TABLE OF CONTENTS.
INDEX ................................................................................................................................ 2
I - TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS
AND BEHAVIOURS AT THE TABLE ....................................................................... 4
II- TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE ................................................................... 38
III -JOB DEMAND ......................................................................................................... 68
IV -CAREERS ................................................................................................................ 86
V- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ........................................................................ 106
VI- GENDER: MEN’S AND WOMEN’S ROLES ................................................. 146
VII- SENIOR CITIZENS, MINORITY GROUPS ................................................... 169
VIII- MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS ................................................... 176
ANSWER KEY ............................................................................................................ 184
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 ..................................................................................................... 208
BIBLIOGRAPHY2 ...................................................................................................... 210
DIGITAL LINKS .......................................................................................................... 211
TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS, AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE.
THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT:
DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOODS, HABITS AND TABLE MANNERS.
Asking for and giving information about food.
Suggesting someone to do something.
Evaluating the results of an action or event.
TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE.
Presentation Of Written Pieces Conveying Information About:
Types Of Food, Eating Habits And Behaviors At The Table.
Eating healthy foods is one of the greatest ways you can live healthy and combat
developing a disease. Some diseases are genetic and there's not much you can do about
that. But others like diabetes 2, lung cancer, and heart disease and might be prevented
with the proper diet. Below is a list of healthy foods and some of the body parts they
1. Basil is a great herb to add flavor to just about anything you are cooking, but
also has many other benefits that may cause you to add it to your diet. It is
known to reduce blood pressure and ease the symptoms of emphysema and
bronchitis. Basil also makes a good natural insect repellent when rubbed on
2. Dietary fibber promotes regularity, helps control caloric intake and promotes
weight loss. It may also reduce the risk of certain cancer and cardiovascular
diseases, and help people with diabetes control their blood sugar.
3. Vegetables and fruits are our most nutrient-dense foods. They contain the
greatest amounts of nutrients per calorie of any food. Many nutrients,
including the ones that fight against cancer and heart disease are found in
fruits and vegetables.
4. Vegetables have fewer sugars than fruits.
5. Spinach is an excellent example of a nutrient-dense vegetable. Spinach
provides at least 50 % of the rdi for vitamin a, and about 20% of the rdi for
vitamin c. spinach is a good source of iron, calcium, and folate.
6. Asparagus is high in folate content (20 to 50% of rdi per serving). folate is a
nutrient identified as being important for pregnant women.
7. Pumpkin is an excellent source of vitamin a (as carotene), providing over 300
percent of the rdi. And canned pumpkin appears to have much more vitamin
a than fresh-cooked pumpkin. this may be due to the fact canned pumpkin
has more water cooked out of it than boiled pumpkin, and the varieties used
for canning have intense orange color, a sure sign of carotene. Pumpkin is a
good source of fibber and adds a little iron and folate to the diet as well.
8. Sweet bing cherries are a good source of fibber. They provide about two
grams per 1/2 cup serving.
9. Apricots are a great source of beta-carotene, vitamin c, potassium and iron.
Apricots are very good sources of vitamin a (as carotene). They provide
about 35% of the rdi per serving.
10. Apricots are low in calories. 3 apricots only contain 50 calories.
11. Strawberries are a good source of vitamin c. They provide between 35 and
136 percent of the rdi per 1/2 cup serving. Strawberries are also a good
source of fibber and iron. They provide about two percent and 3.5 percent
respectively per 1/2 cup serving.
12. Soy nuts are high in protein and isoflavones.
EXERCISE 1. Read the sentences and mark with an x, the best alternative (a,
b, c, d) according to the reading.
1. What is a good diet for?
A. to avoid dangerous diseases
B. to get dangerous diseases
C. to buy dangerous diseases
D. to make dangerous diseases.
2. How do people weight loss?
A. using a fruit dietary
B. using a fibber dietary
C. using a fish dietary
D. using a sweet dietary
3. What is an excellent source of iron and calcium?
4. In what food do people can get carotene?
5. If you need vitamin c, in what food can you get it?
D. soy nuts
1. When you sit down to eat, use a napkin to clean your mouth if necessary.
2. Clean your hands on the tablecloth or your clothes.
3. Put only small pieces of food into your mouth.
4. Eat big pieces of food. You’ll finish faster.
5. Eat with your mouth closed.
6. Don’t close your mouth when you chew.
1. Suggestions with the numbers _________ are good table manners.
1 and 2
1 and 3
3 and 4
2 and 5
2. Recommendation Nº 6 is considered ______________ in Costa Rica.
EXERCISE 3.Read the information and choose the alternative that best
completes each sentence.
RICE AND VEGETABLES
2 cups of rice
- 2 Tbsp of cooking oil
1 Tbsp minced garlic
- 1 cup of green peas
1 Tbsp chopped onions
- 4 cups of water
½ cup of chopped red pepper
- 2 cubes of beef
½ cup of finely chopped carrots
- 2 Tbsp of salt
Fry the garlic and onion, add the red pepper, carrots and green peas. Remove from heat
when all ingredients are fried sufficiently. Add water, beef, salt and rice. Mix and cook until
the Multi-Use-Rice cooker turns off automatically.
1. In this recipe, you need a half cup each of _______________________.
water and salt
rice and onions
green peas and oil
red pepper and carrots
2. The first step to follow is to ______________________.
fry the garlic
add green peas
mix the ingredients
3. The recipe needs two vegetables: ________________________.
salt and oil
rice and meat
beef and cubes
carrots and peas
4. In recipes, ―Tbsp‖ stands for _______________________.
tiny table spoons
5. Once all the ingredients are well fried, they should be _____________ the heat.
moved away from
6. When the rice is already cooked, ______________________________.
you put the beef
you add the water
the appliance has all the ingredients
the appliance turns off automatically
"Fish and chips" is deep-fried fish in batter with deep-fried potatoes, and a popular takeaway food. Fish and chips is originally from the United Kingdom, but also very popular in
Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and some coastal towns of the
Netherlands and Norway; and also increasingly so in the United States and elsewhere. For
decades it was the dominant (if not the only) take-away food in the United Kingdom.
The fried potatoes are called chips in British and international usage; and while American
English calls them French fries, the combination is still called "fish and chips". (Potato
chips, an American innovation, are a different potato-derived food, and are known as
crisps in the United Kingdom.)
Fish and chips have separately been eaten for many years – though the potato was not
introduced to Europe until the 17th century. The originally Sephardi dish Pescado frito, or
deep-fried fish, came to Netherlands and England with the Spanish and Portuguese Jews
in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The dish became popular in more widespread circles in London and the south-east in the
middle of the 19th century (Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in Oliver
Twist) whilst in the north of England a trade in deep-fried "chipped" potatoes developed.
It is unclear when and where these two trades were merged to become the fish and chip
shop industry we know today. The first combined fish and chip shop was probably the one
opened in London by Joseph Malin in 1860.
During World War II, fish and chips were one of the few foods that were not rationed in the
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from
the Wikipedia article "Fish and chips". You can explore more on the Wikipedia website.
The text and the images are used here only for educational purposes.
and chips are popular only in England.
We don't know.
2. Americans call "French fries" what British call "chips".
We don't know.
3. Americans call "chips" what British call "crisps".
We don't know.
4. The potato was introduced to Europe in the 18th century.
We don't know.
6. The dish became popular in the 19th century.
We don't know.
6. The first fish and chip shop was opened in the 19th century.
We don't know.
7. Fish and chips were not eaten during World War II.
We don't know
When it comes to potentially lethal eating disorders, adolescent girls are the highest risk
category. Many simply don't survive and while 28-year-old-basque writer espido freire lived
to tell the story - literally – of her seven-year-fight with the binge-and-purge eating disorder
bulimia, the experience has left her scarred for life. in her new book cuando comer es un
infierno, released yesterday, freire painfully retraces those seven long years because, as
she says, "if a writer isn't able to lend a voice to those who aren't capable of expressing
themselves, then part of their vocation has been lost." according to freire, cuando comer
es un inferno "offers a realistic and personal view of bulimia - the seven years of suffering
and the strength it took to get over them." arriving at barajas airport earlier this week from
scotland, where she has spent the last two months as a visiting writer to various
universities, freire headed straight for her home in Madrid but couldn't avoid noticing the
billboards filled with skinny models advertising next season's fashion on the road home.
