Academic English 10th Anthology

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An anthology for the contents covered in academic English for 10th grade

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Academic English 10th Anthology

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA COORDINACIÓN ACADÉMICA INGLÉS DÉCIMO CÓDIGO: 80019 ANTOLOGÍAS CONED 2011
  2. 2. El CONED agradece a HAZEL VIVIANA ALFARO SALAS por la elección y presentación de los temas de la presente antología, así como el aporte a la educación secundaria a distancia. Las denominaciones empleadas en esta publicación y la forma en que aparecen presentados los datos, no implican de parte del CONED o la UNED juicio alguno sobre la condición jurídica de personas, países, territorios, ciudades o de autoridades. MATERIAL SIN FINES COMERCIALES PARA USO EXCLUSIVO DE ESTUDIANTES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA CONED Dirección General: : Clara Vila Santo Domingo Coordinación Académica: Jéssica Ramírez Achoy Coordinación Administrativa: Jéssica Vega Barrientos Asistente Coordinación Académica: Jonathan Soto Coordinación de Inglés: Olman Alfonso Cantillo Badilla Teléfonos 22-58-22-09 / 22-55-30-42 / 22-21-29-95 Página Web: http//www.coned.ac.cr © 2011, CONED. 2
  3. 3. INDEX . 10º LEVEL 1. Achievements of our national athletes………………………… 4 2. Costa Rican Art, music and crafts…………………………………………………………….… 32 3. Costa Rican typical food……………………………………………………………..... 45 4. Holidays and celebrations in Costa Rica with some celebrations in English Speaking countries…………..................................................... 74 5. Causes and effects of natural resources misuse…………………………………………………………….. 110 6. Tourist attractions offered by Costa Rican Communities………………………………………………………. 137 7. Common illnesses and new diseases and epidemics…………………………………………………………..... 160 8. Our Democratic Tradition…………………………………………………………….. 186 9. Careers, jobs and lifestyles………………………………………………………........... 200 10. Answer key………………………………………………………….. 222 11. Bibliography………………………………………………………… 225 3
  4. 4. First unit: ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR NATIONAL ATHLETES. 4
  5. 5. Objectives  Making use of new vocabulary and structures encountered in their reading to respond orally and in writing.  Writing coherently and accurately on a range of factual and imaginative topics.  Drawing inferences.  Identifying the purpose of short messages  Understanding short and factual texts.  Understanding ideas and information in the text through making inferences.  Understanding conceptual meaning. National athletes: lives and achievements.  Information questions: who, when, where, how fast/long, which, etc.  What sports does ____ play? Are you good at ____?  What’s his/her best ____?  Sports: swimming, diving, archery, canoeing, etc.  National athletes: achievements, biography, etc. Functions: Reporting and describing events. Narrating information. Asking for and giving information about national athletes, their lives and achievements. Sports and Equipment Instructions. Match each of the following sports with the correct picture below: ......skiing …….cycling …….badminton 5 …….fishing
  6. 6. ……golf …….darts …….table-tennis …….running ……diving ……volleyball …….hockey …….boxing ……horse-riding …….motor-racing …...soccer …….football …….ice skating ……basketball …... baseball 1 2 …….tennis 4 3 5 9 8 7 1 0 6 15 11 12 13 14 16 17 19 20 18 Can you find the following sporting items in the pictures above? Write down the correct numbers! ___boxing glove ___helmet ___snorkel 6 ___flippers.
  7. 7. ___running track ___baseball bat ___golf club ___skates ___racing car ___hockey stick ___ basketball ___fishing rod ___saddle ___skis ___target ___basket ___net ___shuttlecock ___bicycle ___darts ___basketball ___tennis racket ___table-tennis ___running shoe ___football ___skiing-stick ___horse ___baseball glove ___badminton racket Match the words on the left with the correct definition on the right. 1. score ___person who takes part in a sport or game 2. team ___someone who watches a sporting event 3. amateur ___a person who controls a sports match 4. match ___number of points or goals each team / player has 5. spectator ___someone who plays a sport as a paid job 6. professional ___a large group of peple who watch a sporting event 7. referee ___a group of sportsmen who play together 8. crowd ___an organized game e.g. of football 9. player ___a person who plays a sport for enjoyment, not for money Sports are very important for many people. If you want to express that someone is nice, fair and a good friend you say,“He is a good sport!“ Are you sporting / sportive / sporty/ a sportswoman / a sportsman? 7
  8. 8. What are your favourite kinds of sports? Write a short text about yourself! How often do you play it? What equipment do you need to play it? Scuba Diving in Costa Rica Would you like to try scuba diving? Why or Why not? What animals would you like to see in the ocean? What do you know about this activity? Look at some important equipment needed to practice it. 8
  9. 9. Taken from: http://louisvillediving.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/scuba-diver2.jpg Read the following information about diving in Costa Rica. Diving in Costa Rica The ideal destination for adventure travelers, Costa Rica is filled with plenty to see and much to do. A tropical haven for those who enjoy the outdoors, this small country with its magnificent biodiversity is fast becoming one of the hottest tourist destinations on the planet. Biologically intense on land as well as underwater, Costa Rica offers nature lovers the perfect environment to view a plethora of wildlife species in their natural habitat. One of the best ways to get a first hand glimpse of Costa Rica’s stunning underwater marine life is through a scuba diving tour. Scuba diving is all the rage in Costa Rica at the moment, with many tour groups and travel agencies now offering underwater trips and excursions. A number of dive companies are also found all across the country, and scuba diving facilities in Costa Rica are now world class. With professional PADI instruction courses as well as top quality dive shops with equipment rental services, scuba diving here has reached new heights. 9
  10. 10. Massive schools of fish, an amazing array of marine life and an ideal water temperature throughout the year, has meant that scuba diving conditions in Costa Rica are near perfect. While some of the Pacific Coast of the country does not have much to offer, as the underwater visibility is quite low; in places like Playas del Coco, Playa Hermosa and Playa Ocotal, scuba diving is actually quite good. Here one gets the opportunity to see giant manta rays, swimming alongside brightly colored tropical fish and sharks. One of the best scuba diving zones on the Pacific Coast is off Bahia Drake or Drake Bay. Visit the Isla del Caño and the Isla del Coco off the bay and you will be treated to some spectacular underwater sights. These two islands have an abundance of marine life off their coast, where one can encounter sharks, turtles and many different species fish. The Isla del Caño is said to be the best place to scuba dive in the country. Home to 18 species of coral, 3 species of dolphin and 57 different species of crustaceans, this tiny island is the ultimate scuba diving spot. On the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica, scuba diving is a real treat. Unfortunately, this area has not been properly developed and the facilities for scuba diving here are not as good as they are on the Pacific Coast. If you do get the chance, scuba diving here on the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica is well worth your time, as the eastern section of Costa Rica is home to the country’s only coral reef off the coast of the Parque Nacional Cahuita. Though seriously damaged by an earthquake in 1991, the reef here is home to over 123 species of fish, 140 species of mollusk, and 35 species of coral. Taken from: http://www.govisitcostarica.com/category/outdoorRecreation/divingCompanies.asp 10
  11. 11. Now, choose the correct answer to complete each stamement. 1. The word pethora in line 5 is a synonim for the word ___________ a. Poor b. Over abundance c. Lack of d. Needed 2. The word stunning on line number 7 is a synonym for the word________________________ a. Simple b. Ugly c. Regular d. Breath Taking 3. Dive companies can be found ____________________________ a. Everywhere in Costa Rica b. Only on the Coast c. Only in the Carebbean d. Only on Drake Bay 4. To practice diving in Costa Rica you _________________________ a. Must have your own equipment b. Can rent the necesary equipment c. Must have an international diploma d. Should like animals 5. According to some people _______________ is the best place to practice this sport a. Isla del Cano b. Drake Bay c. Hermosa Beach d. Ocotal Beach 11
  12. 12. 6. The _______________ is better than the _______________ to practice this sport a. Pacific Coast – Caribbean b. Caribbean – Pacific Coast c. Parque Nacional Cahuita – Ocotal d. Ocotal – Parque Nacional Cahuita Answer the following questions based on the reading. 1. What are some factors that makes Costa Rica an ideal place to practice diving. 2. Where is Costa Rica’s only Coral Reef? 3. What can you find in Isla del Cano? 4. Why is it that the Caribbean Coast is not as good as the Pacific Coast? 12
  13. 13. GRAMMAR POINT WH- QUESTIONS We use question words to ask certain types of questions (question word questions). We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHy, HoW). Question Word What Function asking for something information asking for confirmation what...for Example about repetition or What is your name? What? I can't hear you. You did what? asking for a reason, asking why What did you do that for? When asking about time When did he leave? Where asking in or at what place or position Where do they live? Which asking about choice Which colour do you want? Who asking what or which person or people (subject) Who opened the door? Whom asking what or which person or people (object) Whom did you see? Whose asking about ownership Whose are these keys? 13
  14. 14. Whose turn is it? Why asking for what...for reason, asking Why do you say that? why don't making a suggestion Why don't I help you? How asking about manner How does this work? asking about condition or quality How was your exam? asking about extent or degree see examples below Distance How far is Pattaya from Bangkok? how long length (time or space) How long will it take? how many quantity (countable) How many there? how much quantity (uncountable) How much money do you have? Age How old are you? asking for reason, asking why How come I can't see her? how + adj/adv how far how old how come (informal) 14 cars are
