go with them, to tidy the house by picking up the litter on the stony floor, to bring water from the sea, to spread out the copra to dry and to help gather it in when rain threatens, to go to a neighboring house and bring back a lighted faggot for the chief's pipe or the cook-house fire. But in the case of the little girls all these tasks are merely supplementary to the main business of baby-tending. Very small boys also have some care of the younger children, but at eight or nine years of age they are usually relieved of it. Whatever rough 159
  • edges have not been smoothed off by this responsibility for younger children are worn off by their contact with older boys. For little boys are admitted to interesting and important activities only so long as their behavior is circumspect and helpful. Where small girls are brusquely pushed aside, small boys will be patiently tolerated and they become adept at making themselves useful. The four or five little boys who all wish to assist at the important, business of helping a grown youth lasso reef eels, organize themselves into a highly efficient working team; one boy holds the bait, another holds an extra lasso, others poke eagerly about in holes in the reef looking for prey, while still another tucks the captured eels into his lavalava. The small girls, burdened with heavy babies or the care of little staggerers who are too small to adventure on the reef, discouraged by the hostility of the small boys and the scorn of the older ones, have little opportunity for learning the more adventurous forms of work and play. So while the little boys first undergo the chastening effects of baby-tending and then have many opportunities to learn effective cooperation under the supervision of older boys, the girls' education is less comprehensive. They have a high standard of individual responsibility, but the community provides them with no lessons in cooperation with one another. This is particularly apparent in the activities of young people: the boys organize quickly; the girls waste hours in bickering, innocent of any technique for quick and efficient cooperation. Taken from: http://www.majortests.com/sat/reading-comprehension-test02 http://images.google.co.cr/images 160
  • EXERCISE 101. 1. The primary purpose of the passage with reference to the society under discussion is to A. explain some differences in the upbringing of girls and boys B. criticize the deficiencies in the education of girls C. give a comprehensive account of a day in the life of an average young girl D. delineate the role of young girls E. show that young girls are trained to be useful to adults 2. The word 'brusquely' (line 22) most nearly means A. quickly B. gently C. nonchalantly D. abruptly E. callously 3. The list of techniques in paragraph one could best be described as A. household duties B. rudimentary physical skills C. important responsibilities D. useful social skills E. monotonous tasks 161
  • 7. It can be inferred that the 'high standard of individual responsibility' (line 38) is A. developed mainly through child-care duties B. only present in girls C. taught to the girl before she is entrusted with babies D. actually counterproductive E. weakened as the girl grows older. 5. The expression 'innocent of' (line 42) is best taken to mean A. not guilty of B. unskilled in C. unsuited for D. uninvolved in E. uninterested in 6. It can be inferred that in the community under discussion all of the following are important except A. domestic handicrafts B. well-defined social structure C. fishing skills D. formal education E. division of labor 162
  • 7. Which of the following if true would weaken the author's contention about 'lessons in cooperation' (line 39)? I Group games played by younger girls involve cooperation II Girls can learn from watching boys cooperating III Individual girls cooperate with their mothers in looking after babies A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and II only E. I, II and III 8. Which of the following is the best description of the author's technique in handling her material? A. Both description and interpretation of observations. B. Presentation of facts without comment. C. Description of evidence to support a theory. D. Generalization from a particular viewpoint. E. Close examination of preconceptions. 163