They immediately reminded her of her book and the exhaustion she felt after writing about
the darkest period of her life.
Freire has a strong desire to tell her story - but still, she warns, she doesn't want to
become a poster girl for bulimia. she doesn't just have that story to tell, she stresses. As a
writer, she was the youngest-ever winner of the planeta award with her second novel
melocotones helados in 1998.
Her first two books were works of fiction but now, in cuando comer es un infierno, she has
gone down the autobiographical road to recount, with some bitterness, her difficult
adolescence - cataloguing her terrible daily battles with the weighing scales.
(EL PAIS English edition with the International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2002)
EXERCISE 5.Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. Guessing vocabulary from context. Read each definition below and choose the
word from the list that matches the definition. There are two left.
Lethal, scarred, released, retraces, headed, skinny, bitterness.
(a) Very thin: ________________
(b) Went, moved in a particular direction: ___________________
(c) Marked, wounded: __________________________
(d) Anger, resentment: ___________________________ made available to the public:
EXERCISE 6. (PERSONAL ANSWERS)Answer the following questions according to
the text. Try to use your own words.
(a) Why is bulimia defined as a deadly eating disorder?
(b) What did Freire think when she saw the billboards with skinny models?
(c) What literary prize did Freire received for one of her books?
(d) How does Cuando comer es un inferno differ from Freire's previous two
EXERCISE 7. Rewrite the following sentences maintaining the same meaning.
(a) While Espido Freire lived to tell the story of her bulimia, the experience has left her
scarred for life. (However)
(b) According to Freire, Cuando comer es un infierno "offers a realistic and personal
view of Bulimia." (Freire says ....)
(c) Freire has spent the last two months as a visiting writer to various universities. (For)
EXERCISE 8. Complete the following paragraph with the correct form of the verb in
In order to write Cuando comer es un infierno, Freire____________________ (1. have) to
relive her own difficult past. She also ____________________
(2. Listen) to 20 case histories from other bulimics, some ____________________ (3. tell)
to her directly, others over the Internet, and some via telephone. In one of the book
chapters, Freire ____________________(4. Describe) her life after the eating disorder.
"For almost the last eight years, I____________________ (5. Live) an absolutely normal
life," she says.
British food best in the world.
A British restaurant that serves bacon and egg ice cream has been voted the best place in
the world to eat in Restaurant magazine’s list of The World’s 50 Best Restaurants. The Fat
Duck restaurant, which was runner-up last year, claimed the coveted top spot. Owner and
head chef Heston Blumenthal opened his restaurant ten years ago and soon developed a
reputation for highly experimental and unorthodox dishes. The menu includes leather, oak
and tobacco chocolates, sardine on toast sorbet, snail porridge, and mousse dipped in
liquid nitrogen. He is self-taught and has pioneered the art of “molecular gastronomy” experiments with chemistry, physics, food and flavour that result in unique and unusual
Nearly 600 international restaurant owners, chefs and journalists participated in the poll to
rank the best restaurants worldwide. A further thirteen British restaurants made it onto the
elite eateries list, four in the top ten. This gives the home of fish and chips an unusual
reputation as a culinary paradise. Britain is infamous for its bland and uninspiring food,
which is scoffed at by the more sophisticated palates of its French neighbours. However, it
seems the tide is turning: France had only eight restaurants in the top fifty and London was
named in March by Gourmet magazine as the Gourmet Capital of the World. Ella
Johnston, editor of Restaurant magazine, said British people are now “becoming more
EXERCISE 9. (PERSONAL ANSWERS).Answer the following questions
using your own words.
a. Did Blumenthal go to a cooking school in the past?
b. How does Blumenthal get these original tastes?
EXERCISE 10. Are the following statements True or False?
a. France had only eight restaurants in the top fifty _________________
b. All the judges that participated in the poll were British: _______________
EXERCISE 11. Find a word or expression in the text which, in context, is similar in
a. Tasteless: _______________ b. Prized: _______________
EXERCISE 12. Choose a, b, or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct.
―Last year, the restaurant mentioned in the text was voted...‖
A. in the third position.
B. in the second position.
C. in the first position.
―Tobacco is important in this restaurant because...‖
A. you can smoke it.
B. you can eat it.
C. you can chew it.
―Great Britain has always been famous for‖
A. its bad food.
B. its good food.
C. its good cuisine.
McDonald’s boss dies suddenly.
The Chief executive of McDonald’s, the world’s largest fast-food chain, has died from a
suspected heart attack. Jim Cantalupo, 60, was taken ill during a meeting of franchise
owners in Orlando, Florida, the company said. His death is a severe blow to McDonald’s at
a time when the chain is trying to shed its image as a supplier of high-fat, high-salt and
In his 16 months at the helm, Mr Cantalupo turned the company’s fortunes round. As well
as slowing its breakneck expansion programme and closing hundreds of under-performing
outlets, he tried to address criticisms that McDonald’s was contributing to the obesity
epidemic in the US and Europe. When Mr Cantalupo became chairman and chief
executive in January last year after a management shake-up, Mc Donald’s was in the
Changing tastes, the mad cow disease scare and the perception that its menu was tired
had hit sales, particularly in Europe and Asia. In December 2002, McDonald’s went into
the red for the first time in its 48-year history. Mr Cantalupo, a former vice-chairman and
president, who had retired a year earlier, was brought back as the new boss.
EXERCISE 13. Answer the following questions using your own words.
a. What impression do people have about McDonald’s food?
b. What did Mr Cantalupo achieve in the 16 months he was in charge of McDonald’s?
EXERCISE 14. Are the following statements True or false?
a. Mr Cantalupo felt ill while meeting with French clients in Orlando.__________
b. Mr Cantalupo was already retired when he became McDonald’s boss again.
EXERCISE 15. Find a word or expression in the text which, in context, is similar in
a. A group of shops or restaurants owned by the same company:
EXERCISE 16. Choose a, b, or c, in each question below. Only one choice is correct
1. In order to save the company Mr Cantalupo tried to
a. promote the company’s fast expansion.
b. defend the company from accusations of contributing to obesity.
c. change people’s tastes.
2. Mr Cantalupo
a. broke his neck in Orlando.
b. worked for the company for 48 years.
c. had been McDonald’s president before.
3. McDonald’s sales had declined specially in Europe and Asia due to
a. scare mad cows.
b. a change in people’s food preferences.
c. a change in McDonald’s menu.
4. In December 2002 McDonald’s
a. was in debt for the first time in its history.
b. was furious with Mr Cantalupo.
c. forced Mr Cantalupo to retire.
EXERCISE 17. Composition. What are the advantages or disadvantages of fast food?
Fast food is good for you. Not only fast food is delicious, it is also nutritional. Fast food
contains many of the nutrients all human beings require to lead active, healthy lives. Some
fast food also, contains vitamins, and everybody knows how important vitamins are.
Fast food comes in many forms. The most common kinds of fast food are hamburgers and
hot dogs, but there are many other varieties. Fish and chips have been popular in England
for centuries, and now Americans too are enjoying this wonderful, nutritional delicacy. If we
take a little time to examine the history of fast food we can learn a lot about many different
cultures. For instance, did you know that a Chinaman invented pizza?
There are many people who feel that fast food is not good for you. They have a right to
their opinions, because America is a free country, but they are wrong. They are wrong
because fast food is good for you.
EXERCISE 18. After reading the above passage, read the following
sentences and mark with a ―X‖ the best option (a, b, c, d)
1. A good title for this passage would be:
a) America, Land of the Free.
b) Foods of the World.
c) The Truth about Pizza.
d) Eating Sensibly.
2. The main idea of this passage is:
a) Fast food is good for you.
b) Vitamins are important.
c) Free speech is an important right which many people abuse.
d) You can have your cake and eat it too.