  15. 15. Wh- Questions: Word Order Question Word Auxiliary Subject Verb Complement Where Do They Go to school? When Does Mary watch T.V.? What Did You Do What time Do They get up every day? Why Does John come late? Who(m) Did Ann Go with? How often Do They play soccer? yesterday? Let’s Practice! Match the items on the right to the items on the left. Click on the boxes in the right hand column and drag them to the appropriate boxes in the left hand column. Where does George usually eat lunch? ( ) 1. Because she's very mean to me. Who do you usually come to school with? ( ) 2. At 8:30 a.m. What do you want to do this weekend? ( ) 3. In October How much does it cost to fly from San Antonio to Mexico City? ( ) . 4. Once a week. When does Barbara plan to buy a new car? ( ) 5. Let's go to the beach. What time does Helen have to be at work? ( ) 6. About 10 miles. How far is it from here to your house? ( ) 7. About $500. Why do you always complain about your boss? ( ) 8. With my brother. 9. At the restaurant next How often do you go to the mall? ( ) to the shoe store. 15
  16. 16. Complete the questions by inserting DO, DOES, or DID. 1. What time _______________ James call you last night? 2. Where ______________ Karen want to go on her vacation? 3. How long ____________it usually take to drive from San Antonio to Dallas? 4. Why ____________Ken come to school on the bus today? 5. How often ____________ you go grocery shopping? 6. How far ______________ the boys run last Friday? 7. What ___________ Kathy want to do this weekend? 8. Who _____________ the boys go fishing with the other day? Fill in the blanks to complete the questions. 1. A: What time __________________ in the morning? (you) B: I get up at 7:30 a.m. 2. A: When__________________? (Tony) B: He goes jogging every morning 16
  17. 17. 3. A: Where___________________? (Randy) B: He lives across the street from North Star Mall. 4. A: Who_________________with? (Anna) B: She comes to school with her brother. 6. A: How much___________________to get an oil change? (it) B: It costs about $30.00. 7. A: What kind of car____________________? (your brother) B: He has a Ford Taurus. 8. A: What_______________________to buy at the mall? (you) B: I want to buy a pair of black shoes and some blouses 17
  18. 18. Change the statements to questions using the question word in parenthesis. Check verb tense. Example: The train arrived at ten o’clock. (what time) What time did the train arrive? 1. They do their homework at night. (when) ________________________________________________________ 2. Mr. Robertson came to the party alone. (who) __________________________________________________________ 3. The car is across the street from the house. (where) ________________________________________________________ 4. I like the red blouse, not the blue one. (which) ________________________________________________________ 5. She felt better after she took a nap. (how)__________________________________________________________ 6. That is an English book. (what) __________________________________________________________ 7. My sister called her boyfriend yesterday (when) _________________________________________________________ 8. She talked to him for an hour. (how long) ___________________________________________________ 9. He studies piano at the university. (what) _______________________________________________________ 18
  19. 19. 10. The party lasted all night. (how long)____________________________________________________ 11. The check was for $5.50. (how much)_____________________________________________________ Reading Before you read the text think about these questions. 1. Who is Lobito Fonseca? 2. What sport did he practice? 3. What do you know about him and this sport? Now read Lobito Fonseca’s story Born on September 3, 1981 in San José, Costa Rica, Fonseca began riding dirt bikes at the age of 5. At 12 years old, his natural talent had led him to the United States for a chance to race in mini-classes where he dominated the 80cc class. At this point, Ernesto decided to move up to the 125cc Pro class, where the powerhouses of Costa Rican motocross such as Adrian Robert, Rodolfo Peña, Arnoldo Beeche, and others had a tough battle for the championship. At first, there was a little controversy since MotoClub de Costa Rica has a rule, that the minimum age to ride 125's was 17. In the end M.C.C.R. modified this rule and Fonseca was perfectly legal in the 125cc class. It was in his first exhibition race in la Guácima where Fonseca showed his talent by beating Adrian Robert. From here on, Ernesto and Adrian Robert were the fans favorites and the all time contenders for the 125cc & 250cc class titles, battling one each other race after race. Ernesto's dominance also gave him several 125cc Latin American motocross championships. Fonseca kept a busy schedule competing in winter Olympics and Loretta Lynn's amateur motocross 19
  20. 20. championships where he met his long time friend Ricky Carmichael. In 1999, Phil Alderton and Erik Kehoe of Yamaha of Troy would hire him to race the AMA Supercross Series East. It was just matter of time for Fonseca to step up to AMA motocross. AMA Pro Racing, and Yamaha of Troy (Y.O.T.), embraced him and made him feel at home. A confidence boost for Ernesto was also that he was understudy of names like Jeremy McGrath, Jimmy Button & others. That season he had certainly proven himself, winning the first five rounds of the series, and the championship. For this, Fonseca was named the 1999 AMA Rookie of the Year award and he went on to win the 125 East division championship (first championship for Yamaha of Troy as a Team) aboard a Yamaha YZ125R. Ernesto's second season at Y.O.T. was full of struggles as he adapted from two to four-stroke bikes. In his third season, now accustomed to his four-stroke bike and the different riding it requires, he went on to win the west conference championship. He became the first rider to win both East and West division championships and also the first rider to win Supercross on a four-stroke. As AMA rules state a rider must move to the 250cc Supercross class if they've won two 125cc Supercross championships, Fonseca joined the American Honda factory racing team in 2002 joining long time friend Ricky Carmichael. At Honda, Carmichael helped Ernesto immensely, helping him improve in the outdoor motocross championship. This was reflected by Fonseca usually finishing in the top five. Tragically, Fonseca's career came to an end due to a practice crash that broke cervicals C5, C6 and C7. Ernesto Fonseca, a tough rider, remains a Costa Rican motocross legend. Taken from: www.wikipedia.com 20
  21. 21. Now choose the best option to answer each question. 1. When did Lobito Fonseca start riding bikes? a. When he was a teenager b. When he was a young adult c. When he was a child d. When he was an adult. 2. Where did he have his first competition? a. In La Guacima b. In the USA c. In Mexico d. In San Jose, Costa Rica 3. For how many seasons did Fonseca participate in motor racing championships? a. One b. Two c. Three d. Four 4. Why did Lobito’s career in motor cross end? a. Because he didn’t want to participate more b. Because he finished on the top five c. Because he got injured in an accident d. Because he needed to be older 21
  22. 22. Answer these questions based on Lobito Fonseca’s bio What was the rule that the MotoClub de Costa Rica have to change? _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What was Fonseca doing when he got injured? _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What are some categories Fonseca participated in? _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What accomplishments did he get on his carrer? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. Juan Jose MadrigalPacheco us a Costa Rican athlete. He bécame the first Costa Rican to compete in Atlanta’s Olympic Games. He debuted the team’s efforts on July 20 in the 100 meter breaststroke. The 22 year old bachelor had qualified for the Olympics in a test run in Cuba, where he clocked in at 1:05:54. In Atlanta, Juan Jose finished the competition in 34th place. Melissa Mata Corella was 16 years old when she competed in the Olympic Games ran in Atlanta. She was the youngest member of the team and competed on July 26, 1996 in the 20 meter butterfly. Melissa qualified with time of 2:20:53. 22
  23. 23. Andres Brenes Mata was the only tico cyclist to go to the Olympic Games in Atlanta. He had a good shot at a medal after winning the silver Panamerican Games in Mar de Plata Argentina (1995) and the Tour of Costa Rica and Guatemala. 1. Juan Jose and Melissa ______________________________________. a. Competed in the Panamerican Games b. Held the first place in the race c. Won an Olympic silver medal d. Are both swimmers 2. Andres Brenes _______________ in Argentina a. Was born b. Won two medals c. Got the second place d. Qualified for the Olympics 3. Juan Jose Madrigal _________________________________________ a. Is a teenager b. Lives in Cuba c. Got the 22nd place d. Is an unmarried man 4. Andres Brenes _____________________________________________. a. Never competed in the Olympics b. Won a silver medal in Mar de Plata c. Got two gold medals in Guatemala d. Finished 34th place in a competition. 23
  24. 24. How much do you know about surfing? Here are some important facts about it! The art of surfing, called he'enalu in the Hawaiian language, was first observed by Europeans in 1767, by the crewmembers of the Dolphin at Tahiti; however, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture and predates European contact. Equipment needed: Wet suit and a Surfboard, any other equipment is almost optional. Surfing Ranking (as April 2007) Costa Rica Name Open* Age 23 Impressive Favorite Fact Gilbert Category Wave Salsa National Brown 2001-2002 Experience Hometown 14 Puerto Viejo 12 Puerto Viejo 10 Jaco Brava Champion Nino Open* 21 Salsa National Brava Champion Myrie 2002-2003 and Pavones Lisbeth Women’s Vindas Bodyboar Champion d ** the 24 5-time National Playa in Escondid Women’s a Category Central American Women’s Champion 24
  25. 25. Natalie Women’s Bernold Category 13 2005-2006 Avellana Junior 7 Tamarindo Beach Women’s Champion Century 21 Coastal Estates Charity Surf Classic Include all the categories* ** with a smaller board. 1. People in that chart must ____________ to practice their sport a. Wear spikes b. use a helmet c. Wear swimwear d. practice on a court. 2. “Wave” refers to _____________ in the chart a. The place where these people live b. the place where they eat c. Their favorite place to surf d. a movement in the water 25
  26. 26. 3. The people in the chart are very young, __, they have lots of experience a. Nevertheless b. even c. however d. in addition 4. A hometown is the place where is the place where the surfers a. Practice the sport b. live c. Study d. their favorite wave is 5. Based only on the chart, you can infer that there _______ in Costa Rica a. Are at least 2 categories b. are more than 3 categories c. Is only one surfing category d. are at least 3 categories 6. Based only (not on your geographic knowledge) that ______ is a beach a. Jaco b. Tamarindo c. Puerto Viejo d. Salsa Brava 7. ______________ have been surfing more than half his/her life a. Gilbert and Nino b. Nino and Lisbeth c. Nathalie and Gilberth d. Lisbeth and Nathalie 26