  • http://images.google.co.cr/images The Hours That Count in My Life. Time is very important in our lives. It organizes our everyday moments. However, time never had any importance in my life until I received a watch from my father that organized my life and made me more responsible. It came from Denmark to the U.A.E. jewelry shop in a gray box. It weighs 8 oz. It's round in the center with two silver bands that go around my wrist. And all of it is made of silver. This object tells me the importance of time in my life. I received this gift on a gray-sky day. I had to go to the airport at 9:00 AM to pick up my Uncle Ali and take him to my father's house. However, I was late because I was hanging out with my friends. Later on that day, around 11:00 AM, I remembered my uncle, but I was very late for him. He had left the airport and taken a taxi to my father's house. I got to my father's house at 2:00 PM on the same day and looked at my angry father's face. I felt ashamed of myself at that moment. After I said hi to my angry father and tired uncle, my father asked me to sit next to him where he handed me this watch which was a gift from him. Then he said, "Essa did you have fun with your friends today?" I answered, "Yes father, and I'm sorry about not picking up my Uncle Ali." He said, "What you did was not very nice and you should be sorry for your actions." I was ashamed and said, "Father I'll never do it again. I promise." He said, "I hope today you learned something important, and this watch will be a reminder for you." He told me to take this watch and use it as an organizer of my life. I learned a very important lesson from my father: to respect time and never be late to get someone. This watch is important to me, not because of its price, but because of the lesson that I learned from it 164
  • EXERCISE 102. Read the following exercises and mark with an x the best option, according to the reading. 1 When did time become important to Essa? A. When he was playing with his friends B. When he lost his watch C. When he received a watch from his father D. When he went to Denmark E. When he met his Uncle Ali 2 Which of the following is NOT true about Essa's watch? A. It came from his father. B. It weighed about one pound. C. It was made of silver. D. It will be a reminder to Essa. E. It helps to organize his life. 3 Which of the following is true? A. Essa was playing with his friends at 2:00 PM. B. Uncle Ali took a taxi to Essa's father's house. C. Essa was supposed to pick up his father at the airport. D. Essa never tried to pick up his uncle at the airport. 165
  • 4 Which happened last? A. Essa was playing with his friends. B. Essa went to meet his Uncle Ali at the airport. C. Essa's father talked with him about being on time. D. Essa got a watch. E. Essa arrived at his father's house. 5 At the end of the story, which was NOT important to Essa? A. Pleasing his father B. Playing with his friends C. The watch D. The price of the watch E. Being on time and treating people nicely. http://legacy.lclark.edu/~krauss/toppicks/watchjumble1.htm 166
  • SEVENTH UNIT SENIOR CITIZENS AND MINORITY GROUPS http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification of senior citizens and minority groups in a society. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to senior citizens and minority groups in a society. • Identification and validation of different aspects related to senior citizens and minority groups in a society. • Production of writing pieces about senior citizens and minority groups in a society • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about: ―senior citizens and minority groups in a society‖. TOPIC: Senior citizens and minority groups. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of written reports.  Production of summaries and resumes. 167