3. Fast food contains:
c) Fish and chips.
d) Many different cultures.
4. America is a free country because:
a) Ignorant people have the right to their opinions.
b) Fast food is good for you.
c) Fast food is free.
d) Americans can eat other people's food.
This was originally published in Condensed Book, along with other reading comprehension quizzes. It was,
of course, inspired by the educational materials of my Cold War youth.
Your youngsters may know how to sit still, use a napkin, and how to cut with a knife and
fork, but do they really know proper table manners? The holidays, weddings, anniversary
celebrations, school dances, and other social events are prime occasions for kids to
demonstrate appropriate table manners. However, far too many parents somehow assume
that their kids will know how to act, what to do (and not to do), and how to exhibit proper
table manners--only to be embarrassed by a youngster's double-dipping, slurping, or
demonstrations of finger-lickin' good! You've taught them most everything they know up to
now, so take time and teach them table manners basics that will dazzle at the next
occasion. Here's how to get started:
Teach kids how to greet relatives and guests. Many kids simply don't know what to
say or the appropriate action to take. If the occasion is at your home or you're serving
as host, instruct your kids about properly opening the door and taking any coats. (Show
them how to hold them and not to roll them up in a wad.) Teach them how to properly
shake hands and how to appropriately hug relatives, especially elderly or individuals
If you're serving appetizers, ask your youngsters to act as a host/hostess. Instruct
them what to ask, how to not interrupt conversations, and to tell them what the choice is.
If they are on the receiving end of an offering of hors d'oeuvres, be sure to tell them how
to say hors du'oeuvres and what it means to avoid the normal kid reaction of "what's
that?" Instruct them how to take one or how to graciously refuse. If it is an item that
sounds unappetizing to a kid's palate (and many do), tell them to simply decline
without offering any commentary about how it looks, smells, or seems to taste.
At the table, show them how to pull out a seat for a guest and to hold it and help
them scoot to the table. Boys can do this for ladies or girls, and boys or girls can do the
same for older guests as a sign of respect.
Teach kids how to place the napkin in the lap and how to sit up straight and near
the table. Be sure to let youngsters know not to plop their elbows on the table.
Practice table manners such as passing food, asking for something rather than
reaching across the table to get it (and risk spilling a drink or worse), and to take only as
much as they know they'll eat. The proper table manners protocol is to pass food from
left to right (counterclockwise).
Talk with kids about how tables are set up, where forks, knives and spoons go, why
sometimes there are utensils above the plates and what particular order means (using
the outside utensil first). Emphasize that proper table manners are for everyone to be
served and the host/hostess to pick up a fork to begin eating.
Talk about the no-no's of "double-dipping," slurping, licking fingers, or the evertempting dragging a finger across the side of an item to taste it (i.e. icing on the cake).
Practice sitting up straight and not hunched over, and remind them to bring food
from their plate to their mouth and not hunker down over it.
Explain bread etiquette and how bread plates are positioned to the upper left of a
dinner plate. Kids need to learn not to butter the entire piece of bread; rather, butter is
placed on the bread place, and then a bite-sized piece is to be buttered only. Explain
how some breads are to be "torn off" with your hands while other types may need to be
cut. Younger kids won't be apt to understand the differences, but older ones should be
able to make a distinction.
Practice napkin use about how they should wipe their mouth appropriately, and
where to put the napkin if they need to get up or go to the bathroom.
EXERCISE 19. After reading the text above, make a written report about table manners,
according to the passage; try to use your own words.
EXERCISE 20. Read the text and choose the correct alternative to answer the questions.
HONEY BUTTER FROSTING.
You will need:
Beat the butter, which should be at room temperature, until
3 oz (85g) butter
soft but not oily.
7 oz (200g) icing sugar
1 tbsp honey
1 tbsp lemon juice
Gradually, shift in about 6 oz (170g) icing sugar.
1 sponge cake
Add the honey and beat again.
Add the lemon juice and beat again.
Take the sponge cake you bought or baked (or other cake
suitable for frosting)
Carefully cut the cake into two layers.
Spread your frosting on top of the bottom layer.
Put the top layer back on and sprinkle icing sugar over the
Taken from Play and Learn
1. How many ingredients do you beat when preparing the frosting? ____________ .
All of them
None of them
Only two ingredients
2. What kind of texture should the butter have? ______________ .
3. Which ingredient is used at two different moments in the recipe? __________ .
EXERCISE 21. Read the article and choose the correct alternative to
complete each sentence.
Fast food is the food people sell in many inexpensive restaurants. The food is called ―fast‖
because you get it quickly. Often, you can go in the restaurant, order your food, eat it, and
leave the place, all in 20 minutes. The kind of food you get in fast food restaurants is
hamburgers, cheeseburgers, hot dogs, French fries, and fried chicken. Other kinds of fast
food like the pizza are not prepared so fast. To drink, you get sodas or milkshakes. Since
families like to come to these restaurants, they are also called family restaurants. Fast
food is a big business in the United States and many countries because it’s cheap, fast
and popular. Every day, more than 48 million people visit these restaurants. They are,
mainly, people who don’t have time to cook at home. In the past, fast food restaurants
worked from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., so they were a good choice for lunch, a coffee break or
dinner. At present, most of them are usually open 24 hours which includes snack breaks
and breakfast. Business people say that one important aspect about fast food restaurants
is that they have the chance of buying the food in the restaurant, but eating it somewhere
else. That’s called the ―to go service.‖ Another possibility is to stay home and order by
means of the ―express service.‖
Taken from PRISM.
1. Another name people give to fast food restaurants is _____________ restaurants.
2. It is impossible to order ______________, eat it, and leave the restaurant, all in 20
a hot dog
3. In the past, it was impossible to enjoy ____________ in a fast food restaurant.
a coffee break
4. People can use _________________ if their time is too limited to stay in the restaurant.
a good excuse
a big business
the ―to go service‖
5. In the past, fast food restaurants had a shorter ____________________.
kind of food
Lasagna comes from Italy. It is made of pasta, meat, tomato sauce and cheese.
Sometimes, people add eggplant. Omelet is popular in the UK. You can mix ham, onions,
leeks and asparagus into the egg to make a delicious omelet. Sweet and sour pork is from
China. In this dish, there are small pieces of pork, mixed with sugar, onion, garlic,
pineapple and soy sauce. The sauce tastes very sweet. Curry comes from India and
Thailand. You can use different meats and vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower.
EXERCISE 22. Questions.
1. Where does lasagna come from?
2. What is it made of?
3. Where is omelet popular?
4. What can you mix to make a delicious omelet?
5. Where is sweet and sour pork from?
6. What is the dish made of?
7. Where does curry come from?
8. What different things can you put in curry?
Costa Rica food.
You'd think with the thousands of miles of coastline available and the country's heavy
exportation of shrimp and lobster that these items would be amongst the most inexpensive
when considering food from Costa Rica. But you'd be wrong. Pick either of these
delicacies on the menu with caution, since they are often pricy and prepared listlessly.
If you visit soon, you may still be able to take advantage of the free appetizers still offered
in some Costa Rican bars. Once found in nearly every location, the opportunity to get
some free food (with drink order, of course) is diminishing, with many bars now charging
normal prices for items such as fried plantains, minced pear with corn, tamales and fried
yuca. But any budget traveler can expound on the beauty of a free meal - so ask around,
most locals are happy to point you in the right direction.
Food from Costa Rica is not for the health conscious, obviously, but there are still a few
things for those who shun large portions of meat or fried foods. Untold amounts of wealth
have been derived from the country's banana and coffee exports, and for good reason.
The bananas here are nothing like you've had before, and none of the other abundant
tropical fruits found here are likely to disappoint. Mangoes are one of the most popular
foods in Costa Rica, along with pineapples, papayas and a variety of melons. The coffee,
however, is served extremely haphazardly throughout the country. Since the highest
quality coffee is usually set aside for export, this beverage is all over the map in terms of
taste and preparation. If the cafe you're in serves their coffee weak and sugary, go down a
few blocks and you will likely find the exact opposite. The finest drink to go along with
Costa Rica foods is called Horchata, a rice drink mixed with cinnamon and sugar, with
emphasis on the cinnamon. Wildly popular throughout all of Central America, one taste
and you'll know exactly why.