  27. 27. 8. ______________ have been surfing more than half his/her life e. Gilbert and Nino f. Nino and Lisbeth g. Nathalie and Gilberth h. Lisbeth and Nathalie Read the text below Young Winners When talking about successful Costa Rican athletes, we usually think of soccer players like Paulo Cesar Wanchope or Gilberto Martinez, or we think of the famous swimmers Claudia Poll or Silvia Poll because their achievements have been truly outstanding, and at the same time they have become a symbol of our national pride. However, sometimes we overlook the accomplishments of other Costa Rican athletes that succeed in other disciplines, and in some cases these people do not receive the recognition they deserve. For example, have you heard of Juan Antonio Marin, Ernesto Fonseca or Marco Aurelio Odio? They are these three men that have put the name of Costa Rica before the word’s eyes and a little has been said about them. Therefore, below you will find in plain words why they deserve credits. First of all, let’s meet Juan Antonio Marin. This expert tennis player obtained the Coqui Bowl Title in 1989 in Puerto Rico. At this time, he announced he would do great things. He indeed kept his word when became the first and only Costa Rican who has won the Copa del Café. In 1992 and 1993, he was twice champion in doubles and by 1996, he had become a professional tennis player. After winning against Marcelo Rios from Chile and Michael Chang from the USA, Marin got his first title of the ATP in the open of Switzerland in Bastad. Secondly, a wolf in champion’s clothing Ernesto “Lobito” Fonseca, was registered in the history as the first motorcycle pilot of the area that won a title at the age of 17. This prize added to his early successful career: five Latin 27
  28. 28. Americans titles, four Central American titles, four amateur tournaments in USA, 12 national titles, and several other categories in motocross. The third man to honor is Marco Aurelio Odio Gallardo, who is considered the greatest Costa Rican bowler in history. He is the only Costa Rican player with five perfect games (line of 300 points) four here in Costa Rica and one in Miami. During his 19 years of career, he won La Raza two times (1989 and 1992). He has won the national tournament twice in 1995 and 96, once the Central American in 1996, and he has won the isthmus’s Champion of Champions tournament in times. He has also been to 10 World Tournaments. These great competitors demonstrate that dreams come true when you work hard for them. Adapted from: nacion.com<http://www.nacion.com/In_ee/futbol/milenio/cien9/cien20.html Based on the previous reading choose the option that best completes the statements or question. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is __________________________ a. There are successful soccer players b. Claudia and Silvia Poll represent our National pride c. Not all Costa Ricans athletes are recognized d. Aurelio Odio has represented the country in the world 2. Juan Antonio Marin is a successful ____________________________ a. Bowler b. Soccer player c. Pilot d. Tennis player 28
  29. 29. 3. Marin became a professional player in ___________________________ a. 1992 b. 1993 c. 1989 d. 1996 4. “Lobito” Fonseca made history when he won ______________________ a. a title the same year of his debut b. the Latin American titles c. Central American titles d. An amateur tournament. 5. Marco Aurelio Odio’s greatest achievement was ___________________ a. Winning “La Raza” tournament b. Doing five perfect games c. Winning the isthmus Champion of Champions Tournament d. Being in ten world tournaments 6. What these three athletes have in common is that __________________ a. The three of them are pilots b. The three of them are recognized throughout the world c. The three of them have succeeded at a very young age d. None of them have worked hard for their goals. 29
  30. 30. Now complete the chart below with the information about the athletes mentioned in the article. Athlete’s name Occupation Sport Achievements Solve the following cross-word puzzle with these sentences. Across Down 3. You need a racket to play ______ 1. ______ is one of the most popular sport in the USA 4. Claudia Poll is an outstanding __ 2. Soccer is played on a ________ 5. An ______ takes part in sport competitions 3. Bora and Guimaraes have been _______ 6. An oxygen tank is needed to to the National Soccer Team. practice _______________ 7. To ______ is to move on ice with 8. Tennis is played on a _________ skates 9. ________ is a sport that requires an arrow 8. ______ requires patience and concentration 10. You can ________ a wave or the 30 11. A _______ is a point scored when
  31. 31. net. the ball enters the goal. 13. In England soccer is called ____ 12. ______ shows the best athletes in the same category. 14. A _______ is a physical activity 15. 17. A _____ takes place when a player hurts another Do you like to __________ soccer? intentionally during the game 16. __________ is a form of football played with an egg-shaped ball. 18. To _______ is to fight with gloves 31
  32. 32. Second Topic COSTA RICAN ART, MUSIC AND CRATS 32
  33. 33. Objectives  Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences and utterances.  Linking sentences and paragraphs, structuring ideas.  Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons  Making themselves understood with little or no difficulty.  Formulating propositions and answering propositions.  Selecting written material that is appropriate to their competence to read independently. Art crafts and music in Costa Rica: Wh_ questions: which, when, what, how many, how, why, etc. Who is a famous painter/writer? Where does the ___ play? Yes/no questions Do you like/prefer ____? Is he/she a ____? Types of music: classical, popular. Places: Gallery, theater, etc. Different Kinds of Music!! 33
  34. 34. There are many kinds of music. Can you match the different styles of music with some of its most famous and representative singers? ( ) Country Music ( ) Heavy Metal ( ) Salsa and Tropical Music ( ) Rap Music ( ) Pop Music 1. EMINEM 2. Marck Anthony 3. Carrie Underwood 4. Beyonce 5. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Read the following text Vegetables Back on the Scene After two years of silence, Garbanzos is back to give a concert. Ten years ago a group of teenagers got together and decided to form a music group that, with time, would become one of the most emblematic Latin Rock Bands in the Country: Garbanzos. However, two years ago their fans began to suffer the silence of the band. They stopped listening to the lyrics and sounds of Garbanzos. The reasons were several: one of its members Gustavo, got married and left the band. Another had a car accident. “Everything came at the same time”, said one of them but now they’re back: “We’re older, twenty-eight on average but…” according to them “better than ever”. After finishing their studies, the band is giving a concert, it only costs 1500 colones. They’re going to release their new recordings. These are fourteen original songs compiled in a CD titled “Algo en la Vida” (Something in Life). However, they’re going to play their old hits, too. It would be two hours of Garbanzo’s best rock. Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the text above. 1. The Garbanzo’s have played ____________________ a. for eight years b. for the last ten years c. for the last two years d. since they were teenagers 2. The Band stopped playing because ______________ a. The members became older b. They wanted to finish their studies c. They took time to prepare their new album 36
  37. 37. d. There were changes and difficult situations in some of the band’s members lives 3. The members of the Band Garbanzos are __________ on average a. Teenagers b. 10 years old c. 28 years old d. 38 years old 4. The Band is going to play ____________ during the concert a. Only their new material b. A mixture of their new and old songs c. The music that made them famous ten years ago d. Fourteen songs from their album “Algo en la Vida” Read the following text Jacques who…? Who is he? A writer and a musician, Jacques Sagot has become one of the most prominent personalities in the cultural panorama in Costa Rica. Feeling this passion for both kinds of art, Sagot studied music and became of the most celebrated pianist Costa Rica has ever had. As a writer, he prefers to write short stories and articles for newspapers. Among his works, we can find Cuentos Magicos y Goticos (Magic and the Gothic Tales) published in 1998, where the writer bases his tales on fantasy. Cuentos de Plenilunio (Full Moon Tales) published in 2001, is his second book. This time the author remains faithful to the narrative style and fantastic world shown in his previous publication. Besides these two books, Sagot has published a work titled Ella (She) and the first volume of Pensamiento en forja (Thoughts under Construction), 37
  38. 38. whose second volume was released last year. In these two volumes, he compiles the articles he has published on page 15 for La Nacion from 1988 to the present. So the next time you listen to this uncommon name, you will know who this prolific artist is. Choose the correct option that completes each sentence based on the reading above. 1. The text emphasizes to the work of Sagot as _________ a. A pianist mostly b. A writer exclusively c. A journalist in La Nacion d. Booth a musician and a writer 2. In his second book Sagot ________________ a. Writes magic and gothic stories b. Tries a new way to write short stories c. Keeps a similar style and topic as in his first book d. Continues with the second volume of his first book 3. The two volumes of Pensamiento en Forja have been __________ a. Released in 2006 b. Considered fantastic c. Published by La Nacion d. Written from 1988 to the present Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. Arts Fest will Go On Organizers of the beleaguered Festival of the Arts, set to begin this weekend in Limon, were plowing forward at press time, despite a local strike which 38
  39. 39. threatened to end the festival before it begins. The Festival of the Arts is set to offer a wide range of local talent and big name San Jose- acts, including a multi-genre mix of music, dance, theater and poetry, with events in Limon, Cahuita and Guapiles from September 19-27 The popular festival was temporarily grounded once before, when Minister of Culture attempted to shut it down, citing a lack of involvement and interest by the national public and decreased performance quality. The Minister subsequently reserved his decision and named a committee to ensure quality and wide range at this year’s festival. Festival of the Arts press spokesperson Ana Beatriz Fernandez said organizers hoped the strike would end promptly, but claimed all events would continue as scheduled. The Tico Times, September 19, 2003 (Adapted) 1. The organizers of the Festival of the Arts fear that the ________affects it. a. Strike in Limon b. Absence of music c. Schedule in Cahuita d. Low quality of music 2. The Festival of Arts lasts ________________ a. Nine days b. Nineteen days c. Almost 15 days d. About two weeks 39