  • Senior citizens. At the same time every morning, Paul Bookout sits impatiently in his wheelchair, looking out the front door of the Grace Living Center. He's not waiting for family visitors, and he's not longing to be away from this nursing home. He's waiting for the children. Just before 9 a.m., a stream of five-year-olds comes through the door, calling out greetings and hugging their "Grandpa Paul." Though Bookout can't speak as a result of a stroke, he points and smiles with delight as he follows these kindergartners to the door of their classroom, here in the nursing home. The Grace Living Center is home to two classrooms of about 60 kindergarten and prekindergarten students, as well as to 170 elders, who are "grandmas" and "grandpas" to the students. Kids attend the center in lieu of the first two grades at another school in the district, and then switch at the start of first grade. Far from just a heartwarming partnership, the school housed in the GLC provides students with daily mentors in their academic and social development, yielding proven results in reading and vocabulary. Its success has inspired the opening of a similar school in Kansas and is a model for intergenerational learning, even in more traditional settings. The partnership came about in 1998, when Don Greiner, president of an Oklahoma nursing home chain, started construction on a facility in Jenks. Noticing a school districtowned daycare center next door, Greiner approached the district about upgrading the playground, thinking that the sight of kids playing could uplift his residents. The idea of a collaboration snowballed as the GLC and Jenks Public Schools found that their goals aligned. Taken from: http://www.edutopia.org/grace-learning-center-prekindergarten-community Taken from: http://www.edutopia.org/grace-learning-center-prekindergarten-community 168
  • EXERCISE 103. After reading the passage about: senior citizens answer the following questions: 1. Who is Paul Bookout? ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What exactly does he do every morning? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. How many elders are there in this experience with children? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Who is Greiner? _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What does he do exactly? ______________________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 169
  • Senior Citizen Longevity & Statistics Study Finds We Are Winning the War on Cancer as Death Rates Decline Steadily Since 1990. For those under age 75, drop in cancer death rate between 1970-2006 resulted in about 2.0 million years of potential life gained March 9, 2010 – We are winning the war on cancer, declares the author of a new study that finds a downturn in cancer death rates since 1990. This favorable trend is mostly due reductions in tobacco use, increased cancer screening to detect cancers early, and improvements in treatment for specific cancers. Senior Citizens May Be Significantly Shortening Lives by Too Much Time Watching TV. New study focused on television watching but suggests any prolonged sedentary behavior, such as sitting at a desk or in front of a computer, may pose a health risk, too Jan. 11, 2010 - Self destruction, if not against the law in most states, is certainly frowned upon everywhere. But, it does not stop senior citizens from watching television over 200 hours a month, which, according to a new study, increases their risk of death from cardiovascular disease about 36 percent – and about 22 percent from all causes. Exercise & Fitness for Senior Citizens Physical Activity Has Anti-Aging Effect on Cardiovascular More from U. of Utah System: German Study ● Measuring telomerase Utah scientist reports on emerging importance of may be a new way to telomeres in aging, cancer and maybe immortality; seniors detect cancer. with short telomeres most likely to die – see ● Among people older below story than 60, those with shorter Dec. 1, 2009 – People who engage in regular telomeres were three physical activity are gaining an anti-aging times more likely to die from heart disease and weapon that will help them live longer lives. eight times more likely to New research finds intensive exercise prevents die from infectious aging of the cardiovascular system by preventing disease. shortening of telomeres – the DNA that bookends the chromosomes and protects the ends from damage, a protective effect against aging. 170
  • Senior Citizen Longevity & Statistics Texas Researchers to Determine if Rapamycin Extends Human Life as it Does for Mice $5.2 million from stimulus funds to back project at Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Oct. 6, 2009 – Can the antibiotic rapamycin be the silver bullet? Will it extend the lives of humans as it has mice? Answers may come from new research at the Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, a research facility of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, which just received a $5.2 million grant awarded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA). http://seniorjournal.com/SeniorStats.htm http://images.google.co.cr/images EXERCISE 104. Scan the passages about ―senior citizens‖ and write down, the most ten important sentences, you can find in the reading. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 171
