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What is Client/Server? Client Server Network How is client/server different from other distributed computing? Heavy reliance on user-friendly applications Emphasis on centralizing databases and management functions Commitment to openness/modularity Networking fundamental to operation
Client/Server Terminology Application Programming Interface (API): A set of function and call programs that allow clients and servers to intercommunicate. Client: A networked information requester (usually a PC or workstation) that can query a database and/or other information from a server. Middleware: A set of drivers, APIs, or other software that improves connectivity between a client application and a server. Relational Database: A database in which information access is limited to the selection of rows that satisfy all search criteria. Server: A computer, usually a high-powered workstation or a mainframe, that houses information for manipulation by networked clients. Structured Query Language (SQL): A language developed by IBM and standardized by ANSI for addressing, creating, updating, or querying relational databases.
Why is Client-Server Different? Emphasis on user-friendly client applications Focus on access to centralized databases Commitment to open and modular applications Networking is fundamental to the organization
Client/Server Applications Emphasis on GUI for users Database Example Database on server, applications for access on client, “glue” (like SQL) enables requests) Application logic can be client-only, or split between client and server
Middleware Standardized interfaces and protocols between clients and back-end databases Hides complexity of data sources from the end-user Compatible with a range of client and server options All applications operate over a uniform applications programming interface (API).
Message Passing Issues Reliability vs Unreliability Reliable facilities guarantee delivery, provide error-checking, retransmission, etc Alternatively, the message can be sent without success/failure; reduces complexity and overhead, passes responsibility for confirmation to application Blocking vs Nonblocking Non-blocking more efficient, but difficult to test and debug programs Blocking (synchronous) retains control until acknowledgment is received
Client/Server Binding Nonpersistent binding Does not maintain state information, connections re-established as necessary Inappropriate for RPCs used frequently by same caller Persistent binding Connection sustained until procedure return Useful for applications making repeated calls to remote procedures
Object-Oriented Mechanisms Clients and servers ship messages between objects. May rely on an underlying message or RPC structure or be developed directly on top of object-oriented capabilities in the operating system Success depends on standardization of the object mechanism, but competing models exist COM, OLE, CORBA
Intranets Implementation of Internet-based technologies within an organization, rather than for global connectivity Immensely successful in corporate computing contexts
Advantages of Intranets Rapid prototyping Scales effectively Little training required Can be implemented on variety of systems Open architecture allows interaction across platforms Supports a range of distributed servers Allows integration of legacy systems on client and server side Supports a range of media types Inexpensive to implement
The Intranet Web Web Content The web can be used to effectively distribute content in a way that requires no new training for end-users Web/Database Connectivity Multiple tools exist to serve as middleware between web servers and data sources Electronic Mail Network News
Web/Database Connectivity Advantages Ease of administration Deployment Development speed Flexible information presentation Disadvantages Limited functionality Stateless operation makes tracking difficult
Intranet Webs vs Traditional Client/Server Client/Server Disadvantages Include:1. Long development cycles2. Difficulty in partitioning applications, and modifying based on user feedback3. Effort in distributing upgrades to clients4. Difficult in scaling servers to respond to increased load5. Continuous requirement for more powerful desktop machines
Other Intranet Technologies Electronic Mail Closed internal mail systems (delivery verification, etc) Internal mailing lists Network news (USENET) Can be adopted for internal intranet uses
Extranets Extends the intranet concept to provide information and services to selected outside populations, such as customers and suppliers Enables the sharing of information between companies A TCP/IP enabled form of EDI
Advantages of Extranets Reduced costs Coordination Customer Satisfaction Expedited communication
Methods for Converting Intranets to Extranets Long-distance dial-up access Internet access to intranet with security Internet access to an external server that duplicates some of a company’s intranet data Internet access to an external server that originates database queries to internal servers Virtual private network
Service Oriented Architecture Client/server architecture utilized widely by enterprise systems Business functions consist of modular structures
SOA Architectural Elements Service provider: network node that provides a service interface for a software asset that manages a specific set of tasks. Service requestor: network node that discovers and invokes other software services. Service broker: specific kind of service provider that acts as a registry and allows lookup of service provider interfaces and service locations.
Key Characterisitics for Effective Services Use Coarse-grained Interface-based design Discoverable Single Instance Loosely Coupled Asynchronous