  40. 40. 3. According to the text, _____________ tried to close the festival because of its low quality. a. Organizers b. Some strikers c. The Minister of Culture d. Ana Beatrice Fernandez 4. The Festival of the Arts ______________ a. Was created by Ms. Fernandez b. Offers diverse events c. Was forbidden by the Minister d. Is an unpopular event. Read the text. Choose the best alternative to complete each sentence. Born in San Jose in 1934, Rafa Fernandez attended the Casa del Artista art school in Guadalupe, a suburb northeast of San Jose, before accepting a scholarship to the School of Fine Arts in Nicaragua. There he studied with Rodrigo Penalba, an influence that would later be reflected in Fernandez’s use of tone and color. Also influencing the artist’s style and expression would be the time spent in Spain studying at the Circle of Fine Arts in Madrid. His works have gained international distinction and have been shown in France, Spain, the United States, Colombia, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua and Guatemala. In his exploration of the human figure, Fernandez employs a magical realism that is central to his feminine characters. With explosions of color, he creates the archetypal beauty using themes of desire and fascination combined with soft and hard form. The Tico Times, February 4, 2005 1. Rafa Fernandez studied in ___________________ a. Panama 40
  41. 41. b. Colombia c. Nicaragua d. Guatemala 2. Rodrigo Penalba inspired Rafa Fernandez to ____________________ a. Study at the Casa del Artista b. Accept a scholarship c. Use tone and color d. Go to Spain 3. Rafa Fernandez _____________________ in Spain a. Studied with Mr. Penalba b. Got his style and expression c. Gained international distiction d. Worked in the Circle of Fine Arts 4. Rafa Fernandez paints ____________________ a. Human figures b. Antique figures c. Typical portraits d. Colored photographs. Read the text. Choose the best alternative to answer the questions. The three-time Grammy award winning musical trio Editus realized their vision with the opening of the Editus Arts Academy. The Academy has 50 students, and Ednin Solis expects 400 students to be enrolled, working within a broad range of musical styles. Solis’ vision for the academy and the types of courses offered is similar to the trio’s music: a blend of style from across the musical spectrum. Editus, an all-instrumental group, “works in parallel with classical and contemporary music”, Solis said. In keeping with that style, the academy has 41
  42. 42. tried to break from the traditional concept of formal musical training and expand the focus from solely classical to styles such as rock, jazz, Latin and electronic. Not limited to music or convention, the academy lends its unique perspective to Costa Rican artist in the field of theater, dance, painting, literature, film and poetry through workshops. 1. What’s Editus’ main achievement? They ______________________ a. Launched an academy b. Play instrumental music c. Won the Grammy Award d. Got a national trophy twice 2. What’s Editus’ expectation? To ________________ a. Have hundreds of students b. Enroll fifty students c. Open an academy d. Found a new trio 3. What kind of music does Editus play? a. A mix of styles b. Formal music c. Choral music d. autochthon 4. What type of courses does Editus offer in their academy? Courses _____ a. Specialized in formal music b. On musical instruments c. On sculpture and design d. In different art fields. 42
  43. 43. Imagine you’re going to interview Jorge Jimenez Deredia. What would you ask him about his career and achievements? Create a draft you’re your interview with at least 10 questions. My Interview with Jimenez Deredia ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Read the following text carefully. Sarchi Costa Rica is full of delightful places, but Sarchi stands out for the precision, skill, charm and crafts of its arts which are the best in Costa Rica. Sarchi is alson known for its carpentry. Josefinos come here to buy skillfully crafted wooden chairs, tables and beds. These things might be a bit impractical for foreign visitors to take home, but there are leather comfortable and wood rocking chairs that can be folded to transport. Beautiful and useful bowls, plates, cutting boards, napkin holders and the like of all made of native hardwoods, are also available. 43
  44. 44. The pretty town of Sarchi is most famous for the brightly colored, artfully painted oxcarts, in all sizes, that are made there. Visitors are welcome to enter the “fábricas de carretas” and watch the master artist at work on miniature versions of the carretas which are famous worldwide. Now choose the best option to complete the sentences. 1. The reading says that Sarchi ________________________ a. Is full of things that can be folded to transport b. Displays garde ornaments in leather c. Stands for geometrical designs d. Is the place of fine arts 2. A Sarchi article which is famous around the world is the _____________ a. Wood and leather rocking chair b. Miniature version of the cart c. Handmade napkin holder d. Wooden table. Now answer these questions based on the reading about Sarchi 1. Why is Sarchi such a popular tourist site? __________________________________________________________ 2. What size ox-carts are sold? _____________________________________________________________ 3. What items do people buy in Sarchi? _____________________________________________________________ 4. What wooden and leather item is made to for travelers to carry? _____________________________________________________________ 5. What kind of wood do the artisans use to make their crafts? _____________________________________________________________ 44
  45. 45. Third Topic COSTA RICAN TYPICAL FOOD 45
  46. 46. Objectives  Understanding relations within the sentence (structure, syntax, morphological, modification of structure and negation) characteristic of spoken language.  Identifying text types.  Identifying the purpose of short messages  Identifying details in familiar material.  Understanding relations between the parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices.  Producing pieces of writing of various lengths on real and imaginary subjects.  Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons. Typical food:  What are the most popular dishes in your community?  What do you eat for breakfast, lunch, etc. ____?  Which, when, how, what kind of____?  Do/does ____ like ____?  What's typical from____? etc. Functions: Convincing people to do something. 46
  47. 47. Look at these two recipes. One of them is to prepare chili con carne and the other is to prepare pancakes. Arrange them according to the recipe. Ingredients: Directions: • Simmer uncovered for 45 minutes. chili powder 1 tbsp salad oil • In a very big pot add in oil and sauté 1 cup onion 1/2 cup green pepper garlic, onion, celery, and green pepper 1 lb beans maple syrup until onion is light brown. • Slowly add the flour into the eggs 1 clove garlic 1-1/2 cups milk and gradually add milk until everything 1 tbsp butter 1 tbsp sugar is completely mixed. • Once the vegetables are cooked, 2 cups celery butter for frying add ground beef. Then cook until 1/2 cup flour 2 cans of tomatoes brown. 1/2 tsp salt 1 lb ground beef • Cover the bottom of a frying pan with 2 eggs butter and spoon in a small amount of pancake mixture. • Stir in kidney beans, tomatoes, salt, and chili powder. • Melt the butter in a small pot. Then sift the flour, salt, and sugar into a large mixing bowl. • Mince garlic and chop onions, green pepper, and celery. • Dig a hole in the center of the flour and break in the eggs. • When the pancake bubbles, flip it over and cook until it is brown Serve with maple syrup. 47
  48. 48. Now write the ingredients and procedures appropriately for each recipe. Chili con Carne Ingredients: Procedures: _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ Pancakes Ingredients:___________________ Procedures:_______________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ ____________________________ _________________________ 48
  49. 49. Fruit Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Grapes Pineapples Bananas Apples Peaches Pears Apricots Plums 9. Grapefruit 10. Oranges 11. Lemons 12. Limes 13. Tangerines 14. Avocadoes 15. Cantaloupes 16. Cherries 17. Strawberries 18. Raspberries 19. Blueberries 20. Papayas 21. Mangoes 22. Coconuts 23. Nuts 49 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Watermelon Dates Prunes Raisins Not ripe Ripe Rotten
  50. 50. Vegetables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lettuce Cabbage Carrots Zucchini Radishes Beets Sweet peppers 8. Chili peppers 9. Celery 10. Parsley 11. Spinach 12. Cucumbers 13. Squash 14. Turnips 15. Broccoli 16. Cauliflower 17. Scallions 18. Eggplants 19. Peas 20. Artichokes 21. Potatoes 22. Yams 50 23. Tomatoes 24. Asparagus 25. String beans 26. Mushrooms 27. Corn 28. Onions 29. Garlic
  51. 51. Meat and Poultry Beef 1. Roast Beef 2. Steak 3. Stewing beef Beef ribs Pork 6. Veal cutlets 9. Ham 10. Pork chops 7. Liver 11. Bacon 8. tripe 12. Sausage 4. Ground 5. Beef 51 Lamb 13. Lamb Shanks 14. Leg lamb 15. Lamb chops of
  52. 52. Poultry 16. Chicken 19. breasts 22. drumsticks 17. Turkey 20. wings 23. gizzards 18. duck 21. thighs 24. raw chicken 25. Cooked chicken Containers and Packaged Food 52
  53. 53. 1. Bottle 2. Jar 3. Can 4. Carton 5. Container 6. Box 13. A bottle of soda 14. a jar 15. a can soup of 16. a carton of eggs 17. a container of cottage cheese 18. a box cereal of 19. a bag flour of 20. a package of cookies 7. Bag 8. Package 9. Six-pack 10. Loaf 11. Roll 12. Tube 53 21. a six pack of soda 22. a loaf bread of 23. a roll paper towels of 24. a tube of toothpaste
  54. 54. Food and drink 2 1 11 1 10 13 12 10 11 5 5 12 4 2 3 7 3 6 7 8 9 9 8 54 4 6
  55. 55. Across Down 1. Sweet food made by mixing flour, eggs, butter, sugar, etc. 2. Two slices of bread with food between them 3. A sweet brown food made from cacao seeds 4. An oval object with a hard shell 6. A green or purple berry made for making wine 5. A red vegetable often eaten in salads or cooked 8. A vegetable with a stem and cap which grows rapidly 7. A plant with large green leaves 10. A long thin orange vegetable that grows under the ground 9. A white liquid 13. A type of a small cake that is thin, hard and usually sweet 11. A large vegetable with green leaves and a white round centre that you cook and eat 12. A vegetable with many layers and brown skin which has strong smell and taste Cooking Vocabulary Match the words with the according picture. a c b Pour Stir Cut Fry e d Grill g Melt Peel f g Bake i Add Boil h j Read the recipe and complete it instead of the pictures. 55 Chop
  56. 56. Brownies Recipe taken from: http://www.cacaoweb.net/brownies.html Ingredients 1+1/3 cup _____________________ 1+½ cup _______________________ 4 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder 1 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon vanilla extract ¾ cup (170 g) ______________________ 3 fl oz (0.9 dl) boiling _________________ 3 ____________________ 4 oz (120 g) ___________________ 5 oz (150 g) chopped walnuts or pecan nuts Frosting 1/3 cup (75 g) ___________________ 8 oz (220 g) sweet or semisweet _______________________ 2 tablespoon light corn syrup 2 tablespoon hot espresso or very strong coffee 56