  • Few minority groups achieve top council jobs. August 04, 2009 The increase in ethnic minority staff at Reading Borough Council is not keeping pace with the ethnic mix in the community. That was the view of Reading Council for Racial Equality’s director Rajinder Sohpal. The Reading Borough Council ethnic minorities forum looked at the latest figures at a meeting in June and found in March 2008 – the latest available figures for Reading – the council had 12.3 per cent ethnic minority staff with 4.9 per cent in the high earning bracket with salaries of more than £42,687. At the time Europe and community development officer Grant Thornton said: ―For this report to be meaningful, we need to show how Reading is performing in relation to neighboring authorities.‖ Since then get reading has been seeking out the comparable figures from some of Reading’s statistical neighbors and they show despite the comparatively good progress Reading has made in recruiting ethnic minority staff, it’s not doing so well in promoting them to top jobs. The figures for 2008 are: - Bristol City Council – 6.73 per cent ethnic minority staff, 4.19 per cent high earners. - Brighton and Hove City Council – 4.45 per cent ethnic minority staff, 4.19 per cent high earners. - London Borough of Bromley – 11.7 per cent ethnic minority staff, 4.2 per cent high earners. - Milton Keynes Council – 7.94 per cent ethnic minority staff, 4.64 per cent high earners. - Reading Borough Council – 12.3 per cent ethnic minority staff, 4.9 per cent high earners. - Derby City Council – 12.1 per cent, 7.47 per cent high earners. Mr Sohpal said: ―I think Reading has over a number of years put in an effort to improve diversity of the council and still can do more. ―However, I don’t believe it should hide behind the poor performance of other councils.‖ He said the most recent figures suggested the ethnic mix in Reading stands at 20 per cent – particularly since the arrival of people from Europe – and council staffing levels should reflect that. He thought low levels sometimes indicated a lack of confidence members of ethnic minorities have in getting a job. Reading Borough Council spokesman Oscar Mortali said the proportion of black and minority ethnic (BME) council staff excluding school-based employees was 12.5 per cent. This compared with a BME proportion in the working population in Reading of 12.9 per cent according to 2001 census data, the council’s current target figure. ―Last year the Ethnic Minorities Forum heard levels of recruitment of BME staff across the council were in the region of 14 per cent,‖ he said. ―And the same forum was recently told the proportion of BME staff has increased within the council year on year since 2002 – with 381 employed at this time, rising to 488 in April 2009. The council is aiming for further improvements in this area.‖ The personnel committee asked for a report in September to ensure there are no barriers to fair recruitment. http://www.getreading.co.uk/news/s/2055155_few_minority_groups_achieve_top_council_jobs 172
  • EXERCISE 105.Make a ten line composition about: minority groups use the reading: ―Few minority groups achieve top council jobs.‖ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 106. Read the following commentary about this reading, and write your opinion about the commentary. I agree with your comments Dustybin. However, when we interviewed for NHS candidates and I myself for posts there was a section on the application forms that asked about sickleave. Obviously, I guess people lie about this. Not enough honesty or respect anymore. Just glad I left the country when I did! PC and the nanny state are ruining Britain. The government has ruined Great Britain. Who voted for them anyway? http://www.getreading.co.uk/news/s/2055155_few_minority_groups_achieve_top_council_jobs Victoria _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 173