EXERCISE 23. Answer the following questions about the reading, use long
1. What happens if you visit soon, some of the bars in Costa Rica?
2. How is food from Costa Rica?
3. What about the coffee?
4. Can you write what horchata is?
Tom wants to eat breakfast. He goes to the restaurant. He is hungry. He orders
a slice of pizza, a cup of tea and a carton of milk. The waiter asks Tom if he
wants something else. Tom says, he wants a piece of cheese and a bowl of
soup. Tom eats all his food and pays the bill. He is full now. He goes to work.
EXERCISE 24. Answer the following questions:
1. Where does Tom go? _________________________________
2. What does he order? __________________________________
3. What does the waiter ask him? ___________________________
4. How does Tom feel after eating? _________________________
5. Where does Tom go after eating? ________________________
At the Restaurant – Ordering food.
EXERCISE 25.With the following scrambled words, make a good question or
an affirmative sentence.
1. Ready Are you order? To
2. I'd like a soup. Yes. A small onion soup.
3. the want I also sandwich. chicken
4. want Do drink ? you to something
5. tea, Yes. some like I'd please,
6. What for you? get can I
7. large a of bottle I'd like beer.
8. . a I'd large like salad.
9. like Would cream? ice you
10. french you want ? Do fries
EXERCISE 26. FOOD EXERCISE VOCABULARY.
FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE APPROPIATE WORD FROM THE BOX.
/A BANANA. /A PUMPKIN / AN EGG / A COOK /AN APPLE / BEANS / CHESSE / A
GLASS OF JUICE / A COFFEE / MUSHROOMS/
TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE.
THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT:
IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS RELATED TO
Identification of news, brief items, and non factual materials about
Use of some advice and reports about tourism including current issues
Evaluation of content related to tourism, etc.
Identification and validation of different aspects related to tourism.
Identification of relations between ideas within texts related to tourism
TOPIC: worldwide tourism.
Identification of registers and evaluation of content.
Identification of main points, ideas or important information.texts, ideas
Identification and use of cognates and derivatives.
Taming the tourists.
The era of mass tourism in the mountain regions of industrialized countries
began soon after World War II. This new phenomenon was a result of many factors,
including increases in urban populations, income, vacation time, and mobility.
Today, in the era of cheap, global air travel, almost no mountains in any corner
of the world are out of reach. Moreover, `adventure tourists' and `ecotourists' are willing to
pay well, and their money is very welcome to poor governments and communities.
Although stories about the problems caused by tourism have become increasingly
frequent in recent years, it is not necessarily a destructive force. The situation could be far
better if tour operators and legislators considered how best to integrate tourism into the
existing culture, with a minimal impact on the environment, and without host countries
becoming too dependent on it. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution, because
people's desire to see new places will not just disappear.
But the real key to the problem lies in giving indigenous communities greater control over
the rate at which tourism grows, and the paths it takes. Encouragingly, more and more
communities are demonstrating that, with firm decision-making, this is possible.
EXERCISE 27.(PERSONAL ANSWERS)
Answer the following questions
using your own words.
a) Why did mass tourism in the mountains begin?
b) According to the text, what is the principal way to reduce the negative effects
EXERCISE 28. Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)?
a) There are still a lot of inaccessible areas in the mountains. (
b) Some people are controlling the growth of tourism in their communities. (
EXERCISE 29. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to:
a) Inexpensive __________________________
b) Increases ____________________________
EXERCISE 30. Choose a, b, or c, in each question below. Only one choice is correct.
1. Mass tourism in the mountains...
a) Was a result of World War II.
b) Occurred partly because people had more money.
c) Helped to improve income and mobility.
2. Nowadays, mountain communities...
a) Are happy to receive money from tourism.
b) See tourism as an impossible problem.
c) Are willing to pay well to visit new destinations.
3. Tourism is not necessarily a problem if...
a) It is integrated into the local culture.
b) It is not accepted by the community but integrated into its culture.
c) It can be avoided, causing minimal impact on the environment.
4. According to the text, we need to...
a) Reduce people's desire to see new places.
b) Restrict tourism in rural areas.
c) Control the growth of tourism and how it develops.
Tourist attractions are places of evoking interest which are impregnated with a high degree
of historical significance as well as cultural value including original or built and is
beautiful. These may also be the places evincing amusement opportunities.
some instances of tourist attractions are historical places, zoos, museums, aquaria,
buildings as well as structures, botanical gardens, forests, national parts, national and
international railways, airways, theme parks, cultural pageants, carnivals, as well as
exhibits of defense services including cultural events.
Tourist attractions may include imaginary descriptions of various events happening in the
country with their pictures as well as these descriptions will enable giving the desired fillip
to these tourist attractions by viewers from worldwide. These can be exhibited in the form
of exhibitions or trade fairs which will take care of all these attractions and its viewer
ships. There can be a stall on the various ethnic communities prevailing in the country as
well as their activities and their cultural values as well as hobbies. These will impregnate
these exhibitions with the other forms of exhibits as outlined above to attract large viewer
ships from worldwide.
For these tourist attractions, a lot of promotional brochures and detailed informations from
diverse activities outlined above can be provided to viewers for their easy viewing and also
appreciating the cultural heritage behind it for the purposes of enlightenment of knowledge
on all round basis. These can be supplemented by a plethora of fast food restaurants,
hotels, motels, or lobbies, and lounges. These tourist attractions can also include various
memorials of top dignitaries which will enable proper assembling as well as assimilations
of various subjects from varieties of angles for nurturing these tastes, choices, and
Many companies can design a lot of brochures, plan, advertising activities, as well as bring
about a whole range of products and services which will enable proper pricing of their
goods and services from the point of view of making seasonal sales and marketing efforts
for driving business growth and profitability. These tourist attractions places are also
known as traps of tourists for the purposes of constructive marketing.
To conclude, worldwide there are plenty of tourist attractions places which cannot be
visited in one visit at a time. Therefore, you will have to plan meticulously your travel plans
as well as your budget, from time to time, to visit all these places to entertain yourself as
well as your families. There are a lot of travel agents who are interested in organizing your
trips to all these places and such agents should be tapped.
EXERCISE 31. Read the following questions and mark with an ―x‖ the correct
option (a, b, c, d) according to the reading.
1. What are some examples of tourist attractions worldwide?
A. museums, international railways and national parks.
B. international railways, zoos and religious activities.
C. zoos, historical places and homemade food.
D. cultural pageants, a parrot and national railways.
2. How can people get information about tourist attractions worldwide?
A. eating homemade food at home.
B. reading their special recipe.
C. watching special issues in magazines.
D. buying food at the corner store.
3. What is a tourist trap for?
A. For the specific purpose of being happy.
B. for the specific purpose of making marketing.
C. for the specific purpose of doing food.
D. for the specific purpose of drinking water.
4. Can people visit tourist attractions places in one visit at a time?
A. no, they do not do it.
B. no, they will not do it.
C. no, they would not do it.
D. no, they can not do it.
5. Who is interested in making trips to tourist places worldwide?
A. All the people worldwide.
B. All the travel agents.
C. All the teachers worldwide
E.All the musicians worldwide.
This is a very famous land mark
worldwide, it is in Paris downtown,
It is named: Eiffel Tower , you can get to
the top using an elevator or stairs.
When you are onthe top, you have a
beautiful view of Paris and the Seine
This land mark was built with the tinking
of a very important engineer , named :
gustave eiffel .
The structure was built between 1887 and
1889 as the entrance arch for the
Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair
marking the centennial celebration of the
Now days is a famous icon in the world
Writing: Write a short paragraph about France.
Answer the following questions, use long answers.
1.Why is it The Eiffel tower a fomous landmark worldwide?
2.Write some important facts about this landmark.