  57. 57. Method Preheat _____________ to 350 deg F (Gas mark 4 or 180 deg C). Line a 13 x 9 in (33 x 23 cm) cake tin with grease proof or other non-stick paper and grease the tin. Put it in the ________________________ Put the ________________ in a saucepan. In a bowl mix _________________ baking powder and vanilla extract. Add _________ melted ____________, , cocoa powder, and hot ________ and stir until smooth. add _______________ and nuts. ______________ at 350 degrees F until a wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean, approximately 20-30 minutes. Cool the __________________ ______________________frosting. For the frosting, add ___________ and heat in a double boiler until melted. Mix until smooth and spread over the cake. 57 . Glace with the ,___________syrup and coffee
  58. 58. Label the pictures. Use the word bank. Grilled roasted boiled baked ___________________ ______________________ _________________ fried _______________________ ______________________________ Now fill in the blanks based on the pictures above. a. Burgers are grilled on a barbecue b. Water is ______________ in a saucepan on the stove c. Cookies are ____________________ in an oven d. Chicken is ____________________ in a frying pan. e. Hot dogs are ______________ over a fire. Let’s Practice the Vocabulary Unscramble these words, use the clues. a. To mix with a spoon ( i t r s ) _____________ b. To combine two ingredients or to put them together ( d a d) ___________ c. To cook something in an oven ( k a b e ) _____________________ d. To heat liquid until it reaches 100 o C ( I b i o ) _____________________ e. To serve a liquid like coffee, tea or water ( u r p o ) ________________ 58
  59. 59. f. To chop, divide or slice something with a sharp instrument like a knife. ( t u c) __________________ g. To liquefy or dissolve by heating (e m t l ) __________________ h. To stir or whisk vigorously ( a e t b ) ______________________ Read the following recipe by writing the appropriate verb. Use the words on the box to complete it. Chocolate Cake Beat 4 oz of sugar Pour 4 oz of flour Cut 4 oz of butter Add (twice) 1 bar of chocolate Mix (twice) 2 eggs Melt ½ tsp vanilla Bake _____________ the sugar and butter together in a mixing bowl, then ___________ two eggs and __________ the whole mixture. _____________ flour a little at a time. _________ a chocolate bar in a pan over low heat and _________ to the rest. ___________ this mixture into a greased cake pan, and _________ for 40 minutes at 350o C Then when it’s ready _____________ into pieces and offer it to your friends and family! Bon Appetite 59
  60. 60. Food Adjectives Bland Sweet Sour green Cylindrical Indian Round Spicy Hot Cold Oval Italian soft Crumbly Creamy Delicious Japanese Crunchy oily Crispy Cream white Hard Fluffy Chinese Chewy Disgusting purple Put the adjectives above under the correct tables. Taste sweet Shape Colour round green 60 Texture chewy origin Chinese
  61. 61. What does the apple taste like? Use some adjectives to describe these foods. Food Taste Color 61 Shape Texture
  62. 62. Read the following excerpt. Costa Rican Cuisine Dictionary Arracache: a delicious root that is cooked in a picadillo, usually eaten with corn tortillas in gallos. Bocas: Complimentary food served with drinks as an appetizer or between meals Ceviche: Diced raw fish mixed with onion, garlic, cilantro and lime juice, usually served as a snack with crackers, ketchup and mayonnaise. Chifrijo: Tender Beans, avocado, toasted tortillas, tomato and fried pork, one of the most popular bocas nowadays. Empanadas: (Corn turnovers) Tortillas folded in two forming a shell and fried in oil, filled with beans, mashed potatoes, pork, sausage, beef, cheese … or sweet ones filled with pineapple jelly or others. Frescos: Fresh fruit drinks made with sugar, fruit, water or milk. Some of the most popular ones are tamarind, lemon, star fruit, and cas in water; or blackberry, papaya and guanabana (sour sop) in milk. Gallos: Corn tortilla with meat, beef, chicken, beans, white cheese, or picadillo in it. Rice and Beans: Gallo pinto cooked in coconut milk and served with chicken, a typical dish from the Caribbean area. Choose the correct answer to complete each sentence based on the previous excerpt. 1. Bocas are ________ a. Desserts b. Snacks c. Side dishes d. Main course 2. a. b. c. A difference between empanadas and gallos is that empanadas _______ Are fried, and gallos aren’t Are made with corn, and gallos are not. Are prepared with tortillas, and gallos aren’t 62
  63. 63. d. May be filled with cheese and gallos may not. 3. The fact that both ____________ is a similarity between chifrijo and ceviche. a. Are made with fish b. Must be eaten warm c. Are served as appetizers d. Have corn in their preparation. Can you say what’s in other meals? Tamales: Pati: Hamburguers: Hot Dogs: What’s your favorite typical food? __________________________________________________________ How often do you eat it? __________________________________________________________ How do you prepare it? __________________________________________________________ 63
  64. 64. Where do you usually eat it? __________________________________________________________ How to prepare a delicious Ceviche Ingredients: 1 lb (450 g) white fish 1 small onion 1 clove garlic Chopped cilantro ¾ cup of lime juice ¼ teaspoon of salt Mild pepper Preparation Dice fish. Mix onion, garlic and the chopped ingredients. Add the lime juice. Mix all the ingredients and refrigerate at least two hours. Serving You may serve it with mayonnaise, ketchup and boiled green plantains. Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the previous recipe. 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. Three of the ingredients in the ceviche are ________ Onion, garlic and ketchup Green plantains, fish and chili Chopped fish, lime juice and chopped cilantro Lime juice, mayonnaise and chopped cilantro. In this recipe the fish is ____________ Raw Ripe Fried Boiled Ceviche is a ___________ dish Hot and salted Cold and sweet Salted and cold Sweet and warm 64
  65. 65. Read this e-mail Hi, Becky I got your list of questions about Costa Rican typical food. I love cooking and my mom is a great cook too! First of all, the main ingredients of our food are rice, corn, beans, coriander, garlic, oregano, a version of Worcestershire sauce, fresh fruit, meat and vegetables. Our food is usually mild. And every dish is tastier if you prepare it in a wood burning-stove. We usually have breakfast, lunch, dinner and a coffee break. For breakfast, we usually have coffee or sugar cane hot drink, bread, butter, sour cream, cereal or scrambled eggs. The most common dishes are the “gallo pinto” (literally it means spotted roaster! I’ll send you the recipe) and “casado” (married man dish). The casado consists of white rice, black or red beans served with pork, steak, fish or chicken, a portion of salad, some picadillo (chopped vegetables, with or without meat) and / or fried ripe plantain. This dish is usually eaten for lunch or dinner. Other traditional dishes are rice with chicken or with shrimps (my favorite), tripe soup, olla de carne (beef soup), tortillas (like the burrito tortillas you eat in the USA, but made of corn flour), tamales (cornmeal, stuffed with pork or chicken, wrapped in bananas leaves and boiled). Some traditional drinks are horchata (made with ground rice) and resbaladera (made with rice and barley). In addition, we make juice of almost any fruit we have. For example, I love blackberry, mango, and passion fruit juice. Among desserts, the most common ones are rice pudding and fruit salad. For coffee break, people usually have coffee and some pastry or bread with sour cream; I like yoghurt and fresh fruit, though. Hope this information will help with your assignment! Write soon and tell me about American Food. 65
  66. 66. Now based on the e-mail read the sentences and write if they’re True or False. Write (T) or (F) or NG if the information is not given. Statement Becky is a good cook T/F/NG Carla’s mother can cook Carla has pastry and coffee for coffee break Casado has some kind of meat in it The recipe of gallo pinto is described Mondongo soup is made with beef Picadillo is made with vegetables Food is better if prepared in a wood stove Imagine you invite a Canadian friend for lunch. Write a well-balanced, typical Costa Rican menu. 66
  67. 67. Read the text and choose the best alternative that best completes each sentence Costa Rica Style with a “Chorreador de Café” We are well acquainted with the traditional way of coffee brewing. Our coffee machines are quite popular throughout the country, many of us are still using the traditional “chorreador de cafe”. You will find those at the Central Market or just email us, we usually have on stock… ask for information at costaricatours@earthlink.net The Costa Rican method is simple. All you need is a wooden stand with a round hole at the top. There you place a cloth filter to hold the ground coffee (two tablespoons of fine ground coffee per cup). Bring water to a boil and pour it down the filter and into the coffeepot, which has been placed underneath the cloth filter. It is critically important to bring water to a boil; otherwise coffee will lose its aroma and flavor properties. 1. The use of “chorreador de café” is very ________ in Costa Rica? a. Ancestral b. Restricted c. Uncommon d. Inexpensive 2. The “chorreador de cafe” __________ a. Is made by costaricatours@earthlink.net b. Has a hole on the base c. Is made of wood d. Boils water 3. You need _____ to filter the coffee a. A round hole b. A fabric bag c. Cold water d. A coffeepot 67
  68. 68. 4. Using very hot water, makes be _______ a. Acid b. Flavorless c. Bitter and insipid d. Fragrant and savory Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. “Tico” food is neither spicy nor, in many respects unfamiliar. It is built around the basis of rice, beans, corn, vegetables, meat, chicken or fish and usually served with corn tortillas. Breakfast typically features a delicious mixture of rice and black beans known as “gallo pinto” which may be accompanied by eggs, corn tortillas and sour cream. Calorie counters may prefer a tropical fruit plate of papaya, watermelon, pineapple, bananas and, in season, mango or cantaloupe. Casados, popular at midday, are huge plates of white rice, beans, fried plantains, salad, cheese, diced vegetables and your choice of meat, chicken or fish. Hearty soups are a favorite for dinner. Commonly served desserts include caramel or coconut flan, several type of pudding, and a cake called “tres leches”. The fresh fruit drinks, are flavorful and healthy. Any kind of fruit, from strawberries to mango, is mixed in a blender with crushed ice, either water or milk and a little honey or sugar. Adapted from Costa Rica Horizons 1. Costa Rican food is ____________ a. Commonly served with watermelon b. Mainly based on rice and beans c. Based on tropical fruits d. Spicy and unfamiliar 68