  • EIGHTH UNIT MASS MEDIA http://images.google.co.cr/images THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification of mass media communications world wide. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to mass media communications. • Identification and validation of different aspects related to mass media communications. • Production of writing pieces about mass media communications. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about: ―mass media communications‖. TOPIC: Mass media communications. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of written reports.  Production of summaries and resumes. 174
  • The mass media. Television. A TV set A TV remote control A TV aerial antena A digital receiver A satellite dish EXERCISE 107. Answer the following questions about: television. 1. Have you used a TV remote control? ______________________________________________________ 2. Do you know what a satellite dish is? ______________________________________________________ 3. Can you explain what a digital receiver is? Explain. ______________________________________________________ 175
  • Types of TV programs. Documentaries ----------- News broadcasts Sports programs Weather forecasts Commercials Games shows Music Cartoons EXERCISE 108. Movies Series Choose four programs from the box above, and then answer the following questions. Use long answers. 1. Why do you choose these programs? Explain. _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 176
  • 2. What kind of programs do you prefer and why? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ TV channels. News News National Channel Channel Channel Cartoons Music Sports Channel Channel Channel Movies Documentar Channel eis Channel EXERCISE 109. Choose four TV channels from the box, and then answer the following questions, use long answers. 1. What channels did you choose? Why? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 177
  • Radio. The activity of broadcasting programs through the air for people to listen to. Radio programs. News Music Arts and cultures Sports programms Debates Commercials Radio Stations. News Music Art and culture Sports programms 178
  • EXERCISE 110.Choose two radio stations from the list above and give an explanation why. 1.________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Newspapers. EXERCISE 111. Answer the following questions about newspapers. Give long answers. 1. Do you like to read newspapers? 2. What sections do you prefer to read? Why? _________________________________________________ 179
  • Parts of a newspaper. Headlines Economics Politics Sports News Scandal Horoscope Crosswords Cartoons The Sunday Times Le Figaro The New York Times Taken and adapted from: http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-51064.php EXERCISE 112. Write a composition about: Newspapers. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 180
  • ANSWER KEY. EXERCISE 1 1. A 2.B 3.D 4.B 5.C EXERCISE 2 1.B 2.C EXERCISE 3 1. D 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.A 6.D EXERCISE 4 1. FALSE 2.TRUE 3.TRUE 4.FALSE 5.TRUE 6.TRUE 7.FALSE EXERCISE 5 1. A.SKINNY B.HEADED C.SCARRED 2. PERSONAL ANSWERS. A, B, C, D, 181 D.BITTERNESS/RETRACES
  • EXERCISE 6 PERSONAL ANSWERS. A-___________B-____________C-______________D-_____________ EXERCISE 7 A-FREIRE LIVED TO TELL THE STORY OF HER BULIMIA.HOWEVER, THE EXPERIENCE HAS LEFT HER SCARED FOR LIFE. B-FREIRE SAYS: ―CUANDO COMER ES UN INFIERNO‖ OFFERS A REALISTIC AND A PERSONAL VIEW OF BULIMIA. C-FREIRE HAS SPENT FOR TWO MONTHS AS A VISITING WRITER TO VARIOUS UNIVERSITIES. EXERCISE 8 1-HAD 2-LISTENED 3-TOLD 4-DESCRIBED 5-LIVED EXERCISE 9 A AND B, PERSONAL ANSWERS. EXERCISE 10 A-TRUE B-FALSE 182
  • EXERCISE 11 A-FLAVOR B-RANK EXERCISE 12 C-IN THE FIRST POSITION B-YOU CAN EAT IT A-BAD FOOD EXERCISE 13 A- ITS FOOD IS ―HIGH-FAT, HIGH-SALT AND HIGH SUGAR FOOD‖ B-HE TURNED THE COMPANY`S FORTUNE ROUND. EXERCISE 14 2. A-TRUE B-TRUE EXERCISE 15 A-SUPPLIER FRANCHISE B-OWNERS EXERCISE 16 4.1. B 2.C 3.A 4.A 183
  • EXERCISE 17 COMPOSITION ―ADVANTAGES OR DISADVANTAGES OF FAST FOOD.‖ EXERCISE 18 1-B 2-A 3-A 4-D EXERCISE 19 WRITE A COMPOSITION: TABLE MANNERS EXERCISE 20 1-C 2-C 3-B EXERCISE 21 1-D 2-D 3-C 4-D 5-B EXERCISE 22 1-IT COMES FROM ITALY. 2-IT IS MADE OF PASTA, MEAT, TOMATOE, SAUCE AND CHEESE. 3-IT IS POPULAR IN UK. 4-YOU CAN MIX HAM, ONION, LEELES AND SPARRAGUS. 5-IT IS FROM CHINA. 184