3.Would you like to visit France and visit this monument ? Explain why
This glass pyramid is in the entrance of the famous Luovre
Museum in Paris. The pyramid was build to conmemorate the
ANSWER THE QUESTIONS,USE LONG ANSWERS.
1.Where is The Louvre museum ?
2.What is The louvre museum famous worlwide for ?
3.Do you like to go to see this famous museum ?
Around the world, there are many man-made constructions that are considered famous
landmarks. Some, like the Great Wall of China, are leftovers from the seven wonders of
the ancient world. Others, like Big Ben in London, are more modern than the wall, but still
of significant historic importance. Most designate something about their country of origin
that the world wants to remember. In France, with a rich history of culture and art, among
the most famous landmarks are the Louvre art museum and the Eiffel tower. Marvels of
ancient science including the pyramids in Egypt and the great sphinx as well as the
aqueducts and great coliseum are among the most famous landmarks in the world. Other
historical and famous landmarks include the Parthenon in Greece, red square in Moscow,
and Westminster abbey in London.
In recent years, sites have also become famous
landmarks because they remind the world of the atrocities that occurred there including
tienamen square in china and Auschwitz in Germany. Famous landmarks across the
world sometimes become famous because of the developments to international society
that occur there, as with the United Nations building in New York City. Or, it becomes a
landmark because society never wants to forget the tragedy and horror of a location, like
many battlefields, ground zero in New York City and the Nazi prison camps in Germany.
Other famous landmarks are famous simply because they exist and are different from
other parts of the world. The Grand Canyon, redwood forests in California, the la brea tar
pits and various meteor craters around the world fall into this category. These sites are
world-famous landmarks because they represent an element of nature not seen often in
the remainder of the world.
In the United States, famous landmarks also include
monuments made to the nation’s history and progress. among the most famous are those
surrounding Washington D.C., the Vietnam wall, the Lincoln, Washington and Jefferson
memorials, Arlington national cemetery, the national cathedral and, of course, the
government buildings including the white house, the U.S. capitol and the pentagon.
Outside of Washington, D.C., landmarks tend to be tied to the history of the region more
so than the entire nation, with some notable exceptions including the statue of liberty in
New York. For example, one of the most famous national landmarks in the midwest is the
arch in st. Louis. The arch was constructed in the 20th century to commemorate the
nation’s movement toward westward expansion and the role of the Mississippi river and st.
Louis as the gateway to the west.
EXERCISE 34. Mark with an ―x‖ the correct option (a,b,c,d) according to the text
1. Are there many landmarks worldwide?
A. Yes, there is.
B. yes, they are.
C. yes, there are.
D. yes there does.
2. Two examples of landmarks in France are:
A. Eiffel tower and Louvre museum.
B. Eiffel tower and Great Wall of China.
C. Louvre museum and art museum.
D .Louvre museum and Nile River.
3. Why is the grant canyon a landmark?
A. Because it is nice.
B. Because it is long.
C. Because it represents Nature..
D.Because it is in Usa.
4. Are meteor craters land marks?
a. Yes, there are.
b. yes, there is.
c. yes, there does.
d.yes, they are.
5. When was constructed the arck?
a.In the twenty-one century.
b.In the twenty century.
c.In the twelve century.
d.In the twenty first century.
Going to Japan.
To enter Japan, visas are not required for tourists or business visitors of many
nationalities for stays of not more than 90 days. Travellers from Germany, Ireland or
Mexico can stay up to six months without a visa.
Travellers from Canada, France, Italy and the Usa can stay up to three
African and Australian visitors cannot enter without a visa. Passport and return tickets are
required to get a visa. Visas are free.
Taken from prism
EXERCISE 35. Mark with an ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text.
1. Italian and French tourists can stay in Japan for _______________________.
more than ninety days
2. Visitors have to ______________________ in order to get a visa
Pay some money.
Stay more than six months.
Stay less than three months.
Present their passport and return ticket.
3. People from Australia _________________________.
Can stay without their visas.
Pay for a business visa.
Always need a visa
Never need a visa
4. Would you like to visit Japan?
A. Yes, I do
B. Yes,I am
C. Yes,I was
D. Yes,I did
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Adapted from Grammar Strategies and Practice.
EXERCISE 36.Mark with an ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text.
1- The tour company offers tours according to the __________________.
prices of the tours
length of the tours
experience of the traveler
2- Package A will include ________________________.
building your own shelter
tracking animals on foot
just air transportation
3- One difference between packages A and B is _____________.
the currency used to pay
the company in charge
the included guides
4-If you are interested in getting information, you should call ___________________.
before 7:00 p.m. on weekdays
Any time after 7:00 p.m.
before 9 a.m.
Dan’s latest adventures in South Africa.
So I figured this would be a good email to send considering today and yesterday have
been two of the most Interesting and intense days at the Treatment Action Campaign,
which is my internship. Yesterday I arrived to be reminded that the executive of UNAIDS
was speaking in Khayelitsha. This was a huge deal because UNAIDS is a powerful
international org. which I think is based in Geneva and the fact that he was coming to
speak in one of the poorest districts in Cape Town first got everyone excited and riled up.
Before it started I tried to stay out of the way of the busy people in my office or offer some
help. I ended up being asked to highlight some files which was more busy work than
However, I left early to get into the big tent that had been set up and was surprised to see
an extremely well organized set up. TAC is an AIDS activist organization and they have a
new set of shirts yearly which they give out at demonstrations or rallies. Around the stage
they had set up the old and new shirts and it was interesting to be able to see the issues
that had changed from year to year just by looking at the text on a shirt. I sat in the 2nd
row next to a journalist (media was all over the place). Finally, the woman running the
speaking introduced everyone and made it clear that it was being run on a tight schedule.
However, once a person stood up to speak that the crowd either recognized or
appreciated rather than just clap loudly a woman in the crowd would cry out a chant which
would immediately get picked up by the surrounding audience. This would then lead to
dancing circles throughout the hastily thrown together chairs.
Eventually the speaker would settle everyone down by gaining their attention through the
typical rally chant which begins with "Viva TAC Viva!" and the crowd replies strongly
"Viiiva!" There's also a great chant which originated during apartheid protests - The
speaker cries "Amonda!" then a powerful response - "Awaytu!" Although the spelling is
definitely incorrect, it means "Power!" - "To the people!" This has to be said strongly
because if not you'll be laughed out for saying 'power' in a weak way.
One by one speaker came up. This included the Minister of Health, a man and a woman
both openly living with HIV, a random guy that hopped on stage with a weird
hoodie/doorag mix that rapped in Xhosa while pumping up the crowd with repeated
rhymes to "Yes we can!" and finally the executive of UNAIDS. Instead of being the
conservative head that has made it difficult in the past for AIDS organizations to succeed
he congratulated Khayelitsha on the progress they had made and how they had become a
model to the world. He also agreed to follow through with the fiscal needs of clinics treating
HIV and TB patients. He was given loud applause and then the crowd, including myself,
was fed with a bagged lunch consisting of two sandwiches - cheese and weird meat, a
juice box, and an apple. Everyone was happy and excited and I ended my day becoming
better friends with one of my co-workers who takes a big part in organizing the rallies. That
Today I went to a rally in front of Parliament at 11. This rally was held because due to
mismanaged budget issues, there is not enough money to care for newly diagnosed HIV
patients only enough for those that have been currently taking the ARV's - Antiretrovirals.
So there was a picket outside of Parliament. The day before I was given a shirt which
boldly states HIV POSITIVE to wear to the rally. This shirt was created as a way to show
solidarity and strength while diminishing the negative stigma for those with HIV. Before
leaving I threw the shirt on and went into the city with 2 girls on the way to their internship.
We split up and I walked the remainder by myself. I was given a few weird looks, some
smiles, and a few people read the shirt out loud. The most remarkable reaction was at a
point when I thought I had gotten lost in the city, an old black woman stopped me to tell me
how courageous I was for wearing that shirt. She explained how her son was HIV positive
and too scared and ashamed to wear the shirt. She explained more about her life and how
the fact that there's now medicine to aid HIV has improved the life of people with AIDS and
people affected by AIDS. I continuously thanked her without informing her that I was just a
white kid wearing the shirt for a rally. I continued to walk on and thought that despite the
fact I don't have HIV, by wearing the shirt it is a shout to others with HIV not to be worried
and to boldly accept their life and know that they can still live enjoyably.