  69. 69. 2. The favorite dish people enjoy at lunch is __________ a. A soup b. A casado c. Diced vegetables d. Several types of pudding 3. A “tres leches” is _____________ a. a mixture of water, milk and honey b. one of the favorites after meals c. made of caramel and coconut d. flavorful and healthy 4. Gallo Pinto is typically served at ________________ a. breakfast b. lunch c. dinner d. any time Creative Cooking By Christine Dietz – The Tico Times Staff Flat Bread (Makes 2-3 flat loaves) 5 cups wheat flour 5 tbsp dry yeast ½ tsp. salt Disolve Yeast in 1/3 cup of warm wáter. Place fluor and salt in a bowl and form a well. Pour in yeast. Add rest of water and knead with greased hands (use some olive oil) until the dough becomes soft and non-sticky. Cover bowl with a kitchen cloth and let stand in a warm place for 30 minutes until dough has doubled in size. 1 1/3 cup warm water 1 tsp olive oil 1 tbsp water 1 egg yolk 1 tsp. honey 1 tbsp. linseed 2 tbsp. sesame seeds Form flats by stretching the dough with your hands, leaving ends thick. Place on a greased baking tray. Press your fingers slightly on the flat, forming rhombic patterns. Mix water, yolk, honey and olive oil in a small cup and spread on the flats. Sprinkle with linseeds and sesame seeds. Preheat oven and bake under minimum heat for 15 minutes and under highest heat for 30 minutes until flats become well browned 69
  70. 70. 1. To make flat bread, first you ________________ a. Dissolve flour and salt in warm water b. Spread 1 egg yolk on tray c. Melt 5 tbsp. yeast in water d. Add 5 cups wheat flour 2. After pouring the yeast into a bowl with flour and salt, you _________ a. Add 1 tsp. olive oil b. Grease the bowl with olive oil c. Add more flour and salt and knead it d. Annex more water and mix with oiled hands 3. To bake the bread, you need to ________________ a. Sprinkle the tray with linseeds and sesame seeds b. Preheat the oven for 45 minutes c. Spread honey in the tray d. Heat the oven in advance Read the information. Choose the appropriate alternative to answer each question. a. I’m going to prepare a special dish today b. What is it? Paella, shrimps or what? a. It’s a ham, potato and cheese soup b. Soup? Let’s see what it includes to be a special dish? a. You need 12 peeled and cubed large potatoes, two finely chopped onions, 70
  71. 71. two pounds of processed cheese, one pound of cubed ham, ground black pepper, 3 tablespoons of all purpose flour; one cup of milk and water. b. And how do you prepare this special soup? First, you place the potatoes, onions, and cubed ham in a large pot; a cover them with water. Then, you cook the potatoes until they’re almost tender. Remove about one cup of cooked potatoes and mash in a bowl with the back of the fork. So, you add some of the liquid from the pot along with the flour and cheese until you have a thick paste. Add this back to the pot. Finally, let the soup boil and add pepper to taste. 1. How many ingredients does the person use to prepare the recipe? a. Twenty b. Eleven c. Eight d. Ten 2. What does the person advice to do first? To ____________________ a. Add pepper and cheese b. Mix water and hot milk c. Mash potatoes in a bowl d. Cook the potatoes, onions and ham 71
  72. 72. 3. Which ingredients are used to thick the paste? a. Water and rolls b. Milk and black pepper c. Cubed ham and onions d. Flour, cheese and potatoes 4. What´s the last step on preparing the soup? To __________________ a. Cut onions into cubes b. Add pepper when boiling c. Remove the cooked potatoes d. Place potatoes in a large pot. 72
  73. 73. Fourth Topic HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS IN COSTA RICA WITH SOME CELEBRATIONS IN ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES 73
  74. 74. Objectives  Understanding ideas and information in the text through making inferences,  Identifying the purpose of short messages.  Criticizing.  Summarizing the gist of new items, messages and narratives.  Identifying details in familiar material.  Understanding relations between the parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices  Adapting clearly, formal and informal writing styles at a simple level.  Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons Current events and holiday celebrations: What's your favorite celebration? When is it celebrated? How is it celebrated? My family is used to going /eating, celebrating, etc. on____? I prefer ____, etc. Functions: Reporting on current events and holidays celebrations. Requesting and giving information on current events and celebrations. 74
  75. 75. Holidays Vocabulary 1. New Year’s Day 8. Fireworks 15. Thanksgiving 2. Parade 9. Flag 16. Feast 3. Confetti 10. Halloween 17. Turkey 4. Valentine’s Day 11. Jack-o’-lantern 18. Christmas 5. Card 12. Mask 19. Ornament 6. Heart 13. Costume 20. Christmas Tree 7. Independence Day or 4th of July 14. Candy A. Plan a party E. Hide B. Invite Guess F. Answer the door Birthday” C. Decorate the G. Shout “Surprise!” J. Make a wish H. Light the candles K. Blow out candles house I. Sing “Happy D. Wrap a gift the L. Open the presents 75
  76. 76. Holydays and Festivals Think about these questions and answer them What is the most important celebration in Costa Rica? _______________________________________________________________ How do you celebrate it? _______________________________________________________________ Which country would you like to go to participate in the carnivals? ________________________________________________________________ April Fool’s Day Rio de Janeiro’s Carnival April Fool’s Day is celebrated in the USA on April 1st, Americans play small tricks on their best friends and relatives by making them believe facts/things which are not real or by putting them in embarrassing situations that make them feel ridiculous in front of others. One common trick on this day is making an appointment with somebody and then not showing up. These are some other practical jokes. Putting salt in the sugar bowl for the next person to use it. College students set their clocks an hour behind, so their roommates show up at the wrong class. Most April Fool Jokes are in good fun and aren’t meant to offend anyone. The anual carnaval in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil started around 1840, Brazilians celebrate this famous carnaval at the beggining of february. They offer prizes for both costumes and music; the competition results in a varied and imaginative entries in both categories. It is the most famous carnival in the world. Barranquilla’s Carnival This carnival is celebrated in Barranquilla, Colombia. It is on the second weekend in February. Colombians have four famous events in the carnival: “The Battle of the Flowers”, “The Great Parade”, “The Orchestra Festival” and the “Vallenato Festival”. They finish the carnival with the death of “Joselito’s Carnival” 76 The Day of the Death The Day of the Death is celebrated in Mexico on nd November 2 . It is when Mexican families spend at the cemetery visiting the graves of their relatives, cleaning up and painting their headstones. They always arrange flowers for the dead and light candle lights. They offer food to their dead and then they have lunch together there.
  77. 77. Fill out the Chart based on the previous information What is the name of the celebration? Where do they celebrate it? Rio de Brazil When do they celebrate it? How do they celebrate it? Janeiro On November 2nd Barranquilla’s Carnival April Fool’s Day Classify the following words or phrases in each group. Wine dancing sending cards candy Desserts chicken putting on a costume Halloween Receiving gifts day of the Dead Thanksgiving Christmas Activities New Year’s Eve cake Food 77 Celebration
  78. 78. Jane is talking to her mom, Kate. She couldn’t be with her family on Thanksgiving. Read their conversation a. Hello,Mom b. Hi, darling. Did you call me this morning? a. Yes I did. But you weren’t at home. Mom, I’m really sorry that I couldn’t be with you last Thursday for Thanksgiving. b. What happened? a. Well, I didn’t book my flight in advance from Washington to Tallahassee. When I went to the airport all the tickets had been sold. What did you do on Thanksgiving? b. Dad, Mary and Sally were at home. We all prayed and had dinner together. We ate turkey, cranberries, sweet potatoes and pumpkin pie. It was a wonderful evening. a. Sounds great! I just stayed at the university dormitories with two friends of mine. In the morning, there was a mass at the university chapel and I went with them b. I hope you come next year a. I promise. I’ll see you in December, Mom. b. Bye, sweetie. Check “Jane” or “Kate” to specify who did each action Jane She couldn’t fly to Washington She went to a mass She prayed with her family She ate thanksgiving dinner 78 Kate
  79. 79. The Simple Past Tense Uses USE 1 Completed Action in the Past Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. Examples:  I saw a movie yesterday.  I didn't see a play yesterday.  Last year, I traveled to Japan.  Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.  Did you have dinner last night?  She washed her car.  He didn't wash his car. USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happened 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on. Examples:  I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. 79
  80. 80.  He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.  Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? USE 3 Duration in Past The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc. Examples:  I lived in Brazil for two years.  Shauna studied Japanese for five years.  They sat at the beach all day.  They did not stay at the party the entire time.  We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.  A: How long did you wait for them? B: We waited for one hour. USE 4 Habits in the Past The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc. 80
  81. 81. Examples:  I studied French when I was a child.  He played the violin.  He didn't play the piano.  Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?  She worked at the movie theater after school.  They never went to school, they always skipped class. USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to." Examples:  She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.  He didn't like tomatoes before.  Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?  Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs: V1 V2 V3 base past past participle regular work worked worked verb explode exploded exploded all regular verbs like liked liked ends in -ed. irregular go went gone The past form for verb see saw seen irregular verbs is 81 The past form for
  82. 82. sing sang sung variable. You need to learn it by heart. You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. It is shown here for completeness only.  The structure for positive sentences in the simple past tense is: subject + main verb Past  The structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb Did  Base The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb Did Base  The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did etc). And the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main verbs go and work: subject auxiliary verb main verb + I went worked You - to school. very hard. She Did not go with me. We Did not work yesterday. ? Did You go 82 to London?