  • 6-IT IS MADE OF PORK MIXED WITH SUGAR, ONION, GARLIC, PINEAPPLE AND SOY SAUCE. 7-IT COMES FROM INDIA AND THAILAND. 8-DIFFERENT MEATS AND VEGETABLES. EXERCISE 23 1-YOU MAY BE STILL ABLE TO TAKE ADVENTAGE OF THE FREE APPETIZERS. 2-IT IS NOT FOR THE HEALTH CONSCIOUS. 3-IT IS SERVED EXTREMELYHAPHA ZAUDLY. 4-IT IS A RICE DRINK MIXED WITH CENNAMON AND SUGAR. EXERCISE 24 1-HE GOES TO THE RESTAURANT. 2-HE ORDERS A SLICE OF PIZZA, A CUP OF TEA AND A CARTON OF MILK. 3-HE ASKS HIM, IF HE WANTS SOMETHING ELSE? 4-HE FEELS FULL. 5-HE GOES TO HIS WORK. EXERCISE 25 1-ARE YOU READY TO ORDER? 2-YES, I`D LIKE A SOUP, A SMALL ONION SOUP. 3-I ALSO WANT THE CHICKEN SANDWICH. 4-DO YOU WANT SOMETHING TO DRINK? 185
  • 5-YES, I`D LIKE SOME TEA, PLEASE 6-WHAT CAN I GET FOR YOU? 7-I`D LIKE A LARGE BOTTLE OF BEER. 8-I`D LIKE A LARGE SALAD. 9-WOULD YOU LIKE ICE CREAM? 10-DO YOU WANT FRENCH FRIES? EXERCISE 26 A-COFFEE B-APPLE C-A BANANA F-CHEESE G-PUMPKIN H-BEENS D-EGG E-MUSHROOMS I-COOK J-A GLASS OF JUICE EXERCISE 27 1-INCREASES IN URBAN POPULATION, INCOME, VACATION TIME AND MOVILITY. 2-IF TOUR OPERATORS AND LEGISLATORS CONSIDERED HOW BEST TO INTEGRATE TOURISM INTO THE EXISTING CULTURE. EXERCISE 28 (F) (F) EXERCISE 29 3- A- GROW B-CHEAP 186
  • EXERCISE 30 1-A 2-C 3-A 4-C EXERCISE 31 1-A 2-C 3-B 4-D 5-B EXERCISE 32 -WRITE A PARAGRAPH (PERSONAL) 1-BECAUSE IT IS AN ICON IN FRANCE. 2-THE STRUCTURE WAS BUILT BETWEEN 1887 AND 1889 AT THE ENTRANCE ARCH FOR THE EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE A WORLD`S FAIR MARKING THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 3-YES, I WOULD BECAUSE … NO, I WOULDN`T BECAUSE… EXERCISE 33 1-IT IS IN PARIS, DOWNTOWN/FRANCE. 2-BECAUSE IT HAS A LOT OF TREASURES. 3-YES, I DO BECAUSE… NO, I DON`T BECAUSE… EXERCISE 34 1-B 2-A 3-C 4-A 5-B 187
  • EXERCISE 35 1-B 2-D 3-C EXERCISE 36 1-D 2-A 3-D 4-C EXERCISE 37 PARAGRAPH 1 A.BECAUSE TODAY AND YESTERDAY HAVE BEEN TWO OF THE MOST INTERESTING AND INTENSE DAYS AT THE ACTION CAMPAIGN. B-IT IS A POWERFUL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. C-THE EXECUTIVE OF UNAIDS. D-YES, HE DID PARAGRAPH 2 A-SET OF SHIRTS B-HE SAT IN THE SECOND ROW NEXT TO A JOURNALIST. C-LEAD TO DANCING CIRCLES. D-LIVE TACVIVA. 188
  • PARAGRAPH 3 A-THE EXECUTIVE OF UNAIDS. B-TWO SANDWICHES-CHEESE AND WEIRD MEAT, A JUICE BOX AND AN APPLE. PARAGRAPH 4 A-HE WENT TO A HIV RALLY. B-IN THE DAY. C-A SHOW HIV T-SHIRT. D-A BLACK WOMAN, SHE SAID IT IS DANGEROUS TO WEAR THE TSHIRT E-PROUD AND HAPPY. PARAGRAPH 5 A-THEY WERE IN A MEETING. B-THE HEAD OF TAC, ZACKRE ACHMAT. C-HE WALKED BACK TO THE TRAIN. D-YES, HE DID EXERCISE 38 A-INTENSE B-RUN ON A TIGH SCHEDULE D-FISCAL NEEDS E-CLINIC TREATING C-CAME UP F-ONE BY ONE CAME OUT THE NEXT OR THE PAST LEFT OF A WAY OR DISTANCE G-BRAVELY WITHOUT FEAR. H- CONTINUED TO WALK ON AND THOUGHT… I-ETCHED 189
  • EXERCISE 39 1-TWO OCCASIONS, IN THE TRAIN AND THE SHIP MONGOLIA. 2-BOMBAY TO CALCUTTA. BECAUSE THE WAY HASN`T FINISHED YET. 4-AN ELEPHANT. 5-HE WAS NOT INTERESTING ABOUT INDIA. EXERCISE 40 1-THE BUILDING OF A TUMB TO PROTECT HIS BODY AFTER DEATH. 2-THEY WERE LARGE BLOCKS OF STONE. 3-THE HEAVY WORK WAS MADE BY PEASANTS AND SLAVE LABOURERS, DURING THE FLOOD SEASON WHEN IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO FARM. 4-PAINTINGS, CARVINGS AND STATUES OF THE GODS. 5-NO, NOT ALL OF THEM BUILT PYRAMIDS. THEY BUILT TEMPLES, HUGE STATUES AND OBELISKS. EXERCISE 41 1-D 2-D 3-B 4-A EXERCISE 42 1-D 2-B 3-C 4-D 190
  • EXERCISE 43 1-FALSE 2-TRUE 3-TRUE 4-FALSE 5-TRUE 6-FALSE 7-TRUE EXERCISE 44 1-THE PURPOSE OF A RESUME IS TO TELL AN EMPLOYER WHAT A PERSON HAS DONE IN THE PAST. 2-BECAUSE IT HAS TO BE VERY SPECIFIC TO THE JOB APPLIED FOR. 3-IT IS THE ONE THAT EMPHASIZES SKILLS. 4-STAY AWAY FROM SLANG LANGUAGE AND AVOID USING CONTRACTIONS. 5-THE COLLEGE MENTALITY ―LAID BACK‖. 6-THEY GIVE THE OOPPORTUNITY TO POINT SOMETHING ABOUT YOU 7-YES, I HAVE / NO I HAVEN`T EXERCISE 45 1-B 2-A 3-C 4-B 5-B 6-A 7-A EXERCISE 46 1-5 2-6 3-2 4-1 5-3 6-4 EXERCISE 47 1-IT IS ABOUT EMMA 2-BECAUSE SHE WANTS TO WORK. 3-AS A CLERK. 4-ADMINISTRATOR. 191 8-C
