Outline1. Introduction2. An analysis of methodological options in grammar practice books3. Discovering about grammar4. Noticing grammatical features5. Input-processing instruction6. Some illustrate teaching materials7. Conclusion
Introduction What methodology for teaching grammar do grammar practice books employ? What is the empirical / theoretical basis for the chosen methodology? Key words: “implicit” / “explicit” grammar teaching
An Analysis of Methodological Optionsin Grammar Practice Books Investigate 6 grammar practice book Choose one unit which deals with the present continuous tense Table 9.1 indicate the result
Methodological options Explicit Data Operationsdescriptions Supplied Source Text size Medium Production Reception Judgment Discrete Discover Authentic Written Controlled Controlled Judge only sentences Contrived Continuous Oral Free Automatic Correct
An Analysis of Methodological Optionsin Grammar Practice Books Two predominant features Explicit description supplied Controlled production Less common features Discover Data Reception judgment
An Analysis of Methodological Optionsin Grammar Practice Books “Grammar constitutes a “content” that can be transmitted to students via explicit descriptions and a “skill” that is developed through controlled practice”(p.161) rethought The importance of discovering grammar rule Noticing grammatical features teaching grammar through input-processing
Discovering About Grammar Two key issues The role of explicit knowledge in SLA The value of discovery as a general method of learning Implicit and explicit knowledge Implicit and explicit learning A problem in teaching implicit knowledge Production practice doesn’t work. Solution make explicit knowledge1. explicit knowledge can be acquired in any order2. L2 learners have the ability to master complicated explicit knowledge.3. Explicit knowledge facilitates the process involved in the use and acquisition of implicit knowledge.
Discovering About Grammar How explicit knowledge can best be taught? 1. Direct instruction: explicit explanation 2. Indirect instruction: discovery-based recommended Why? 1. Motivating 2. Encourage students to form and test hypotheses about the grammar of the L2 3. Lead to powerful insights about the grammar of a language 4. Train to be a successful language learner 5. “Communicating”
Noticing grammar features The data options are rarely shown in the grammar practice book. few opportunities of “enhanced input” L2 acquisition begins with input. Necessity of noticing( consciousness attention) Some studies shows that enriched input has little effect on language acquisition. Further research is needed. Identify the kinds of enriched input which works best How to measure the effect of noticing Discrete sentences vs. continuous sentences Written vs. Oral Not empirically tested .
Noticing grammar features Teaching options Data (analyzing) → explicit rule Explicit rule → data (noticing) Data (analyzing) →explicit rule → data (noticing)
Input-processing Instruction1. Teach Only one thing at a time.2. Keep meaning in focus.3. Learners must do something with the input.4. Use both oral and written input.5. Move from sentences to connected discourse.6. Keep the psycholinguistic processing strategies in mind.
Some Illustrative teaching materials Involving learner judgment or discrimination. Task which requires leaners to perform or solve a problem. Aim in raising learners’ consciousness about grammar
Conclusion Tradition in grammar practice book Give explicit descriptions Controlled production exercise The role of SLA theory and research Suggestions Discovery-typed grammar tasks Consciousness raising Input-processing tasks SLA is not absolute. Teaching materials would play important role in language teaching
Discussion Question What methodological options did you use in your micro teaching in this class? Do you usually think of what methodological options you use and why or what for you choose that options? How do you teach with a “traditional” textbook which mainly consists of explicit explanation and controlled production task?