I walked with a slight strut after that little meeting and after asking a few people how to get
to Parliament I found the picketing rally and joined in. I was aware of the fact I was the only
white guy but still excitedly chimed in with everyone’s chants. There was at one point a
chant that involved some dancing and while I stood on the outskirts of the circle clapping
and singing, my co worker Amelia somehow scoped me out and brought me into the
middle. I danced about laughing and clapping (making sure to be on rhythm) and
attempted the dances that the people next to me were doing. I eventually backed out and
rejoined the sign holding and yelling. The head of TAC, Zackie Achmat, who I have not
met as of yet showed up and was talking to one of my co-workers, Gilad. I walked over
and introduced myself. He was an extremely nice guy and I was lucky enough to get some
pictures with him. After some speakers spoke out on the megaphone and a miscellaneous
man from congress signed the memorandum the rally was basically over. I walked back to
the train with another great experience etched into my mind.
Ciao and mucho love.
a. Why was it a good moment to send an e-mail?
b. What kind of organisation is UNAIDS?
c. Who was speaking in Khayelitsha?
d. Did Daniel manage to get rid of his work?
a. What was there on display at the tent?
b. Where did Daniel sit when he was in the tent?
c. How did people react when someone spoke at the meeting?
d. What kind of chants did they sing
a. Who was given loud applause after speaking?
b. What did the audience eat after the speeches?
a. What kind of rally did Daniel attend?
b. What time was the demonstration?
c. What kind of T-shirt did Daniel wear at the demo?
d. Who did Daniel meet on the way to the demo? What did he/she tell him?
e. How did Daniel feel wearing that T-shirt?
a. What were the people at the rally doing?
b. Who did Daniel take pictures of?
c. What did Daniel do after the rally was over?
d. Did Daniel enjoy that day?
EXERCISE 38. Vocabulary. Find words in the text that mean:
A. To make agitated or angry (p1)
b. Rapidly, in a hurry (p2)
c. Jumped on, went on (p3)
d. Financial plan, how much money an organisation will need or spend in a specific period
of time (p4)
e. Unfair treatment (p4)
f. The rest or the part left of a way or distance (p4)
g. Bravely, without fear (p4)
h. To walk in a proud way trying to look important (p5)
i. imprinted, engraved (p5)
An Elephant Ride.
As the train left the station, Fogg noticed that Francis, one of the passengers from the
ship Mongolia, was aboard. Francis, an English army officer, spent most of his time in
India and knew the country as well as any local Indian. Fogg, however, was not interested
in learning more about India. He was too busy figuring out how many days and hours of
his round-the-world trip had gone by.
"See those mountains?" asked Francis. "A few years ago, we would have met such delay
here that you would have lost your bet. The railroad used to stop here and the passengers
would have to cross the mountains on horses."
"That wouldn't have ruined my travel plans at all," snapped Fogg. "I knew there would be
Just as he finished talking, the train came to a halt. The conductor ordered all the
passengers to get off. They were in the middle of a forest!
"Where are we?" asked Fogg.
"At the village of Kholby," replied the conductor. "The railroad isn't finished. There is no
track between here and Allahabad, a distance of 50 miles."
"Then why do you sell tickets from Bombay to Calcutta?" protested Fogg.
"With the understanding that passengers would find their own way of getting from Kholby
to Allahabad." The reply was unbelievable to Fogg, but still, he had no choice and realized
that arguing would get him nowhere either. He had better save his energy and find a way
to Allahabad. Just then, Fogg saw a man with an elephant and decided to buy it at any
cost. The owner didn't want to sell it at first but finally accepted two thousand pounds.
Fogg then hired a young Indian man to serve as an elephant guide. Fogg and Francis sat
on the elephant's neck; the Indian guide sat on its back. Together they started their
journey to Allahabad.
Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap
EXERCISE 39. Answer the following questions:
1. On which two occasions did Fogg meet Francis?
2. Where did Fogg board the train and where was his final destination?
3. Why did the train come to a halt?
4. What transport did Fogg arrange from Kholby to Allahabad?
5. What was Fogg doing when Francis was talking about India?
Pyramids of Egypt.
As soon as a Pharaoh came to power in ancient Egypt, his thoughts turned to one very
important project. The building of a tomb to protect his body after death. Many Pharaohs
chose pyramids to mark their tombs.
Vast numbers of labourers and craftsmen were immediately set to work. First, the site was
prepared and levelled. Large blocks of stone were brought along the River Nile by barges
to the construction site. Once unloaded, they were dragged on sleds along a wooden
pathway built on the desert sand. Armies of masons prepared the stones so they would fit
together neatly. To raise heavy blocks, as the pyramid grew, ramps were built against the
The heavy work was done by peasants and slave labourers during the flood season when
it was impossible to farm. Pyramid building was a long process. Work on the Great
Pyramids of Cheops lasted over thirty years.
Inside the tomb chamber of the pyramid, artists and sculptors produced magnificent
paintings, carvings and statues of the gods and the tomb's owner. The god Osiris was
often shown watching, as the jackal-headed god, Anubis, brought the dead person before
him for the judgement ceremony.
Egyptians believed that their Pharaoh was the son of the Sun God, and that when he dies
he would join the Sun God and sail with him in a boat across the skies each day. Not all
Pharaohs built pyramids. Elaborate non-pyramid tombs were also built, many in the Valley
of Kings. Other Pharaohs were commemorated by temples, huge statues called colossi,
Taken from: http://www.elt-time.com/forum/index.php?topic=1633.30;wap
EXERCISE 40. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
1. Why did Pharaohs build pyramids?
2. How were the large stones brought to the construction site?
3. Who did the heavy work and when?
4. What can be found inside the tomb chamber?
5. Did all Pharaohs build pyramids? In what other ways could a Pharaoh be
THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT:
Identification and comparison of job demand in Costa Rica and in English
• Evaluation of content related to jobs. (Jobs and human rights, safety rules,
• Identification and validation of different aspects related to jobs.
• Production of interviews and reports about job demand.
• Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about JOBS.
TOPIC: JOB DEMAND IN COSTA RICA.
Summary of texts, ideas, etc.
Production of interviews and reports.
Production of ads, summaries and resumes
It’s March 20, 2004. Miss Durán is applying for a job.
Now tell me Miss Durán, what experience do you have in the
Well, I went to the School of Design, and at present I’m the
manager of Lord’s Clothing Store.
Have you ever worked as a fashion designer?
No, I haven’t.
And how long have you been at your present job?
I have been working there since March 12, 2003.
Why do you want to quit?
Because I’m not learning anything new.
When can you begin?
Very well, Miss Durán. You can start a part time job right now, and
after 3 months you should get a full-time job.
Thank you very much.
EXERCISE 41.Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text.
1-What kind of interview did she have? A
2-How long has she been at her present
job? For ____________.
about one year
about two years
more than five years
3-Which position does she currently have? She’s a _______________.
4-Why does she want a new job? Because ____________.
She wants to learn more
she needs more Money
she hates working
her salary is low
EXERCISE 42. Read the ads. Choose the best alternative to answer each
experience. Call 869-7351.
ENGINEER: With experience, 4 weeks
SALESPEOPLE: Full-time and part-time,
vacation. Call Ms. Wong. 765-4200.
with or without experience. Call 645-9763.
FLIGHT ATTENDANTS: With or without
WAITER/WAITRESS: Full-time and part-
experience. Training program. Call 359-
time, with our without experience, training
program. See Mr. Mazzela. La Strada
MECHANICS: Part-time and full-time, with
experience, excellent salary. Write
Johnson, 258 Park Road, Winfield, N.Y.
1-Which occupation requires a training program? The _________________.