  • 5-SOLICITOR COMPANY. 6-TWO YEARS. 7-SHE DOESN`T HAVE ANY CHANCE OF PROMOTION. 8-SHE IS MOVING TO LEICESTER CITY. 9-HER ADDRESS IS 23 TERRACED WALK, DERBY EE 23 3 GP 10-NO, SHE IS GOING TO RENT A HOUSE. 11-MOM LIVES IN 8 CEDARS LANE SWINCOTE AND DERBY. 12-AFTER THE 30 TH, SHE CAN BE CONTACTED THERE. 13-ON HER MOVIL AFTER 6 PM. 14-THIRTEEN OR MORE 15-CURRICULUM VITAE. 16-CURRICULUM VITAE (RESUME) 17-SHE DOESN`T KNOW IT 18-PERSONAL ANSWER 19-PERSONAL ANSWER EXERCISE 48 1. PHARMACISTS (PERSONAL COMPOSITION) EXERCISE 49 2-ENGINEERING (PERSONAL COMPOSITION) EXERCISE 50 1-ABOUT PILOTS. 2-MOST PILOTS FLY PEOPLE AND CARGO FROM PLACE TO PLACE. 3-IT IS A FATIGUE CAUSED BY MOVING THROUGH DIFFERENT TIME ZONES. 192
  • 4-PILOTS OFTEN ARE ASKED WORK ODD HOURS.IF THEY DON`T WORK FOR AIRLINES CAN HAVE UNUSUAL WORK SCHEDULES. 5-PERSONAL ANSWER 6-PERSONAL ANSWER 7-PERSONAL ANSWER EXERCISE 51 COMPOSITION ABOUT PILOTS (PERSONAL) EXERCISE 52 1-A 2-A 3-D 4-D EXERCISE 53 1-D 2-B 3-A EXERCISE 54 4-SERVERS COOKS DISHWASHERS HOSTS TABLE CLEANERS FOOD PREPARES EXERCISE 55 5-B 193
  • EXERCISE 56 6-CLOTHING, SHOES AND OTHER ACCESSORIES. EXERCISE 57 A-5 B-6 E-3 C-2 D-1 F-4 EXERCISE 58 1-POLICE OFFICER 2-TRUCK DRIVER 3-DENTIST 4-TEACHER 5-FARMER 6-ACCOUNTANT 7-SECRETARY 8-VETERINARIAN 9-ELECTRICIAN 10-NURSE EXERCISE 59 1-SUCCESS 194
  • EXERCISE 60 2-D 3-C 4-C 5-C 6-D EXERCISE 61 PERSONAL COMPOSITION. ORGANS AND SYSTEMS. EXERCISE 62 PERSONAL COMPOSITION. MICROSCOPES. EXERCISE 63 1- PERSONAL ANSWER. 195
  • EXERCISE 64 MAKE A DRAWING OF A PLANT AND ITS PARTS. (EXAMPLE) http://images.google.com/images EXERCISE 65 A-SHE WAS CONSOLED BY THE FACT HER HUSBAND LLAN HAD DIED CHASING HIS DREAM. B-THREE E MAILS, ONE TO HIS WIFE, OTHER TO BILL CLINTON AND THE OTHER TO SHIMON PERES. 196
  • EXERCISE 66 2- TRUE /FALSE A-FALSE B-FALSE 3-LANDING EXERCISE 67 1-A 2-A 3-A 4-A EXERCISE 68 PERSONAL ANSWER. ―SPACE TRIPS‖ EXERCISE 69 1-A 2-D 3-B 4-D EXERCISE 70 A-VESSEL B-LAVISH C-GAMBLE D-BUDGET E-SUCCESS 197
  • EXERCISE 71 A-IT MEANS, THE TITANIC MOVIE GOT ITS DESTINATION THIS TIME. B-THEY USED 77 MILLION LITERS OF SEA WATER. C-EVERYTHING IN THE MOVIE IS BIGGER AND EXPENSIVE. EXERCISE 72 A-BIG B-IT ARRIVES TO ITS DESTINATION. C-IF EVERY DETAIL OF THE FILM WAS AS LIFELIKE AS POSSIBLE HE WASN`T CONTENT. EXERCISE 73 4-BEGAN ATE POISONED STARTED EXERCISE 74 5-PERSONAL COMPOSITION. 6-PERSONAL COMPOSITION (TITANIC SHIP) EXERCISE 75 Math the appropriate word to the definition. G ICON D SURF 198
  • B SOFTWARE A MOUSE C TO DOWNLOAD F INTERNET H NETWORK E VIRUS EXERCISE 76 1-WHEN WE FIRST APPERED ON EARTH. 2-THOMAS EDISON INVENTED THE PHOTOGRAPH.IT WAS NOT A PRACTICAL TOOL. 3-TODAY WE HAVE THE CHOPPER. 4-TO HAVE AN INPACT ON MAN´S LIFE. 5-PERSONAL COMPOSITION (PRODUCTS IN OUR HOSE WITH …) EXERCISE 77 1-THERE ARE MORE THAN ONE MILLION DIFFERENT SPECIES. 2-SWEDE INVENTED THE SYSTEM ABOUT 250 YEARS AGO. 3-LANGUAGE IS USED FOR NAMING INSECTS BECAUSE IT IS UNDERSTOOD ANYWHERE ON EARTH. 4-BUGS, SPIDERS, TICKS AND CENTIPEDES ARE OFTEN MISTAKEN FOR INSECTS. 5-THE EASIEST TO SPOT AN INSECT IS TO COUNT THE BODY PARTS AND LEGS. 199
  • EXERCISE 78 COMPOSITION (THE MOST IMPORTANT TEN SENTENCES ABOUT: INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) EXERCISE 79 1-C 2-A 3-C 4-A EXERCISE 80 1-C 2-D 3-A 4-A 5-B 6-A 5-B 6-A EXERCISE 81 1-C 2-A 3-A 4-A EXERCISE 82 1-C 2-B 3-D 4-C EXERCISE 83 EXERCISE.COMPOSITION 10 LINES. ―AN EARTHQUAKE.‖ EXERCISE 84 1-IT IS AN INTERNATIONAL NET TO COMMUNICATE EACHOTHER. 2-IT IS TWO OR MORE COMPUTERS CONNECTED TOGETHER. 3-PROJECTS, DOWNLOADINGS, COMMUNICATE WITH FRIENDS AND FAMILY. 4-YES, I DO / NO, I DON´T 5-BECAUSE IT IS AN USEFUL TOOL. 200
  • EXERCISE 85. PERSONAL COMPOSITION .TEN LINES. ―GENDER VIOLENCE‖ EXERCISE 86 PERSONAL ANSWERS. 1-______________ 2-______________ 3-______________ EXERCISE 87 1-TRUE 2-FALSE EXERCISE 88 1-TELLING STORIES AND JOKES 2-SKILLS EXERCISE 89 1-C 2-A 3-B 4-A EXERCISE 90 PERSONAL COMPOSITION ABOUT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TOPICS: ―ARE BOYS AND GIRLS DIFFERENT?‖ ―DESCRIBE YOUR IDEAL TYPE OF BOY OR GIRL.‖ 201
  • EXERCISE 91 1-A EXERCISE 92 2-DOMINATE THE CONVECTION IN SOCIAL SETTINGS. PURPOSE OF BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS. WOMEN COMMUNICATE WARMER. EXERCISE 93 3-B 4-C 5-A 6-B 7-A EXERCISE 94 1-IT INSICTS ON ADDING TO IT A CULTURAL DIFFERENCE OFFENDER. 2-NO, IT IS NOT. 3-IT IS USUALLY TAKEN AS A FURTHER MANIFESTATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES WHICH CONFIRM THE NEED FOR DIFFERENT SOCIAL ROLES. 4-THEY ENJOY A SOCIALLY DOMINANT POSITION. EXERCISE 95 1-―NATURAL‖ ROLES SHOULD NEED SUCH RIGOROUS SOCIAL ENFORCMENT. 2-IT IS NOTEWORTHY THAT THE ADVOCATES OF THE SOCALLED NATURAL INEQUATITY OF THE SEXES RESENT NOTHING MORE THAN LETTING NATURE TAKES ITS COURSE. 202
