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Blended Learning Ucpautama Ptpm 2009
 

Blended Learning Ucpautama Ptpm 2009

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It is about concept and practice of blended learning: particularly in Malaysia.

It is about concept and practice of blended learning: particularly in Malaysia.

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    Blended Learning Ucpautama Ptpm 2009 Blended Learning Ucpautama Ptpm 2009 Presentation Transcript

    • Blended Learning: Concept and Application 3rd International Malaysian Educational Technology Convention 24-26 October 2009 Yusup Hashim (Ph.D) Asia e University Kuala Lumpur If we teach today as we taught yesterday, then we rob our children of tomorrow John Dewey
    • Key Points Introduction: Online and Blended Learning Development of BL OnLine Benchmark Learning Tools and theories Recommendations Research findings BL
    • INTRODUCTION What is Online Learning? Teaching and Learning System mostly delivered via network/Internet operated by computer What learning system is used to conduct online learning? It uses Learning management system (LMS) consists of a set of learning/communication tools to plan, prepare, develop, deliver, communicate and manage online courses What is Blended Learning? Combination of online learning components with conventional FtF instruction. Also called hybrid learning
    • BLENDED/HYBRID LEARNING ONLINE LEARNING CONVENTIONAL FTF TEACHING
    • Proportion of Type Of Course Typical Description Content delivered 0% Traditional Course with no online technology used — content is delivered in writing or orally. Course which uses web-based technology 1 to 29% Web Facilitated to facilitate what is essentially a face-to- face course. Uses a course management system (CMS) or web pages to post the syllabus and assignments, for example. Course that blends online and face-to-face 30 to 79% Blended/Hybrid delivery. Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions, and typically has some face-to- face meetings. A course where most or all of the content 80+% Online is delivered online. Typically have no face-to-face meetings. Source: Allen, E, Seaman, J & Garrett, R. (2007). Blending in: The extent and promise of blended education in United States, Annual Report, Sloan Consortium http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course
    • Type of Learning Definition Online Synchronous or asnychronous online learning with 20% or less F-t-F time Blended Synchronous or asnychronous online learning with more than 20% F-t-F time Hybrid Courses that combined two or more synchronous or asnychronous online learning tools combined with F-f-F time Source: Swenson & Redmond (2009) Issues in Teacher Education, 18(2) pp.3-10 http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course
    • Development of Blended Learning In America: I989 Berners invented World Wide Web About 96% Universities and Colleges offer online courses (Allen & Seaman, 2006) University of Phoenix started online learning
    • TIM BERNERS A graduate of Oxford University, England, in 1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, an internet-based hypermedia initiative for global ... http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/
    • Development of Blended Learning Sloan Survey online Learning (2008) reported that: Over 3.9 million students took at least one online course during the fall 2007 term; a 12 % increase over the number reported the previous year. (3.2 million Fall Semester 2005 (Sloan Consortium, 2006) Over 20% of all U.S. higher education students were taking at least one online course in the fall of 2007. Higher fuel costs will lead to more students selecting online courses. Institutions that offer programs for working adults are the most positive about the potential for overall enrolment growth being driven by rising unemployment. Allen, I. E., Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the Course Online Education in United States. United States of America: Sloan Consortium. Retrieved November 16, 2008, from http://www.sloanc.org/publications/survey/pdf/staying_the_course.pdf
