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Ie20303week1

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Semeste 1 2010/2011

Semeste 1 2010/2011

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  • 1. IE 20303 Technology Infrastructure for E-Commerce <br />i.E Business Data Communication & Networking<br />By<br />MohdYuszrenYusak<br />Google me up,I’m on Facebook, Twitter & I have a blog.<br />
  • 2. First things first <br />Non fiction-no vampires inside<br />“examines the factors that contribute to high levels of success”<br />Problems? See me ASAP!<br />Tweet with me! yuszrenIE20303<br />We need to see the world from a different perspective MORE often!- ie class trip anyone?<br />Class starts @ 8.30am starting next week. Any objections?<br />This is your ‘defining moment’ semester. Less <br /> fooling around please!<br />Anyone interested in ‘Outliers” by Malcolm Gladwell?<br />MDEC Monday Class time. I’ll stop your marketing class. <br />
  • 3. Assessments<br />Quiz-10%<br />Work-10% ?(trip report?)<br />2 Group Work-40% (20% each) ?<br /> 40%-Finals<br />
  • 4. Intro to Data Communications<br />Basic concept of data<br />Why important to study-the value, opportunities upon graduation. Career opportunities.<br />Future trends<br />
  • 5. Brief History<br />Samuel Morse, Alex Graham Bell<br />Thomas Edison- basic electrical & electronic systems evolve into voice and data communication networks.<br />Read-notes.<br />Why bother about history?<br />Because history contributes to moral understanding.<br />
  • 6. Career Opportunities<br />
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />9<br />PART I Introduction and Internet Applications<br />
  • 10. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />10<br />Topics Covered<br />1.1 Growth of Computer Networking<br />1.2 Why Networking Seems Complex<br />1.3 The Five Key Aspects of Networking<br />1.4 Public and Private Parts of the Internet<br />1.5 Networks, Interoperability, and Standards<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />1.7 How Data Passes Through Layers<br />1.8 Headers and Layers<br />1.9 ISO and the OSI Seven-Layer Reference Model<br />1.10 The Inside Scoop<br />1.11 Remainder of the Text<br />1.12 Summary<br />
  • 11. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />11<br />1.1 Growth of Computer Networking<br />Computer networking has grown explosively<br />Since the 1970s, computer communication has changed from a research topic to an essential part of infrastructure<br />Networking is used in every aspect of our lives:<br />Business<br />Advertising <br />Production <br />Shipping<br />Planning<br />Billing<br />Accounting<br />Educational institutions are using computer networks<br />to provide students and teachers with access to online information<br />Federal, state, and local government offices use networks<br />
  • 12. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />12<br />1.1 Growth of Computer Networking<br />In short, computer networks are everywhere<br />In 1980, the Internet was a research project that involved a few dozen sites<br />Today, the Internet has grown into a communication system that reaches all of the world<br />The advent and utility of networking has created dramatic economic shifts<br />Network has made telecommuting available to individuals<br />It has changed business communication<br />An entire industry emerged that develops networking technologies, products, and services<br />The importance of computer networks has produced a demand in all industries for people with more networking expertise<br />Companies need workers to plan, acquire, install, operate, and manage the hardware and software systems for networks<br />
  • 13. Why Research Network?<br />To achieve better network robustness & disaster survivability. How?<br />Packet switching technology at ARPANET = funded by the US Department of Defense (DARPA).<br />
  • 14. use of a decentralized network with multiple paths between any two points; and second, dividing complete user messages into what he called message blocks before sending them into the network. This first allowed the elimination of single points of failure, and enabled the network to automatically and efficiently work around any failures.<br />Strike 1<br />The White House<br />Telco<br />Chicago<br />Strike 2<br />The Pentagon<br />
  • 15. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />15<br />1.2 Why Networking Seems Complex<br />The networking subject seems complex, because<br />Many technologies exist<br />Each technology has features that distinguish it from the others<br />Companies create commercial network products and services <br />often by using technologies in new unconventional ways<br />Computer networks seem complex <br />because technologies can be combined and interconnected in many ways<br />Computer networks can be especially confusing to a beginner because<br />No single underlying theory exists that explains the relationship among all parts<br />Multiple organizations have created computer networks standards<br />some standards are incompatible with others<br />Various organizations have attempted to define conceptual models<br />The set of technologies is diverse and changes rapidly<br />models are either so simplistic that they do not distinguish among details <br />or so complex that they do not help simplify the subject<br />