  83. 83. Did  They work at home? Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it was, we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. To make a question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples: Subject + I, he/she/it main verb Was here. You, we, they Were - I, he/she/it Was not there. You, we, they Were ? Was Were in London. not happy. I, he/she/it right? you, we, they late? Exercises Change the verbs in the following sentence into past tense. 1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client. ____________________________________________________________ 2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space. ___________________________________________________________ 3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full. 4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations. 5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them." ____________________________________________________________ 83
  84. 84. 6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours. ____________________________________________________________ 7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Then we see a small grocery store. ____________________________________________________________ 9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches. ____________________________________________________________ 10. That is better than waiting for two hours. ____________________________________________________________ Correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper. 2. My pet lizard was died last month. 3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room. 4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal. 5. What was happened to your leg? 84
  85. 85. Read the text carefully and answer the questions. Well this happened when I was 12. We had a school medical exam, which we had to attend. That day classes were off. It was just the medical. Boys’ timings were from 9 to 12 and girls from 12 to 2:30. When I reached the medical room to get enlisted it was 10:30. Still I was asked to wait, as only 3 counters were working instead of 5. So I had to wait. When my turn came, it was nearly 11:30 and an attendant who was a young guy took me in. He took me to the boys’ room and asked me to strip off my uniform. He said it was customary and it would be only for 3 minutes. As no one had seen me naked that way before, I was feeling shy. The doctor checked me promptly but wanted to get a few x-rays of my appendix done. I was asked to go to the x-ray room immediately so as to save time. I had never imagined the x-ray room would be at the far end of the corridor. Luckily no one was around. But when I finished my x-ray, it was already 12 and the gates were thrown open for the girls to come in. They were chatting among themselves when suddenly they saw me. I was shocked and having nowhere to go, I ran back to the x-ray room, where they had already shut the door saying "LUNCH TIME". 85
  86. 86. Practically every girl who had turned up saw me naked. To make things worse my clothes were all in the dressing room, which was now occupied with girls so I couldn’t go there too. At last 2 matrons came and dragged me by my arms right through the crowd. I still feel mortified by that incident. Decide weather the following statements are true or false. a) The boy had to wait for his turn. ___________________ b) A young attendant asked him to get undressed. ___________________ c) The doctor checked him and sent him home immediately. __________ d) The girls saw him naked. ___________________ e) The dressing room was occupied with boys. ___________________ Find evidence in the text to support the following statements: a) That day there were no classes. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ b) The boy was asked to take his clothes off. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c) The girls were talking to each other. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ d) He was seen naked by every girl on the corridor .____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 86
  87. 87. e) He still doesn’t like to think about the incident ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Give complete answers to the following questions: a) How old was the boy when this incident happened? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ b) Why weren’t there any classes that day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c) Why did the boy feel embarrassed? ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Make questions to the following answers. Mind the underlined words or phrases. a) He was 12 years old when the incident happened. ___________________________________________________________? b) This incident happened in March. ___________________________________________________________? c) He met the doctor at 10:30. ___________________________________________________________? d) The boy went home. ___________________________________________________________? e) The Doctor told the boy to go away. ___________________________________________________________? 87
  88. 88. Rewrite the following sentences in the negative form: a) This happened a long time ago. ____________________________________________________________ b) I was shy. ___________________________________________________________ c) Did you have my clothes? ____________________________________________________________ Complete the sentences with the Simple past of the given verbs. a) The teacher ______________________ (take) him to the boy’s room. b) The girls ___________________________ (see) him naked c) He ________________________________ (ask) questions. d) He ._____________________________ (finish) the medical exams. e) He ______________________________ (go) home. Fill in with the Past Simple of the given verbs: 1. Do 2. Go 3. Big 4. Put 5. Start 6.Begin 7.Tell 8.Buy 9.Think 10.Cry 11.Understand 12.Write 13.Read 88
  89. 89. 14.Smile 15.Eat 16.Speak 17.Drink 18.Bring 19.Like 20.Cook 21.Run 22.Hear 23.Cut 24.Walk 25.Catch 26.Wake up 27.Sleep 28.Play 29.Say 30.Fall 31.Study 32.Get 33.Feel 34.Miss 35.Work 36. Wash 37.Travel 38.Fly 89
  90. 90. 39.Feed 40.Watch “A very Special Date” What do you know about Saint Valentine’s Day? _________________________________________________________________ How do you celebrate it? _________________________________________________________________ What did you do last February 14th? _________________________________________________________________ Match the word with its corresponding definition Definition 1. A loved person, Word ( boyfriend, ) gift girlfriend, wife, etc. 2. A present, something given ( ) to cut out 3. To give or to take one thing in ( ) exchange ( ) wallpaper return for another one 4. Decorative paper for the walls of a room ( 5. To cook in dry heat, in an oven ) sweetheart ( 6. To wait in a standing position 90 ) to stand
  91. 91. 7. To remove something ( from ) to bake something else by cutting all around it. Saint Valentine’s Day It is a special day, celebrated on February 14 th, mainly in the USA and Canada. On this date, people send greetings, mainly in the USA and Canada. On this date people send greeting cards called Valentines to their sweethearts, friends and members of their families. Many valentines have romantic verses, and others have humorous pictures and sayings like: “Be my Valentine!” On Valentine’s Day many people give candy, flowers and different gifts to their friends. How do people celebrate it? In the United States and Canada, children exchange valentines with their friends. In some schools, children have a classroom party and put all valentines into a box decorated beforehand. At the end of the day, the teacher or one of the students distributes the cards. Many children make their own valentines from red paper wallpaper, and pictures cut out from magazines. In Europe, they celebrate Valentine’s Day in many ways. British children sing special Valentine’s Day songs and received gifts of candy, fruit or money, and in some areas people bake cakes. In Italy, they hold a Valentine’s Day Feast. In Great Britain and Italy, some unmarried women stand by their window, waiting for a man to pass. They believe that the first man they see, will marry them in the future. In Latin America they do different things. In Colombia, for example, people give and receive cards and presents and they play “Secret Friend” at School or at 91
  92. 92. Work. To do it, people put their names in a bag and then they take out a different name to give him/her a present. At the end of the game, they try to identify who his/her secret friend was. Scan the text and complete these statements a. In the USA, people celebrate _____________________________________ b. On this date, they _____________________________________________ c. In Colombia, people ____________________________________________ d. In Europe, children ____________________________________________ Answer the following questions based on your own experience. 1. Do you celebrate Saint Valentine’s Day in your country? ____________________________________________________________ 2. When is it? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Does it have the same name? If not what is it called? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Do you know how did your parents and grandparents celebrate it? ____________________________________________________________ Complete this postcard that Barbara wrote to a friend in Canada using the words in the box. Dear Sandy, Last week we ____________ St. Valentine’s Day at school. We _________ a great party. I __________ a beautiful ________ to my friend Betty. I decorated it with colorful paper. She liked it very much. My classmates brought _____________ and our French teacher __________ a 92 delicious ________________. What about you? What did you __________ on that day? Write soon. Do celebrated Had gift Gave cake Candy prepared
  93. 93. Write the words below in the appropriate group. You can repeat words. Cake turkey Christmas Cards candy Halloween Tricks costume birthday Pumpkin pie gifts Candle tree lights carols Christmas Guess the antonyms and fill in the crossword puzzle. 3 5. 2 1 D 2 1 3 4 C O M 4 P 5 L E T E 93 A R K
  94. 94. DOWN ACROSS 1. Incomplete 1. Light 2. Happiness 2. Sad 3. Untidy 3. Dirty 4. Old 4. Fast 5. Interesting 5. High Before reading Do you know how do people celebrate Christmas in other countries? Write an example. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Reading Scan the text to get specific information and fill in the chart. Christmas Eve Native American British People People Latin American People Date of the Celebration Typical Food and Customs Christmas Christmas a religious holiday reminds Christians the story of an angel who 94
  95. 95. appeared to shepherds announcing Jesus Christ’s (The Savior) birth in a manger in Bethlehem. In many places in Latin America manger scenes are set up. Families and people get together and pray and sing Christmas carols around it. People also get Christmas Trees on which they hang lights and ornaments. This tradition began long ago. On shortest day of the year people brought pines into their houses to symbolize life and light. Today people put wrapped December 21st, the presents under it. In Latin America, people celebrate Christmas Even on th December 24 with a special dinner, fireworks and presents. In England and the U.S.A, they celebrate it on December 25th.The sit by the Christmas Tree and open presents that day. In England, there is a Christmas lunch with its traditional turkey and Christmas pudding. In the States, there is a special dinner with turkey or ham and desserts like pies. In Europe, Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas or Sinter Class (Santa Claus in the States) comes into houses and leaves the children. In England, there is a custom of hanging Christmas stockings near the fireplace for Santa to fill with candy and presents. Americans have this presents for custom, too. Based on the reading complete these sentences 1. Christmas is a Christian celebration of _____________________________ 2. People meet around manger scenes and sing _______________________ 3. Christmas Trees are decorated with _______________________________ 4. The traditional Christmas meal in the USA and England is _____________ 5. Traditional symbols of life and light are _____________________________ 95