    • Continue:Development of Blended Learning First Preference by Delivery Mode Sloan Consortium (2007) reported that: • A course/program that is primarily on-campus (web- facilitated) (24%) • A totally on-campus course/program (22%) • Totally online course/program (20%) • Primarily online course/program (blended) (19%) • A course/program that is equally balanced between online and on-campus (blended) (14%) • A course/program by another form of distance learning (e.g. audio, video, CD-ROM) (2%) Source: Allen, Seaman & Garrett (2007). Blending in: The extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States, Sloan Consortium
    • Continue:Development of Blended Learning Do Academic Leaders and Faculty Agree? Both chief academic officers and online teaching faculty agreed that flexibility in meeting the needs of students was the most important motivation for teaching online. Being required to teach online had the lowest rated motivation in each group. Souce: Allen, Seaman & Garrett (2007). Blending in: The extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States, Sloan Consortium http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course
    • How online learning benefits teacher. Opinion of Teachers who teach online classes (n=678) 1. Control own learning 2. Feel more connected to schools 3. More motivated to learn 4. Collaborate with classmates 5. Comfortable asking questions Learning in the 21st Century, 2009 Trends Update www.tomorrow.org
    • How online learning improve teacher effectiveness Opinion of Teachers who teach online classes (n=678) 1. Encouraged students to be more self-directed 2. Facilitated collaboration between students 3. Facilitated student-centered learning 4. Gave more personalized attention 5. Took time to differentiate instruction 6. Better understand of how my students were doing 7. Spent more time with individual students Learning in the 21st Century, 2009 Trends Update www.tomorrow.org
    • How online learning benefits 6th-12 graders students Opinion of students who attended online classes) (n=18,230) 1. Control own learning 2. More motivated to learn 3. Comfortable asking questions 4. Collaborate with classmates 5. Feel more connected to schools Learning in the 21st Century, 2009 Trends Update www.tomorrow.org
    • Development of Online Learning in Malaysia • Internet introduced in 1996 • UNITAR was the first IPTS (Private institution) to offer online courses followed by Multimedia Universiti, OUM, UWM and AeU. • OUM has 75,000 students (Cumulative student enrolment) • Online Learning in IPTA (Public Institutions) • UITM, UPM, UKM, UPSI, UM, UTM, UTHM, USM, UNIMAS, dll. • As of 2009, there were 21 public and 51 private universities in Malaysia (http://www.expat.com.my/Expatriate%20Malaysia%20Info%20%20Universities%20and%20Colleges% 20in%20Malaysia%20.htm
    • ONLINE LEARNING TOOLS
    • Types of LMS (Learning Management Systems) 1. Open Source (Free) Moodle, Atutor, Claroline, Sakai dan Illias, dll 2. Licenced (Commercial) MyLms (OUM), MyGuru (UPSI), Blackboard+WebCT (UTHM), VOISS(UNITAR), MMLS (Multimedia University) SalMas (UKM) UM(COL), LMS (AeU)
    • MyGuru2 (UPSI) • Started with MyGuru 1 in 2005 and updated to My MyGuru2. • MyGuru2 was created with the cooperation of OUM • Originated from myLms from OUM. • Has some WebCT influence • MyGuru2 was introduced in December 2006/2007 under the 2+1 Credit hour
    • MyGuru has the following features/online learning tools: Course Tools: • Announcement, • About the course, • Glossary, • Assignment, • General Forum, • Chat, • File Sharing.
