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  1. 1. Research Project Writing Yuying Chris Chang [email_address] http://www.projectwriting.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>1. Comma usage </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semicolons and colons </li></ul><ul><li>3. Colon </li></ul><ul><li>4. Apostrophe </li></ul><ul><li>5. Quotation marks </li></ul><ul><li>6. Titles, capitalization, and numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: Santa Monica </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Comma Usage <ul><li>Use commas before coordinating conjunctions that join two main clauses, but do not put them before conjunctions that join two words, two phrases, or two subordinate clauses </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom is a doctor, and John is a teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Tony wanted the pasta dish yet feared that it was poisoned. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Use commas between elements in a series (i.e. 3 or more words, 3 or more phrases, and 3 or more clauses; 2 or more adjectives without joining by “and”) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>I like bananas, apples, and oranges. </li></ul><ul><li>The bear waded into the shallow , swift river after the salmon. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Use commas after introductory elements (including words, preposition phrases of 5 words or more, infinitive and participial phrases, subordinate clause that precedes a main clause) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, Ringo greatly admired Beethoven. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not work hard, you will flunk in the final exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Making a big mistake, Macebeth listened to his wife. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Use commas before and after interrupting elements </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Van Goh, feeling rejected and depressed, cut off most of his ear. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Semicolons <ul><li>a) To join only those independent clauses that are closely related in meaning </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The auditors made six recommendations ; however, only one has been adopted so far. </li></ul>
  8. 8. b) A series of elements embedded an internal comma <ul><ul><li>e. g. Henry's mother believes three things: that every situation, no matter how grim, will be happily resolved ; that no one knows more about human nature than she ; and that Henry, who is thirty-five years old, will never be able to do his own laundry. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 3. The Colon <ul><li>A colon follows right after a main clause </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to give an example, an illustration, a restatement, a quotation, a series, or a list </li></ul><ul><li>The example, illustration, etc. could be clauses, phrases, words </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally not used after a verb </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. The Apostrophe <ul><li>To form contractions (e.g. it’s , I’m ) </li></ul><ul><li>To form the possessives of nouns and indefinite pronouns (e.g. the boy’s, one’s ) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use apostrophes with the possessive forms of personal pronouns (e.g. X her’s ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5. Quotation Marks <ul><li>To enclose direct quotations (not indirect quotations) and dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. direct quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Hal said, “ Squid tentacles are my favorite snacks. ” </li></ul><ul><li>indirect quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Hal said that squid tentacles are my favorite snacks. </li></ul>
  12. 12. b) Place periods and commas inside quotation marks <ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Eudora Welty wrote the short story “A Worn Path . ” </li></ul><ul><li>Star Trek fans used to say, “Beam me up, Scotty . ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Send in the clowns , ” sang the frustrated coach. </li></ul>
  13. 13. c) Place colons and semicolons outside quotation marks <ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>The class did not like the poem “ Thoughts on Capital Punishment ”: it was silly, sentimental, and insipid and the rhythm was awkward and inappropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>The local newspaper ran a story entitled “ Mayor Caught Nude on the Beach ”; it was just a joke for April Fools’ Day. </li></ul>
  14. 14. d) Place the question mark/exclamation inside the quotation marks if the quotation is a question/exclamation and vice verso. <ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Homer asked, “ What is for dinner, my dear Hortense ?” </li></ul><ul><li>Did Hortense really reply, “ Hominy, okra, and barbecued Spam ”? </li></ul><ul><li>“ What a nice day !” he shouted. </li></ul><ul><li>I insist that you stop calling me “ dude ”! </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6-1. Titles <ul><li>When talking about the titles of books, periodicals, plays, CDs, and television programs, we usually place italics or put quotation marks. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer ones  Italics </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter ones  quotation marks </li></ul>
  16. 16. 6-2. Capitalization <ul><li>Capitalize the first letter of each word in a title except for a, an,, and the, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions. But, the first letter of the word is always capitalized. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Good Man Is Hard to Find.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Do not capitalize the first letter of words that refer to a direction, but do capitalize such words referring to a specific region. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama and Mississippi are among the states in the South . </li></ul><ul><li>Turn south on Hill Street and go four blocks to the end of the street. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 6.3 Numbers <ul><li>Spell out numbers at the beginning of sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent (either spell the number out or use numerals) when numbers are compared, are joined by conjunctions, or occur in a series </li></ul><ul><li>Spell out numbers that require no more than two words </li></ul>