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Week X (Transitional Period To Romanticism)



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  • History of English Literature/Week III/Yusuf K,SS,MA


  • 1. History of English Literature Week X Transitional Period to Romanticism (  1750 – 1800) The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
  • 2. The Early Development
    •  James Thomson (1700 – 1748)
    • He was inspired by nature  The Seasons .
    •  Edward Young (1683 – 1765)  Night Thoughts  a melancholic verse
    • Nature & villagers were as the source of inspiration. Blank verse was mostly used, not heroic couplet. Neglecting the rules of writing. New materials from within the country and distant countries: China, Persia, Arab etc. New trend, the use of verses as the place for pouring out the thoughts & feelings.
    The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
  • 3. Poetry  Two powers
    • Thomas Gray, Oliver Goldsmith, William Cowper  succeeded in combining the two powers.
    • Robert Burns & William Blake  Romanticism
    • Thomas Gray
      • Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (1750)  showing sympathy to villagers, village atmosphere became the key point. 126 lines in 9 years.
      • The Fatal Sisters, The Descent of Odin  about Scandinavian mythologies.
    • Oliver Goldsmith  artist, prosiest, playwright
      • The Deserted Village (verse). His dominance was in drama & novel
    • William Cowper
      • John Gilpin, The Task
    The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
  • 4. Other Development
    • Robert Burns
    • He was raised in a village in Scotland, amongst farmers. Using Scottish dialect.
      • Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (1786)
      • To a Mountain Daisy, To a Mouse, Winter, Ye banks and braes o’bonie Doon
      • I Love my Jean, To Mary in Heaven (love verses)
      • Auld Lang Syne
    • William Blake
        • Pantheism
        • Cosmic meaning
        • Song of Innocence, Song of Experience (compilation of verses)
        • Jerusalem, Milton (it was said, dictated by invisible power)
    • One of the aspects of Romanticism is the desire towards the past, especially the own country. It was clearly reflected by James Macpherson, Thomas Chatterton and Thomas Percy.
    The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
  • 5. Further Development
    • James Machperson
      • Fragments of Ancient Poetry collected in the Highlands  written in Gaelic. This work caused great desire amongst the society that enabled him to collect more ancient manuscript. The result was Fingal (1762)  an epic translated from ancient Gaelic manuscript written by Ossian. The next was Temora .
    • Thomas Chatterton
      • Reliques of Ancient Poetry , consisting of old ballads from England & Scotland: Chevy Chase, The Nut Brown Mayde, Battle of Otterburn.
    • Thomas Percy
      • Northern Antiques . A translation from French.
    The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006
  • 6. Prose  New genre  novel
    • ‘ Chronicle’: report about the happenings and acts related to someone who became the main character of the story. E.g. Gulliver’s Travels. Chronicle has no plot.
    • ‘ Plotted adventure story’, e.g.: Treasure Island by Stevenson
    • ‘ Romance’(the oldest English prosaic fiction), e.g.: Beau Geste, Ivanhoe by Walter Scott
    • ‘ Novel’ could be ‘chronicle’ or ‘plotted adventure story’
    • Novel
    • Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens
    • Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
    • Samuel Richardson (1689 – 1761) was the first novel writer. E.g.: Pamela, Virtue Rewarded, Clarissa, The History of a Young Lady, Sir Charles Grandison
    • Drama
    • Enriched with some comedies created by Goldsmith and Brinsley Sheridan. Goldsmith’s The Good Natured Man, She Stoops to Conquer . Sheridan: The Rivals, The School for Scandal, and The Critic.
    The History of English Literature, YK, 2005/2006