    • Continue MyGuru2 Group Tools: Coursemate, • Staff Information, • Online Evaluation Server, • Administration Tool Content Management: • About the Course • Announcement • Course Materials • Assignment • Glossary
    • Sambungan MyGuru2 Online Assessment: • Question bank Pool, • Assessment Report Communication Management: • General Forum • Chat • File Sharing • Group Tool • Assessment Manager
    • LMS Learning Tools at Asia electronic University (AeU} • Announcement • Courseware (Course Content) • Learning materials (Supported digital teks and visuals, • eg. PowerPoint) • Web- links • Quiz (Online Assessment) • Question Banks (Developed by the course instructor or Academic Facilitator • Discussion/forums • Chat Room • Messaging • Assignment and Submission • Tutorial/Timetable
    • AeU LMS
    • AeU LMS
    • E-Learning activities at IGNOU) IGNOU: Super mega open universities with 2.2 million students Discussion Forums, Online Calendar and Alert Systems TVTV & Webinar Sessions & Webinar Sessions Community RadioSessions Community Radio Sessions File/Assignments U/D TV & Webinar Sessions Query Management System Community Radio Sessions Counsellors Support & Web Mentoring System Online Library and Multimedia Publishing System Regional/Study Centres Support System
    • Indra Ghandi National Open University (IGNOU) Open Course Guide (IOCG): leverages on Convergence for Learner Engagements Course Exercises Self Study / Discovery Course Map TV & & Library Webinars QMS & LMS Web Web Mentoring Content IOCG Discussion Personal Forums Dash Board E-Mail & Alerts Web SMS Alerts Resources M-Learn Group Interactions/ P2P Learning
    • ODL Learning materials Printed materials: Modules Computer mediated means Teaching guides Web-based Learning guides lessons/learning objects Textbooks CD-Rom/DVD Electronic libraries Learner- Centred Tutor feedback Approach Greater flexibility in pacing the programme to meet learner needs Audio Audio CD Video Audio tapes Videotape Radio TV Broadcast
    • Online Learning Theories
    • Online Learning Model (Types of Interactions) STUDENT Student- Content- Search & retrieval Communication Asynchronous Or content KNOWLEDGE/ content Tutorials, Synchronous CONTENT Simulations & INTERFACE Games, Virtual labs e-book TEACHER Adapted from Anderson,, T. (2004). Towards a theory of online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi,(Eds.). Theory and practice of online learning, Canada Open University, Athabasca University http://cde.athabasca.caonline_book/copyright.html Retrieved on 26 April, 2004
    • Influence of Technology on online Learning PCK 1. Based on Schulman theory of PCK (1986): Teachers need more than pedagogy or content knowledge i.e. need to integrate pedagogy and content (Neiss, 2008) 2. Intersection of technology, T & L and content (knowledge, and skills) is vital to prepare students for 21st Century learning (ACOT, 2008) 3. Interaction of technologies and PCK produce effective teaching with technology 3. American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE) published the handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge 4. The National Educational Technology Standards (NETS, 2008) helps to improve teacher use of technology in T & L
    • TPACK (Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge) Technology 21st Century TPACK TPACK & Globalisation Source: Adapted from http://www.tpack,org and the ACOT2 Report
    • Online learning: Implications on Constructivism Online learning approaches are often associated with collaborative constructivist view of learning Four reasons for incoroperating constructivism activities in online design course: 1. Increase student participation in constructing their own knowledge 2. Increase student via interaction/collaboration 3. Provide opportunities for the application of content to real life events 4. Increase student participation in learning process Source: Morales, C.R. (2007). Perceptions and practices of instructional designers towards the use of constructivist learning enviornments in online design course. Ph.D Dissertation, Cappela University
    • Online Learning: Implications on Constructivism Five reasons that discouraged IDesigners to implement constructivist activities : 1. Instructor not interested (40.48%) 2. Lack of expertise (19.5%) 3. Lack of time (Eg. To design and implement course structure and content (14.29%) 4. Not Relevant (14.29%) 5. Lack of funding (0%) Source: Morales, C.R. (2007). Perceptions and practices of instructional designers towards the use of constructivist learning enviornments in online design course. Ph.D Dissertation, Cappela University
    • Online Learning: Implications on Constructivism Methods and constructivist activities preferred: 1. Problems solving (71.43%) 2. Collaborative learning (66.67% 3. Case-study (64.29%) 4. Real-life applications (64.29%) Source: Morales, C.R. (2007). Perceptions and practices of instructional designers towards the use of constructivist learning enviornments in online design course. Ph.D Dissertation, Cappela University
    • Online Learning: Critics on Instructional Design 1. ISD is the recommended process for designing, developing and implementing learning programs 2. ISD needs an overhaul so that it meets actual practice 3. It is a methodology (Step by step)rather than a model (observed phenomena) 4. ID has changed: Need creation of more flexible approach to design and contextual issues 5. Poor need assessmen: ID has no experience with content or learners; based on assumption and documents. 6. ID produces formal courses with specific objectives. Online learning opens opportunities for informal learning: Learner determines the objectives and when learning has been successfully completed.