2-Which occupation offers good benefits? The one for a (n) __________
3-Which option offers both, a full and a part time job, at the same time? The one for a
4-How can an electrician contact Mr. Brown? By __________________.
writing electronic mail
writing a letter
sending a fax
making a call
For recent college graduates or professionals beginning a new job search, a job hunt can
be an exhausting process. One of the reasons is that, according to the experts, to be
successful in your job search, you have to "market" yourself, and many people just don’t
According to Loribeth Dalton, director of career services for The Art Institute of Las Vegas,
"The job search is very similar to sales and marketing. To be successful you must follow a
linear strategic plan."
For example, says Dalton, start with the two of the most important building blocks for a
successful job search: the resume and cover letter. "The purpose of a resume is to tell an
employer what a person has done in the past. The cover letter tells the prospective
employer what skills and abilities the job seeker has that will allow them to be successful in
the future with their company," she says. "Each cover letter should be crafted to be very
specific to the job applied for."
Michael Courteau, professional development instructor at The Art Institutes International
Minnesota recommends never having a resume longer than one page. Anything beyond
that won’t get read. "Conventional wisdom is that most resumes are read, on average, for
eight seconds, so adding another page to your resume becomes unnecessary, since you’ll
only be placing an even greater textual demand on the reader’s eight seconds," he says.
If you have limited work experience, like a new college grad, consider creating a functional
resume that emphasizes skills. For example, says Courteau, near the top of your resume
you would list such skills as knowledge of specific software, bilingual skills, or relevant
In your cover letter, says Kirsten Wright, graduate employment advisor at The Art Institute
of Washington, "point out the strengths of your resume and direct a potential employer to
things that you cannot explicitly state in your resume but that make you stand out."
In both resumes and cover letters, always use high quality paper. Stay away from slang
language and avoid using contractions. You want to present yourself as a professional,
even if you’ve never held a formal job before. Find out if your school has a career services
department, and if so, ask for guidance. "That’s what they’re there for," says Diana
Graves-Sharple, director of career services of The Art Institute of Atlanta. Graves-Sharple
also recommends seeking out friends, family, professional organizations, trade journals,
job boards, recruiters, staffing agencies and industry specific directories to help in your job
search. "Research your city, or the city you’d like to work in, the job market, and know the
industry and the companies that you are contacting for potential employment," she
With the entire job seeking information available on the Web -- including Career
Builder.com, CreativeHotlist.com, TalenZoo.com, and FlipDog.com. -- are today’s
graduates in better shape than a generation ago to find a job? "Overall, I’d have to say
yes," says Jennifer Abramski, assistant director of career services of The Art Institute of
But, she adds, there are common mistakes she sees over and over again. For example,
graduates need to respond quickly to job leads, i.e. within a day. They need to return a
potential employers’ call immediately and be on time for interviews. Abramski adds, "five
minutes late is not on time." Be enthusiastic. Often the recent graduate still has the "laid
back" college mentality, but this doesn’t work well in a job interview situation. "Employers
often end up thinking you’re not interested in the job or the company," she says.
Remember, a first job is not necessarily a dream job. But it does add to your professional
experience. All these experts agree, thank you notes for an interview need to be sent
within one day of an interview. Thank you notes "can tip the scales in your favor," says
Kristin Wright. "When all other skill sets and experiences are equal, this can be the factor
that gets you hired," she adds. Thank you notes also give you the opportunity to point
something out about yourself that you didn't make clear during the interview process.
When it’s time to sit back and wait for the job interview calls to come in, remember to listen
to the outgoing message of your home answering machine or cell phone. Edie Beattie,
career services advisor at The Art Institute of Charlotte, remembers calling a graduate who
was actively job searching and hearing an outgoing message of "What`s Up?" and then
beep. If a potential employer hears that, your job offer could be doomed. So whether
you’re a new college graduate or an experienced professional who has been recently
downsized, the guidelines are the same. Write a good resume and cover letter, be
organized and keep track of who you interview with, write thank-you notes and maintain a
professional image, even if you’re just at home waiting for the phone to ring. You never
Courtesy of ARA Content
EXERCISE 43. TRUE OR FALSE.
1. A resume describes how you can contribute to the company True:
in the future.
2. A different cover letter should be written for each job you True:
3. Resumes are usually looked at only very briefly.
4. A functional resume mainly describes your experience.
5. Resumes and cover letters should use only formal language.
6. Interviews require a similar mentality to college.
7. Thank you notes give you the chance to add to what you said True:
in the interview.
TAKEN FROM: Reading Room Home.
EXERCISE 44. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the purpose of a resume?
2. Why should a cover letter be crafted?
3. What is a functional resume?
4. What do people have to avoid in a resume?
5. What does not work well in a job interview situation?
6. What do thank you notes give?
7. Have you been to a job interview?
Interviewer: So, why do you want to be a computer programmer?
Jason: Well, I don't like working in a fast food restaurant, and I want to make more money.
Interviewer: I see. Do you have any experience?
Jason: No, but I'm a fast learner.
Interviewer: What kind of computer do you use?
Jason: Computer? Uhm, let me see. I can use a Mac. I also used Windows 95 once.
Interviewer: That's good.
Jason: May I ask a question?
Interviewer: Please, go ahead.
Jason: Will I be able to find a job as a computer programmer?
Interviewer: Umm, err, ahh....
EXERCISE 45. Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text.
1-What job does Jason want?
b. Computer Programmer
2-Where does Jason work?
a. In a restaurant
b. For a computer company
c. At a school
3-Why does Jason want a new job?
a. he's bored
b. he quit his job
c. he wants more money
4-Does Jason have programming experience?
5-Jason is a slow learner.
6-What kind of computer does Jason use?
a. a Mac
7-Has Jason ever used Windows 95?
8-Will Jason get a new job?
c. I don't know.
Copyright (C) 1997 by Jim Schweizer (firstname.lastname@example.org) This quiz is part of the HTML-Only Self-Study Quizzes which is part of
Activities for ESL Students, a project by The Internet TESL Journal.
Read the following job advertisements:
1. Needed: Full time secretary position 2. Are you looking for a part time job? We
available. Applicants should have at least require 3 part time shop assistants to work
2 years experience and be able to type during the evening. No experience required,
60 words a minute. No computer skills applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 required. Apply in person at United 76564 for more information.
Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street
3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you 4. Teacher Needed: Tommy's Kindergarten
with needs 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes
computers? Would you like a full time from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have
position working in an exciting new appropriate licenses. For more information visit
company? If your answer is yes, give us Tommy's Kindergarten in Leicester Square No.
a call at
5. Part Time work available: We are 6. University positions open: The University of
looking for retired adults who would like Cumberland is looking for 4 teaching assistants
to work part time at the weekend. to help with homework correction. Applicants
Responsibilities include answering the should have a degree in one of the following:
information. For more information contact History.
us by calling
Cumberland for more information.
EXERCISE 47. Comprehension Questions
Which position is best for these people? Choose ONLY ONE position for each person.
A. Jane Madison. Jane recently retired and is looking for a part time position. She
would like to work with people and enjoys public relation work.
1-The best job for Jane is __________________
Jack Anderson. Jack graduated from the University of Trent with a degree in Economics
two years ago. He would like an academic position.
2-The best job for Jack is____________________
Margaret Lillian. Margaret is 21 years old and would like a part time position to help her
pay her university expenses. She can only work in the evenings.
3-The best job for Margaret is _______________________________
Alice Fingelhamm. Alice was trained as a secretary and has six years of experience. She
is an excellent typist but does not know how to use a computer. She is looking for a full
4-The best job for Alice is __________________
Peter Florian. Peter went to business school and studied computer and secretarial skills.
He is looking for his first job and would like a full time position.
5-The best job for Peter is ________________
Vincent san George. Vincent loves working with children and has an education license
from the city of Birmingham. He would like to work with young children.
