Alcazar  methods of evaluation
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Alcazar methods of evaluation






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Alcazar methods of evaluation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Methods of Evaluation Joy Marie M. Alcazar III-26 BS Psychology
  • 2. Action Research • Aims to address both the practical concerns of people (in a community, organisation etc) and the goals of research through people working together on projects. Action research is a way to increase understanding of how change in one's actions or practices can mutually benefit a community of practitioners Prerequisites • Literature research can set the professional context for the Action Learning process. The local context can be established through participant input. Action research takes time to train and acclimatise community researchers.
  • 3. Appreciative inquiry • Appreciative Inquiry is a form of action research that attempts to help groups, organisations and communities create new visions for themselves based on an affirmative understanding of their past. Prerequisites • Research into how Appreciative Inquiry has worked in other communities, expanding on the basic 4D model: Discover the best of what is; Dream what might be; Design what should be; create a Destiny based on what will be. As in any intervention, wrong application can have adverse outcomes.
  • 4. Bench marking • Benchmarking is the process of comparing your performance to that of other leading organisations, groups or communities.Typically it involves the use of specific measures that give an 'apples to apples' comparison, and is often used as a longitudinal measure of change Prerequisites • Benchmarking frequently involves surveys, so training and experience in survey design and application is important if the results are to be rigorous and meaningful.
  • 5. Counts • The most basic (and essential) form of measure, simply counting the number of participants, the nature of participation, and the obvious results of that participation - for example: the number of people who attended a 'return to work' course, the results for each of the classes within that course, and the number of graduates who gained employment. Prerequisites • A good understanding of what your organisation, your team and your community think is important to measure. Some training in establishing, recording and analysing effective measures.
  • 6. Focus groups • A focus group is a structured discussion with pre-selected individuals intended to collect information or gauge opinion on a specific issue or idea. Prerequisites • Focus groups are typically part of a larger evaluation process that might involve literature research, surveys or any of the many other evaluation tools.
  • 7. Impact Assesment • Formal Impact Assessments are increasingly required as a part of policy planning, particularly in sensitive communities and environments, typically the purpose of the Impact Assessment is to anticipate the consequences of policy and service decisions on different communities and make sure that any negative consequences are eliminated or minimized and opportunities are maximized Prerequisites • A clear understanding of the policy, program or project that is to be tested - Impact Assessments need to test the effect of the specific details of the policy or program.
  • 8. Interviews • Interviews are typically one:one or small group (eg focus group) question and answer sessions aimed at gathering both facts and insights. Interviews can be conducted face to face or by telephone, and even using computer based methods such as messaging or video-conferencing. Prerequisites • Interviewers (and those designing interview questions) should be trained and experienced, as interviewer bias is a real (and common) threat to the validity of the results. Different cultures respond differently to interviews - giving unexpected results (and potentially causing offence), please check your interview methods for cultural sensitivity when designing your evaluation.
  • 9. Journals • Learning occurs when we take in information, think about it, make sense of it, and fit it in with what we already know. Reflective writing using a journal has the potential to provide us with a systematic approach to our development as reflective, critical and constructive learners. Prerequisites • Do some research into the ethics of the use of journal material before embarking on this method.
  • 10. Observation • At its most basic, observation is where someone physically goes and looks at a place or event, watches situations or interactions, or takes part in the life of the community or a population while recording what he finds as a result. Two types of observation are used in community development evaluation: Direct Observation - where the the observer is an unidentified 'fly on the wall' (generally with permission of those being observed); Participant Observation - where the observer takes part in the activity with the participants and asks questions. Prerequisites • As with an interview, an observation will be far more useful if the observer understands not just what to do and how to do it, but exactly why it's being done, and how the findings will be used.
  • 11. Retention • A simple count of the number of participants commencing, retained at certain points, and concluding a program (or employment). Prerequisites • An understanding of what you are counting and why
  • 12. Surveys • A method of gathering information from a sample of individuals (a sample is the number of people within the population being studied), and can be done faceto-face, on the phone, by mail or online. Information is collected by means of standardised procedures so that every individual is asked the same questions in more or less the same way.
  • 13. Quotation: “True genius resides in the capacity for evaluation of uncertain, hazardous, and conflicting information.”
  • 14. References: • Tulio, Doris D., 2008. A Breakthrough in School Guidance and Counseling. Quezon City. •
  • 15. Thank you and GOD bless...