Earth System Dynamics An introduction to Earth System Solid Earth System Earth Material GeologyCycle Solid Earth Plate tectonics Earth Space Planet Science Climatology Hydrology and Hydrogeology Geo-environment for Education 7. Focus on biota 7.1 Structure of biosphere 7.2 Effect of life on earth system 8. Case studyof applied technology 8.1 Hydrology and Hydrogeology 8.2 Earthquake 8.3 Geology 8.4 Biodiversity
The system concept:Certain boundary with components those relate or interact together The river is a system, lake is also a system. Together, they form a largersystem the watershed. The small volumes of water and sediment indicated by boxes are examples of smaller systems.
The interaction between subsystems conduct the Ecological System of Biosphere at the center. The four parts of the Earth system that most directly concern environmental geology: lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.
Energy from sun : Shortwave radiation transfer through the atmosphere and cloud to the earth surface.
Energy from earth surface and the atmosphere : Longwave radiation transfer through the atmosphere to space.
Open system energy and mass can transfer through. Energy (sunlight) and water (rainfall) reach an island from external sources. The energy leaves the island as long-wavelength radiation: the water either evaporates or drains into the sea.
Open system through Hydrologic Model. Depiction of the open system by a box model.
The Earth is essentially a closed system. Energy reaches the Earth form an external source and eventually returns to space as long wavelength radiation. Smaller systems within the Earth, such as the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, are open systems.
Tectonic Cycle : The cycle that conduct the mountain orogeny, subduction and diverge of the earth crust. Thermal energy in the asthenosphere and Upper mantle is needed to drive the cycle. Diverge plate on the continent create sea. Diverge plate in the sea create sea floor spreading. Converge plate in the sea conduct land
La Nina El Nino Walker Circulation of El Nino and La Nina
El Nino The term El Nino means 'Christ Child' and was first used by Peruvian fishermen in the late 1800's to describe the warm current appearing off the western coast of Ecuador and Peru around Christmas time. This was bad news for the fishermen, as they depended on cool water welling up from the deep carrying nutrients for the fish. No food – no fish! However, that was not all that happened. But more of that later! Let’s look at why?
The solar heating is uneven and at different latitudes: more sunlight falls in equatorial regions than strikes the poles Warm air rises and cool air sinks; a convection current forms in a room resulting from uneven heating and cooling
Atmospheric Circulation The Trade Winds and Westerly Winds blow across the Ocean surface. Friction between these two fluids of different density drags the surface of the ocean along, forming slow-moving ocean currents that flow at approximately 45to the direction of wind flow.
Ocean waves 1. swell - waves of fairly equal height, length, and period which form as storm-generated waves become sorted according to size and period as they move away from the storm's center. Swell, in the photograph of the Oceanside, California coast, can travel thousands of miles before breaking along a distant shore.
2. local wind waves - generally smaller and less organized than swell, local wind waves can be superimposed onto swell, making the ocean surface chaotic. Surfers dislike these smaller waves, referring to them as "wind chop", because they mess up the uniform swell waves.
3. wave interference - the interactions of two sets of swell can result in waves much smaller than usual (destructive interference) or much larger than usual (constructive interference). (The latter possibility can form dangerous rogue waves on the open ocean or so-called "creeper waves" along a beach.) Wave interference can also occur where an incoming wave reflects off of a jetty. The reflected wave can then interfere with the next incoming wave to form a peaked wave of great height, such as the Wedge at Newport Beach.
4. wave refraction - occurs as as a portion of an incoming wave begins to interact with the ocean floor, slowing some of the wave and bending it in one direction or another. This can focus a wave's energy on a submerged reef, forming an excellent surf locale such as Jaws off the coast of Maui, Hawaii. More typically, the wave's energy is focused on a small rocky island (stack) or a headland that juts out into the ocean. This photograph shows the refraction of waves as they enter Bluff Cove along the shore of Palos Verdes Peninsula, California.