  96. 96. Writing Choose the holiday or celebration of the year you like the most. Brainstorm for ideas in the diagram below, if necessary draw more lines. When What (activities) Where (place) HOLIDAY Who (you How (Preparations) and who else) Why (Reasons) Read the following information and choose the alternative that best answers each question. The annexation is not the only fiesta happening in the northern province of Guanacaste. Right now, the town of Liberia is celebrating the golden anniversary of the annual “ExpoLiberia” fair. Now in its 50th the fair is sponsored by the Livestock Breeders Group of Liberia, started on July 18 and will continue until the end of the month. Featuring bullfights, horse shows and concert, the festival offers an opportunity for horse breeders to show off and sell their stock. Rodeos, bullfights and horse shows are the stars of Liberia Festival. This year, Adolfo Rivas, secretary of the livestock breeders group, said that groups of breeders from Nicaragua were also coming to show their horses. 96
  97. 97. “We have a history of raising horses”, Rivas said. “Horses were here before Spaniards arrived” The festival will continue until Saturday, July 27. For more information, contact the Livestock breeders Group of Liberia at 2666-2469 1. What’s the main idea of the text? a. The annexation festival in Liberia b. Cowboys celebrate fair’s 50th c. Nicaraguan breeders show in ExpoLiberia d. The bullfights and concerts in ExpoLiberia 2. Who supports the 50th ExpoLiberia Fair? a. The Livestock Breeders Group of Liberia b. The Nicaraguan Livestock Breeders c. A group of Spaniards d. Adolfo Rivas 3. How long does the ExpoLiberia fair last? a. Eighteen days b. About a month c. Almost fifteen days d. A month and a week 97
  98. 98. 4. What does Adolfo Rivas do? He _______________________ a. Is a Nicaraguan breeder b. Raises horses in Spain c. Is the secretary of livestock breeders group d. Features bullfighta, horse shows and concerts. Read the Information and choose the alternative that best answers each question Days of Importance Rash Hashanah is traditionally celebrated with snacks and apples and honey, symbolizing the hope of a sweet new year. It is a day to give and ask for forgiveness and promise to make changes. The shofar, a ram’s horn blown like a trumpet, is sounded 100 times as a call for repentance, and the Torah scrolls are removed twice during the services Tradition says that on Rosh Hashanah, God inscribes all names in the book of life, and on Yom Kippur the book is sealed with God’s judgments. Yom Kippur, or the “Day of Atonement”, is observed 10 days after the celebration of Rosh Hashanah. It is a somber way to atone for the sins of the year by fasting, not working and praying and cleansing the spirit. It is also a day to forgive each other and begin anew. Yom Kippur services end with an extended blowing of the shofar and proclaiming Next Year in Jerusalem. Amanda Schoenberg- The Tico Times, September 19, 2003 1. What’s the purpose of Rosh Hashanah? To __________________ a. Follow a tradition rope b. Give and receive forgiveness c. Eat snacks of apples and honey d. Celebrate the promise of a new year. 98
  99. 99. 2. What’s one of the activities during Rosh Hashnah? a. The trumpet is blown twice b. People sounds the ram’s horn c. People seals the Torah scrolls d. The shofar is removed 100 times 3. How is Yom Kippur celebrated? People _________________ a. Fast and pray b. Work only ten days c. Promise to visit Jerusalem d. Promise not to sin in the next year. 99
  100. 100. Read the following text then answer the questions. Christmas is a holiday held on December 25 to commemorate the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity. The date is not known to be the actual birth date of Jesus, and may have initially been chosen to correspond with either the day exactly nine months after some early Christians believed Jesus had been conceived, the date of the winter solstice on the ancient Roman calendar, or one of various ancient winter festivals. Christmas is central to the Christmas and holiday season, and in Christianity marks the beginning of the larger season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days. Although nominally a Christian holiday, Christmas is also widely celebrated by many non-Christians, and some of its popular celebratory customs have preChristian or secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift-giving, music, an exchange of greeting cards, church celebrations, a special meal, and the display of various decorations; including Christmas trees, lights, garlands, mistletoe, nativity scenes, and holly. In addition, Father Christmas (known as Santa Claus in some areas, including North America, Australia and Ireland) is a popular folklore figure in many countries, associated with the bringing of gifts for children. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. Taken from www.wikipedia.com 1. According to the reading, can we be sure Jesus was born on December 25th? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 100
  101. 101. 2. What are some possible causes people chose December 25 th to point as Jesus’ birth date? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 3. What are some modern popular celebrations people acquired about Christmas trough the years? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Why has Christmas become more an economical activity than a religious and spiritual time? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 101
  102. 102. Read the following poster You’re invited to the National Sports Day on March 30th, 2007. In Metropolitan Park, La Sabana – Starting at 8 am For AThletes, sports fans, visitors … Yes Everybody! Activities: Wall Climbing –Costa Rican traditional indigenous games – judo, taekwondo, karate, cheerleader and gymnastics exhibitions – rugby match – swimming. Big Event: National Beach Volleyball Championship Final New Attractions: Canopy tour from 8 a.m., to 5 p.m., under the supervision of Green Mountain guides and 35 minutes long –Kayak exhibition in the lake – Outdoor spinning lessons. Closing Activity: Concert Corporation from 1 p.m. on with the group Sponsored by the Costa Rican Sport and Recreation Institute with the support of different associations a and federations dedicating to promoting sports in Costa Rica, together with elementary schools and high schools from all over the country Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the poster above 1. ________________ are invited to take part in the activities a. All people b. People from schools and federations exclusively c. Athletes, sports fan, visitors, and nobody else d. Only members of associations that promote sports in Costa Rica 102
  103. 103. 2. National Sports Day activities last ______________ a. 8 hours b. 9 hours c. 35 minutes d. We don’t know how long 3. ________________ is one of the sponsoring organizations a. Green Mountain b. Group Corporation c. Metropolitan Park La Sabana d. Instituto Costarricense del Deporte y la Recreación Read the story Thanksgiving September 1620. One hundred and two men, women and children, known as the Puritans, left the port in Plymouth in England. Their goal was to reach the Promised Land: a place where they could build a new community. The “Mayflower” was the name of the old ship that took them through a stormy voyage. For two months they sailed until they landed in America, in Cape Cod (now in the State of Massachusetts) and settled near that place. They called their colony Plymouth Plantation. 103
  104. 104. At the very beginning things were really hard. Half of them died during the first winter because they did not have the right equipment or facilities to survive. However, the other half survived because of the local American Indians helped them: the Indians taught them how to grow corn pumpkins and beans, how to hunt deer and turkeys and fish. A year passed. The colonist (now called pilgrims) got their first harvest. So thankful they were to the Indians and God for their survival that they invited their native friends to a great feast. This is the true story of the first Thanksgiving in all of Day. Today people the United States celebrate this day with a family gathering and a special meal. It is now a national holiday in that country. Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the story above. 1. The Puritans sailed for ____________ a. England from America b. Cape Cod to Plymouth c. America from Massachusetts d. Plymouth Plantation from Cape Cod 104
  105. 105. 2. The American Indians ____________ a. Gave colonist a hard time b. Taught the colonist how to survive c. Shared their food and shelter with the colonist d. Waited a winter before they decided to help the colonists. 3. Half of the Pilgrims died ___________ a. During a stormy voyage b. Two months after their arrival c. Because of American Indians help d. Because of the lack of appropriate equipment. Read the text August 2nd, a Costa Rican Holiday There is no doubt August 2nd, our Lady of the Angel’s Day, is an important holiday for Costa Ricans of different ages and lifestyles For some people the pilgrimage to our virgen de los Angeles Basilica in Cartago is really religious, they want to thank, to be healed, that a close relation be healed, or something else. That is why they pay a visit to the “negrita”, a black Madonna who is the patron saint of Costa Rica For others, is just a pretext for a walk with a group of friends, relatives, colleagues … or by oneself. Days before August 2nd one can listen to students in their high schools or to elderly people planning their “trip” and ideas for that day. And the day after, these same people recall the pilgrimage, in spite of their aching feet. 105
  106. 106. Pilgrimage: journey to visit a religious place to ache: to feel pain To heal: to become healthy again/ to recover your health Now choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the text. 1. To ________________ may be a reason for going to Cartago on August 2nd a.Get better b. Follow a tradition c. Admire our Lady of the Angel’s Basilica d.Connect young students with elderly people. 2. The celebration of our Lady of the Angels’ Day is a tradition for _______ exclusively. a.Elderly Costa Ricans b.High School Students c. Really religious people d.People of different religions and ages 3. The pilgrimage is ____________ a. An easy pain free trip b. A tiring soaring journey c. A short relaxed time d. A time to go for a walk to kill time 106
  107. 107. Complete this chart about Festivals or Holidays in Costa Rica. Holiday or Festival When is it? 107 Traditions or things that happen
  108. 108. FIFTH TOPIC CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MISUSE 108
  109. 109. Objectives  Discussing alternative possibilities and their consequences.  Understanding a range of imaginative and factual material that includes some complex sentences and unfamiliar language.  Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences and utterances.  Redrafting writing tasks already given, with support guidance.  Expressing and justifying ideas, opinions or personal points of view Natural resources: We should ____. A solution could be ____. I think/believe that ____. I agree/don't agree ____. It's better to ____. What about ____, etc. ____ may be correct ____. I would ____. etc. Functions: Instructing others to do something. Stating cause and effect. Expressing opinions 109
  110. 110. Most Common Environmental Problems Water Pollution and Air Pollution Trash Can Deforestation Reforestation Littering Ozone Layer 110 Recycle Can you name another?
  111. 111. 1 2 Match the words with the corresponding picture. 3 ____ Floods ____Fire ____Volcano Eruption 4 5 6 ____ Litter ____Hurricane ____ Earthquake ____ Smoke ____Sound Pollution ____Sewage 7 8 9 ____ Global Warming ____ Deforestation ____ Air Pollution ____ Acid Rain _____Droughts 10 11 12 Complete the gaps with words about environmental threats mentioned above. 13 14 15 111

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