  • 16. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />16<br />1.2 Why Networking Seems Complex<br />The lack of consistency in the field has produced another challenge for beginners: <br />Multiple groups each attempt to create their own terminology<br />Researchers cling to scientifically precise terminology<br />Marketing teams ofteninvent new terms to distinguish their products or services from others<br />Technical terms are confused with the names of popular products<br />Professionals sometimes use a technical term from one technology when referring to an analogous feature of another technology<br />A large set of terms and acronyms that contains many synonyms<br />Computer networking jargon contains terms that are often abbreviated, misused, or associated with products<br />
  • 17. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />17<br />1.3 The Five Key Aspects of Networking<br />To master the complexity, it is important to gain a broad background that includes five key aspects:<br />1.3.1 Network Applications and Network Programming<br />1.3.2 Data Communications <br />1.3.3 Packet Switching and Networking Technologies <br />1.3.4 Internetworking with TCP/IP<br />1.3.5 Additional Networking Concepts and Technologies <br />These topics will be covered throughout the book<br />In this chapter a brief introduction will be given <br />
  • 18. 1.3.1 Network Applications and Network Programming <br />Network services are provided by an application software<br />an application on one computer communicates across a network with an application program running on another computer<br />Network applications span a wide range, such as:<br />email <br />file transfer <br />web browsing <br />voice telephone calls (VoIP)<br />distributed databases<br />audio/video teleconferencing<br />Each application offers a specific service with its own form of user interface<br />But all applications can communicate over a single, shared network<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />18<br />
  • 19. 1.3.1 Network Applications and Network Programming <br />A unified underlying network that supports all applications makes a programmer's job much easier<br />only programmer needs to learn about one interface to network and one basic set of functions to be used<br />it is possible to understand network applications, and even possible to write code that communicates over a network, without understanding the hardware/software technologies<br />once a programmer masters the interface, no further knowledge of networking may be needed<br />However, knowledge of the underlying network system allows a programmer to write better code and develop more efficient applications<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />19<br />
  • 20. 1.3.2 Data Communications<br />Data communications refers to the study of low-level mechanisms and technologies used to send information across a physical communication medium<br />such as a wire, radio wave, or light beam<br />Data communications focuses on ways to use physical phenomena to transfer information <br />the subject may only seem useful for engineers who design low-level transmission facilities<br />However, we will see that several key concepts that arise from data communications influence the design of many protocol layers<br />Data communications provides a foundation of concepts<br />on which the rest of networking is built<br />20<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />
  • 21. 1.3.3 Packet Switching and Networking Technologies <br />In 1960s, the packet switching concept revolutionized data communications<br />Early communication networks had evolved from telegraph and telephone systems <br />A physical pair of wires between two parties to form a dedicatedcircuit<br />Although mechanical connection of wires was being replaced by electronic switches, but the underlying paradigm remained the same:<br />form a circuit and then send information across the circuit<br />Packet switching changed networking in a fundamental way<br />It provided the basis for the modern Internet<br />Packet switching allows multiple users to share a network<br />Packet switching divides data into small blocks, called packets<br />It includes an identification of the intended recipient in each packet<br />Devices throughout the network each have information about how to reach each possible destination<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />21<br />
  • 22. 1.3.3 Packet Switching and Networking Technologies <br />Many designs for packet switching are possible<br />But there is a need for answers to basic questions:<br />How should a destination be identified?<br />How can a sender find the identification of a destination?<br />How large should a packet be?<br />How can a network recognize the end of one packet?<br />How can a network recognize the beginning of another packet?<br />If a network is shared, then how can they coordinate to insure that each receives a fair opportunity to send?<br />How can packet switching be adapted to wireless networks?<br />How can network technologies be designed to meet various requirements for speed, distance, and economic cost?<br />Many packet switching technologies have been created<br />to meet various requirements for speed, distance, and economic cost<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />22<br />
  • 23. 1.3.4 Internetworking with TCP/IP<br />In the 1970s, another revolution in computer networks arose: Internet<br />In 1973, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn observed that <br />no single packet switching technology would ever satisfy all needs<br />especially because it would be possible to build low-capacity technologies for homes or offices at extremely low cost<br />They suggested to stop trying to find a single best solution<br />Instead, explore interconnecting many packet switching technologies into a functioning whole<br />They proposed a set of standards be developed for such an interconnection<br />The resulting standards became known as the TCP/IP Internet Protocol Suite (usually abbreviated TCP/IP)<br />The success of TCP/IP lies in its tolerance of heterogeneity<br />TCP / IP takes a virtualization approach <br />that defines a network-independent packet and a network-independent identification scheme<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />23<br />