  • EXERCISE 96 1-THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO GO BEYOND THE NARROW LIMITS OF OUR TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES. 2-IT IS IN THE INDIVIDUAL MIND. EXERCISE 97 1-WHEN THEY DON´T FIT THE MASCULINE AND FEMININE STEROTYPES. 2-YES, HE MAY EXERCISE 98 1-YES, THERE IS. 2-THEY ARE AT A TOTAL LOSS TO EXPLAIN PHENOMENA LIKE THE FAMOUS HOMOSEXUAL ELITE TROOPS OF ANCIENT GREECE, WHICH CONSITED ENTERELY OF MEN LOVERS. EXERCISE 99 1-MEN ARE ACTIVE AND WOMEN ARE PASSIVE. 2-NO, THERE IS NOT. EXERCISE 100 1. ALL HUMAN DIFFERENCES WILL DISAPPER. EXERCISE 101 1-A 2-D 3-B 4-B 5-E 203 6-C 7-E 8-A
  • EXERCISE 102 1-C 2-B 3-B 4-E 5-D EXERCISE 103 1-HE IS A SENIOR CITIZEN. 2-HE WAITS FOR CHILDREN TO VISIT HIM. 3-THERE ARE 170 ELDERS. 4-HE IS THE PRSIDENT OF AN OKLABOMA NURSING HOME CHAIN. 5-HE IS IN CHARGE OF THE NURSING HOME CHAIN. EXERCISE 104 PERSONAL ANSWER. WRITE THE TEN MOST IMPORTANT SENTENCES ABOUT ―SENIOR CITIZENS‖ EXERCISE 105 A-PERSONAL COMPOSITION OF TEN LINES. ―FEW MINORITY GROUPS ACHIVE TOP COUNCIL JOBS‖ EXERCISE 106 B-PERSONAL OPINION. EXERCISE 107 1-YES, I HAVE. / NO I HAVEN´T 2-YES, I KNOW/NO I DON´T KNOW 3-YES, I CAN /NO I CAN´T 204
  • EXERCISE 108 1-CHOOSE 4 PROGRAMS AND EXPALIN WHY. (PERSONAL ANSWER) EXERCISE 109 2-PERSONAL ANSWER. EXERCISE 110 1-PERSONAL ANSWER. EXERCISE 111 1-YES, I LIKE TO READ NEWSPAPERS NO, I DON´T LIKE TO READ NEWSPAPERS. 2-I PREFER…BECAUSE… WRITE A PERSONAL COMPOSITION OF TEN LINES ABOUT: EXERCISE 112 ―NEWSPAPERS.‖ ___________________________________________________ http://images.google.co.cr/images 205
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/mcdonal http://www.miguelmllop.com/practice/intermediate/readingcomprehension/mcdonal http://petercherches.blogspot.com/2006/12/reading-comprehension.html http://childcare.about.com/od/behaviors/a/tablemanners.htm http://www.esl-galaxy.com/reading/World%20Food%20maze http://www.destination360.com/central-america/costa-rica/dining http://www.esl-galaxy.com/reading.html http://www.esl-galaxy.com/writing/new/At%20the%20Restaurant.pdf http://www.angelfire.com/pq/pic/pic9.html http://www.myownresources.com http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap Reading Room Home. http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap http://www.bls.career http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index. http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap 206
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  • BIBLIOGRAPHY 2.  ARA Content what the colleges’ graduates do? Reading comprehension.  EL PAIS English edition with the International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2002  Grammar Strategies and Practice. Reading comprehension passages.  Inglès Educaciòn Diversificada. Programas de studio 2005. MEP.  La naciòn. Computer network. Reading comprehension.  Ministerio de Educación Pública. (2001). Programas de Estudio de Inglés III CICLO Y EDUCACIÓN DIVERSIFICADA. San José: MEP.  Senior journal magazine. Senior citizens readings.  PRISM. , fast food reading comprehension passages.  Play and Learn. Reading honey butter.  P Z Guide Costa Rica. Enjoy Costa Rica. Reading pasajes.  TESL Journal .occupations. Reading compression.  The Reading Matrix  Wikipedia. International space station. Reading comprehension passage. Vol. 4, No. 2, September 2004. 208
  • DIGITAL LINKS 1. Aprender Inglés ESL / EFL. En http://www.supercable.es/~lallena/aprender.html Cons 2. Curso de inglés online. En http://www.curso-ingles.com/ 3. El Blog para Aprender Inglés. En http://elblogdelingles.blogspot.com 4. English.class.eu En http://www.english-class.eu/?gclid=CJ38ve2b40CFRqsOAoddAuWPA 5. La Mansión del Inglés. En http://www.mansioningles.com/NuevoCurso.htm 6. Mosa Studio. Aprendiendo Inglés Fácil y Rápido. En http://aprendiendoingles.wordpress.com/2007/05/26/las-1215-reglas-paraaprender-ingles/ 7. OM Personal Multimedia English. En http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/ 8. Quizzes. En http://webs.ono.com/lallena/Quizzes.html 9. Saber inglés. En http://www.saberingles.com.ar/ 10. WordChamp Learn Language Faster. En http://wordchamp.com/lingua2/Home.do 209