6-The best job for Vincent is _________________
Looking for a Job
It is 7.30pm. Emma phones a recruitment agency and leaves the following message on its
Hello. I wonder if you can help me. My name is Emma Heath. I am looking for a job as an
administrator. At the moment I am working at a solicitor as a clerk. Do you know Blame,
Payne and Co.? I have been working there for about two years but there doesn´t seem to
be any chance of promotion, so I´m trying to find something else. The other thing is, I´m
moving soon, so I´m looking for a job in Leicester. I would prefer it if it was in the city
centre really. My current address is 23 Terraced Walk, Derby, DE23 3GP, but I´m going to
be moving out on the 30th, and then I´ll be living with my mum until I´ve found a house to
rent in Leicester. After the 30th you´ll be able to contact me at my mum´s. Her address is 8
Cedars Lane, Swinscote, and Derby, DE40 9UR. By the way, my mobile number is
079421 645784. If you do ring me on my mobile, please can you ring after six because I´ll
be at work all day and my boss doesn´t know that I´m planning on leaving. My current
salary is 11K per annum and I would like to find something for at least thirteen or more. I´ll
bring my CV in to your office once I´ve finished updating it. Oh yes, last month I went on a
four-day intensive first aid course, which makes me fully qualified to give first aid.?
EXERCISE 47. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
1. Who is the paragraph about?
2. Why does she leave the message?
3. What job does she do at the moment?
4. What job would she like to do?
5. Name the company that she works for.
6. How long has she been working there?
7. Why does she want to leave?
8. Which city is she moving to?
9. What is her address at the moment?
10. Is she planning to buy a house in Leicester?
11.What is her mum’s address?
12. When can she be contacted there?
13. When can she be contacted on her mobile number?
14. How much would she like her salary to increase by?
15. What is a CV?
16. What do the letters CV stand for?
17. Is Emma’s boss upset that she will be leaving?
18. In your opinion, is Emma right to look for another job? Why? /Why not?
19. Do you think she will be happier living in Leicester? Why? /Why not?
THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT:
Identification and comparison of careers worldwide.
• Evaluation of content related to careers.
• Identification and validation of different aspects related to careers.
• Production of interviews and reports about careers.
• Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about careers.
Summary of texts, ideas, etc.
Production of interviews and reports.
Production of ads, summaries and resumes
What are these jobs like?
Pharmacists give medicine to people when a doctor says that they need it. They tell
people how to use the medicine correctly.Pharmacists are experts in medicine and its side
effects. They sometimes help doctors choose which medicines to give patients.
Pharmacists also warn doctors if the doctors have asked their patients to take any
medicine that might hurt their patients.Sometimes, pharmacists mix the medicine
themselves. Most often, though, they use medicines that are already made.Pharmacists
most often work in drug stores. These stores are clean and have a lot of light. Many
pharmacists must stand while they work. Pharmacists must wear gloves and masks when
they work with dangerous chemicals. Some pharmacists work at night or on weekends.
This is because sick people may need medicine at any time. Most pharmacists work about
40 hours a week, but some work longer hours.
EXERCISE 48. Write a five line composition about the reading above.
―Pharmacists‖ Use your own words.
Engineering technicians solve technical problems. Some help engineers and scientists do
research and development. They build or set up equipment. They do experiments. They
collect data and calculate results. They might also help to make a model of new
equipment. Some technicians work in quality control. They check products, do tests, and
collect data. In manufacturing, they help to design and develop products. They also find
ways to produce things efficiently. Most technicians focus on one type of engineering. For
example, some focus on civil engineering. They help engineers to plan bridges and roads.
They might also get data about traffic. Other technicians focus on electrical engineering.
They help to design or test electronics. Most engineering technicians work about 40 hours
a week. They work in labs, offices, factories, or on construction sites. Some might be
exposed to dangerous materials.
EXERCISE 49. Write a five line composition about the reading above. ―Engineering
technicians‖ Use your own words.
Pilots fly airplanes and helicopters in order to get various jobs done. Most pilots fly people
and cargo from place to place. Some pilots test new planes, fight fires, do police work, or
rescue people who are hurt or in danger.Before they take off, pilots plan their flight
carefully. They check their plane to make sure that it is working properly. They also make
sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They check the weather forecast to
see if they will run into any bad weather on their trip. They then decide what route they
should take and how high and fast they should fly. Takeoff and landing are the hardest
parts. Pilots must be especially careful during those times. The rest of the flight is fairly
easy, if the weather is good. Planes have indicators to tell pilots if their trip is going
according to plan. These indicators show whether there is enough fuel, whether the
weather is changing, and whether the plane is on course. Pilots must check these
indicators often during the trip to be sure that all is going well. If problems come up, the
pilots take steps to solve them. The law says that pilots who work for an airline cannot fly
more than 100 hours a month or more than 1,000 hours a year. Most airline pilots fly about
65-75 hours a month, and work another 75 hours a month at other parts of the job. When
they are flying, airline pilots must very often stay away from home overnight. Airlines have
flights at all hours of the day and night. This means that airline pilots often are asked to
work odd hours. Pilots who do not work for the airlines can have unusual work schedules,
too. For example, they may fly 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next. Most of them
do not have to stay away from home overnight, but they may have to work odd hours.
Pilots who fly very long distances may have "jet lag." This is fatigue caused by moving
through different time zones. The work of pilots who test new planes may be dangerous.
Pilots who work on farms or who help police and fire fighters also might get hurt on their
jobs. Flying does not involve much hard physical work. However, pilots can feel a lot of
stress because they know that they are responsible for the safety of their passengers.
They must be careful and quick to react if something goes wrong.
EXERCISE 50. Answer the following questions about the reading above.
is the topic of this reading?
2-what do pilots do?
3-what does ―jet lag‖ mean?
4-How are pilots time table like?
5-would you like to be a pilot? Why?
6-is this occupation dangerous? Why?
7-what do you think about this job?
EXERCISE 51. Write a five line paragraph about pilots.
The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Computer
databases that store information on customers, inventory, and projects are found in nearly
every industry. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators
work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up
computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should
and add people to the system as needed. Database administrators often plan security
measures. Data integrity, backup, and security are critical parts of the job. Database
administrators work in offices or labs. They usually work about 40 hours a week. But
evening or weekend work may need to be done to meet deadlines. Telecommuting—
working from home—is common for computer professionals. Like other workers who
spend long periods in front of a computer, database administrators can suffer eyestrain,
back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems.
TAKEN FROM: BLS Career Information Home Pagewww.bls.gov/k12/
Computer Network Administrator.
Read the ad. Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence.
Seeks experienced computer technician for maintenance and administration of Internet
servers and customer service work stations. Must have experience with high traffic,
mission critical servers. Must be available 24 hours, 7 days a week for emergency
response. Windows NT Server experience is a MUST. Linux experience is desired, but
not required. English speaking is a MUST. La Aurora, Heredia. Sent resume to
FROM DIARIO LA NACION.
EXERCISE 52. Mark with ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text.
1. One of the requirements for the job is to be able to ___________________.
critique internet high traffic
desire internet and its servers
2. The technician has to be available to work _____________ week.
24 hours every day
7 emergency days
7 hours of a week
3. The technician must be qualified to work with __________.
windows NT server
4. The applicants are asked to send their resumes by _____________.
Part Time Jobs.
As teenagers enter high school, they often strive to get every freedom available to
them. They want to declare their independence from their parents. One of the most
common ways to do this is to find a part-time job so that they can begin earning their own
spending money. There are several different types of jobs available to teenagers. By
researching these types of jobs, teenagers will be able to find the ones best suited to them
and will be more likely to be successful.
The first type of part-time job is in the food service industry. These jobs are found at
fast food and other restaurants. People working in the food service industry can be
servers, cooks, dishwashers, hosts, table clearers and food 'prepares'. Generally, most of
these positions require no previous experience because the managers like to train their
employees to the intricacies of their establishment. Since this is a service industry, there
is a lot of contact with the customers.
3 Manual labors can be physically exhausting. This involves construction, factory work,
farming, and lawn care among other things. Part time jobs in this industry often don't
require previous experience, but they do require people with a knack for the required skills.
4 Teenagers can also be seen working in shopping malls and other stores selling
products. Often, they are selling clothing, shoes and other accessories