    • Online Learning: Implications on Instructional Design 7. ISD tends to favour mastery learning: a behavourist approach 8. Most ISD models does not include steps for estimating costs, budgets, staffing ect. Source: Carliner, S. & Shank, P. (Editor) . (2008). The e-learning handbook New York: John Wiley & Sons
    • Online Learning: Implications on Instructional Design According to Merrill (2008) much e-3 learning could be characterised as e-3 learning (Pronounced as e sub-three learning).These three are: 1. Enervative: Rather than promoting skills acquisition interferes with learning. 2. Endless: Leads to boredom by being too passive, devoid of interaction, allowing learners to disengage 3. Empty: Fails to implement instructional strategies, only provides information transferred to the Internet without appropriate demonstration, practice, feedback, learner guidance/coaching. Information alone is not instruction Source: Carliner, S. & Shank, P. (Editor) . (2008). The e-learning handbook New York: John Wiley & Sons
    • Online Learning: Implications on Instructional principles So Merrill suggested the e-3 learning (pronounced as third power of learning: Effective, efficient and engaging). It applies 5 instructional principles: 1. The activation principles: Recall, describe or demonstrate prior experience 2. The demonstration principle: Learners observe demonstration of skills or through media 3. The application principle: Learning promoted when learners engage in application of newly acquired skills through coaching and feedback 4. The task-centred principle: Learning is promoted when learners engaged in task: Task taught in context 5. The integration principle: Learning is promoted when learners integrate new knowledge with everyday lives by reflecting, discussing and defending, etc Source: Carliner, S. & Shank, P. (Editor) . (2008). The e-learning handbook New York: John Wiley & Sons
    • Implementation of MyGuru at UPSI: Recommendations Phase 1: Upload curriculum /instructional plan Phase 2: Upload instructional/course materials Phase 3: Use Forum for online discussions (teacher-learner and learner-learner interaction) Phase 4: Use Quiz online for formative evaluation/exercises Phase 5: Develop web page to link/integrate web page with MyGuru Phase 6: Collaborate with other learning institutions via video conferencing
    •  Reserach findings on lecturer’s competencies on online learning in teaching and (Yusup, Md Nor, Ismail & Mahizer, 2007).
    • Research Goal  Identify lecturers’ competencies on online instruction and learning  To assist Private Institutions of Higher learning to plan online instruction as an alternative approach to conventional face-to-face teaching.
    • Research Findings Table 1: Technical and Operational Skills (n=110) Skills Mean Std. Deviation Navigate web-based materials 4.43 0.683 Electronic presentation(Eg: Power 4.35 0.656 Point) Use and manage e-mails 4.25 0.848 Knowledge on Personal Digital 2.98 1.092 Assistant (PDA) Design and develop web page 2.87 1.293 Use of video conferencing 2.68 1.100
    • Table 2 Pengalaman Pensyarah Tentang PDT (n = 110) Pengalaman Peratus (%) First time use online learning (OL) 43.6 OL is not used full-time 75.5 OL is used to supplement FtF conventional teaching 85.5 Learner interested to use OL 71.8 Lecturer ready to use OL 80.9 OL has attended OL training/workshop 67.3 Lecturer had access to computer and Internet 90.9 OL assist conventional teaching Institutions provide OL facilities and infrastructure 86.4 PDT dapat membantu mata pelajaran dan cara pensyarah mengajar 89.1 PDT mempengaruhi komunikasi pensyarah dengan pelajar 77.3 Pensyarah tidak terlibat dalam Jawatan Kuasa Perancangan dan Pelaksanaan kurikulum 17.3 PDT Persekitaran PDT dapat mengubah cara pensyarah menjalankan penilaian terhadap 66.4 pembelajaran pelajar Pembelajaran autentik/konteksual dapat dilaksanakan 73.6 Persekitaran PDT dapat menjamin kredibiliti kursus 70.0 PDT tidak mengganggu beban tugas pensyarah 57.3
    • Table 2: Lecturers’ experience using online teaching Experience % First time using online learning (OL) 43.6 OL is not used full-time 75.5 OL is used to supplement FtF conventional teaching 85.5 Learner interested to use OL 71.8 Lecturer ready to use OL 80.9 Lecturer has attended OL training/workshop 67.3 Lecturer has access to computer and Internet 90.9 Institutions provide OL facilities and infrastructure to support OL 86.4 OL assist subject teaching and teaching method 89.1