  • 24. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />24<br />1.4 Public and Private Parts of the Internet<br />The Internet consists of parts that are owned and operated by individuals or organizations<br />From ownership point of view, we can categorize networks<br />1.4.1 Public Networks <br />1.4.2 Private Networks <br />A public network is run as a service that is available to subscribers<br />Any individual or corporation who pays the subscription fee can use<br />A company that offers service is known as a service provider<br />Public refers to the general availability of service, not to the data being transferred<br />A private network is controlled by one particular group<br />network use is restricted to one group<br />a private network can include circuits leased from a provider<br />
  • 25. 1.4.2 Private Network<br />Network vendors generally divide private networks into four categories based on the size:<br />Consumer<br />Small Office / Home Office (SOHO)<br />Small-to-Medium Business (SMB)<br />Large Enterprise<br />These categories are related to sales and marketing<br />the terminology is loosely defined<br />it is possible to give a qualitative description of each type<br />but one cannot find an exact definition<br />© 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />25<br />
  • 26. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />26<br />1.5 Networks, Interoperability, and Standards<br />Communication always involves at least two entities<br />one that sends information and another that receives it<br />All entities in a network must agree on how information will be represented and communicated<br />Communication agreements involve many details<br />the way that electrical signals are used to represent data<br />procedures used to initiate and conduct communication, <br />and the format of messages<br />An important issue is interoperability<br />it refers to the ability of two entities to communicate<br />All communicating parties agree on details and follow the same set of rules, an exact set of specifications<br />Communication protocol, network protocol, or simply protocol to refer to a specification for network communication<br />A protocol specifies the details for one aspect of communication<br />including actions to be taken when errors or unexpected situations arise<br />
  • 27. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />27<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />A set of protocols must be constructed<br />to ensure that the resulting communication system is complete and efficient<br />Each protocol should handle a part of communication not handled by other protocols<br />How can we guarantee that protocols work well together?<br />Instead of creating each protocol in isolation, protocols are designed in complete, cooperative sets called suites or families<br />Each protocol in a suite handles one aspect of networking<br />The protocols in a suite cover all aspects of communication<br />The entire suite is designed to allow the protocols to work together efficiently<br />
  • 28. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />28<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />The fundamental abstraction used to collect protocols into a unified whole is known as a layering model<br />All aspects of a communication problem can be partitioned into pieces that work together<br />each piece is known as a layer<br />Dividing protocols into layers helps both protocol designers and implementers manage the complexity <br />to concentrate on one aspect of communication at a given time<br />Figure 1.1 illustrates the concept <br />by showing the layering model used with the Internet protocols<br />Later chapters will help us understand layering <br />by explaining protocols in detail<br />For now, it is sufficient to learn the purpose of each layer and how protocols are used for communication<br />
  • 29. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />29<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />
  • 30. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />30<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />Physical Layer (Layer 1)<br />specify details about the underlying transmission medium and hardware<br />all specifications related to electrical properties, radio frequencies, and signals belong in layer 1<br />Network Interface Layer (Layer 2)<br />some publications use the term Data Link<br />specify details about communication between higher layers of protocols (implemented in SW) and the underlying network (implemented in hardware)<br />specifications about <br />network addresses<br />maximum packet size that a network can support<br />protocols used to access the underlying medium<br />and hardware addressing<br />
  • 31. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />31<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />Internet Layer (Layer 3)<br />Protocols in the Internet layer form the fundamental basis for the Internet<br />Layer 3 protocols specify communication across the Internet (spanning multiple interconnected networks)<br />Transport Layer (Layer 4)<br />Provide for communication from an application program on one computer to an application program on another<br />Includes specifications on<br />controlling the maximum rate a receiver can accept data<br />mechanisms to avoid network congestion<br />techniques to insure that all data is received in the correct order<br />