    • Continue Table2: Lecturers’ experience using online teaching Experience % Lecturer not involved in curriculum planning and implementation 17.3 OL enviornment can change learner evaluation and assessment 66.4 Contextual and authentic learning can be implemented 73.6. OL enviornment maintain course credibility 70.0 OL does not affect teachning workload 57.3 Lecturer interested to do OL in other courses 83.6
    • Influence of Technology on online Learning PCK 1. Based on Schulman theory of PCK (1986): Teachers need more than pedagogy or content knowledge i.e. need to integrate pedagogy and content (Neiss, 2008) 2. Intersection of technology, T & L and content (knowledge, and skills) is vital to prepare students for 21st Century learning (ACOT, 2008) 3. Interaction of technologies and PCK produce effective teaching with technology 3. American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE) published the handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge 4. The National Educational Technology Standards (NETS, 2008) helps to improve teacher use of technology in T & L
    • ONLINE LEARNING BENCHMARK
    • Online Learning Benchmark 0 Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Education (NEA, 2000) 1. Institutional Support • Technology Plan for security: Password, Code, encryption, back-up system, ect. • Technology delivery system: Efficient and Reliability and accessibility • Central support system for infrastructure and infostructure maintenance
    • Continue………benchmark 2. Course design and development • Follow standard instructional design procedure and delivery system • Periodical course revision and evaluation to meet program standard • Course fulfill learner needs and learning domains: Analysis, sinthesis dan evaluation
    • Continue………benchmark 3. Teaching and Learning • Learner interaction with lecturer and learner with learner: Forum, chat, e-mail, voice mail, ect. • Immediate feedback and according to negotiated time • Learner has research and information skills
    • Continue………Benchmark 4. Course Structure • Before OL starts, learner need s to be exposed on course program, material access, media and technology use • Course outline, learning outcomes, assignments and course evaluations • Library resources: Printed and digital materials including e- journals • Learner and lecturer agreed on assignment submission dateline and feedback procedure
    • Continue……….Benchmark 5. Student Support • Provide information on course program: Admission, registration, fees, books, technology, academic adviser, ect. • Provide Hand-ons training and information on e- library, library loan and other resources • Provide technical assistance to facilitate learning • Provide efficient student support service
    • Continue………benchmark 6. Faculty Support • Instructional design and technical support to develop online learning modules • Guide on how to move from conventional to online teaching • Peer tutoring support • Written document on copyright, intellectual property, ethics, ect
    • Continue………Benchmark 7. Evaluation and Assessment • Overall Course effectiveness • Enrolment data, cost and innovative use of technology are used to evaluate program • Learning outcomes are reviewed regularly to assure quality
    • SUGGESTIONS Lecturer needs to have the following skills:  To improve technical and operational skills  To create web page and use video conferencing.  To improve pedagogical skills and use of of online learning technologies.  To do small maintenance, to share expertise and collaborate with others in and outside institutions
    • Continue………Suggestions Management:  Instructional Technology and ICT Centre to conduct training on OL: Pedagogy and technical skills  ICT centre to set up hotline service and desk officer to solve online problems  Instructional technology Centre to give advice on instructional system design  Academic Division to plan online learning in stages  Teaching workload reduced and provide icentives to enculture online learning.