  • 32. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />32<br />1.6 Protocol Suites and Layering Models<br />Application Layer (Layer 5)<br />specify how a pair of applications interact when they communicate<br />specify details about <br />the format and <br />the meaning of messages that applications can exchange<br />the procedures to be followed<br />Some examples of network applications in layer 5<br />email exchange<br />file transfer<br />web browsing<br />telephone services<br />and video teleconferencing<br />
  • 33. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />33<br />1.7 How Data Passes Through Layers<br />Protocol implementations follow the layering model <br />by passing the output from a protocol in one layer to the input of a protocol in the next <br />To achieve efficiency<br />rather than copy an entire packet<br />a pair of protocols in adjacent layers pass a pointer to the packet<br />Figure 1.2 illustrates layered protocols on the two computers<br />Each computer contains a set of layered protocols<br />When an application sends data<br />it is placed in a packet, and the packet passes down through each layer of protocols<br />Once it has passed through all layers of protocols on the sending computer<br />the packet leaves the computer and is transmitted across the physical network<br />When it reaches the receiving computer<br />the packet passes up through the layers of protocols<br />If the application on the receiver sends a response, the process is reversed<br />
  • 34. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />34<br />1.7 How Data Passes Through Layers<br />
  • 35. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />35<br />1.8 Headers and Layers<br />Each layer of protocol software performs computations<br />that insure the messages arrive as expected<br />To perform such computation, protocol software on the two machines must exchange information<br />each layer on the sender prepends extra information onto the packet<br />the corresponding protocol layer on the receiver removes and uses the extra information<br />Additional information added by a protocol is known as a header<br />Headers are added by protocol software on the sending computer<br />That is, the Transport layer prepends a header, and then the Internet layer prepends a header, and so on<br />If we observe a packet traversing the network, the headers will appear in the order that Figure 1.3 illustrates<br />Although the figure shows headers as the same size<br />in practice headers are not of uniform size<br />and a physical layer header is optional<br />
  • 36. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />36<br />1.8 Headers and Layers<br />
  • 37. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />37<br />1.9 ISO and the OSI Seven-Layer Reference Model<br />At the same time the Internet protocols were being developed, two large standards bodies jointly formed an alternative reference model<br />They also created a set of internetworking protocols<br />These organizations are:<br />International Standardization Organization (ISO) <br />International Telecommunications Union,Telecommunication (ITU-T)<br />The ITU was known as the Consultative Committee for International Telephone and Telegraph (CCITT)<br />The ISO layering model is known as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Seven-Layer Reference Model<br />Figure 1.4 illustrates the seven layers in the model<br />
  • 38. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />38<br />1.9 ISO and the OSI Seven-Layer Reference Model<br />
  • 39. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />39<br />1.10 The Inside Scoop<br />ISO and the ITU use a process that accommodates as many viewpoints as possible when creating a standard<br />As a result, some standards can appear to have been designed by a committee making political compromises rather than by engineers and scientists<br />The seven-layer reference model is controversial<br />It did indeed start as a political compromise<br />the model and the OSI protocols were designed as competitors for the Internet protocols<br />ISO and the ITU are huge standards bodies that handle the world-wide telephone system and other global standards<br />The Internet protocols and reference model were created by a small group of about a dozen researchers<br />It is easy to see why the standards organizations might be confident that they could dictate a set of protocols and everyone would switch away from protocols designed by researchers<br />At one point, even the U.S. government was convinced that TCP/IP should be replaced by OSI protocols<br />
  • 40. © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.<br />40<br />1.10 The Inside Scoop<br />Eventually, it became clear that TCP/IP technology was technically superior to OSI<br />and efforts to develop and deploy OSI protocols were terminated<br />Standards bodies were left with the seven-layer model<br />Advocates for the seven-layer model have tried to stretch the definitions to match TCP/IP<br />They argue that layer three could be considered an Internet layer and that a few support protocols might be placed into layers five and six<br />Perhaps the most humorous part of the story is that many engineers still refer to applications as layer 7 protocols<br />even when they know that layers five and six are unfilled and unnecessary<br />
  • 41. Individual work #1 (10%)<br />Get a copy from Pej Am SSIL 5th floor by 11.am<br />Due 4.30pm today.<br />
  • 42. Group Work #1 (10%)<br />Next week-task will be given during the 1st hour of class time. Be there!<br />Sit in Groups <br />Short presentation<br />Refer week 1 slides.<br />Good luck!<br />

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