Week V (Elizabethan Period)


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Week V (Elizabethan Period)

  1. 1. History of English Literature Elizabethan Period (  1550 – 1620)
  2. 2.  Renaissance period <ul><li>In the 14th century in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The revelation of thought of Western European people from the middle age </li></ul><ul><li>Their behaviours & thoughts were very limited  determined by traditions & church </li></ul><ul><li>Arabian works, followed by Greeks’ classic works </li></ul><ul><li>Never happened before </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism  ism which believes that study about human’s written works (classic) is more advantageous for human needs generally than obsolete theology </li></ul><ul><li>Church’s authority replaced by science </li></ul><ul><li>Passive attitude changed with self-looking attitude </li></ul>
  3. 3. More about general characteristics: <ul><li>Characteristics: free, enthusiastic, individualistic, realistic, daring to act, having strong persistence in inventing new things & secularized </li></ul><ul><li>During Elizabeth I  Renaissance spirit was extremely strong in England  signified by patriotism, religious toleration, social harmony, intellectual improvement, & high spirit. All reflected in the works during that period (golden age) </li></ul><ul><li>Drama mostly developed very quickly (Shakespeare) </li></ul><ul><li>Early modern English </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic grammar (using form of words to show the relation between sentences <old English>  Analytical grammar (using word order & functional words) </li></ul><ul><li>Language became simpler </li></ul>
  4. 4.  Poetry <ul><ul><li>Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599)  influenced by Chaucer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Faery Queen  written in new stanza pattern called “Spenserian Stanza” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shepherd’s Calendar  consists of 12 stanza, each represents one month  pastoral lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrarch (The 14th century Italian artist)  allegorical purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spencer was an idealist  depicted man how man should be depicted based on his sight. He didn’t have sense of humour  his works tended to reshuffle. He lived in his own imagination. To strengthen, he used some ancient words so that his poems were hard to understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many other active artists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing poems were just side work; mostly in the government, business & politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Sackville, Philip Sydney, George Chapman, Michael Drayton </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5.  Prose <ul><ul><ul><li>John Lily (1554 – 1606)  Euphues the Anatomy of Wit (1578)  feeling, moral contemplation  common characters  later known with “euphuism” : consisting of long sentences & full of metaphors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoral romance  Arcadia by Philip Sydney  now identical with “pastoral nature” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Picaresque Chronicle derived from Spanish “picaro” meaning “criminal”  pioneer of “gangster” novels  realistic story & rougher language  Thomas Nash (1567 – 1601)  The Unfortunate Traveller, The Life of Jack Wilton (1594) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renaissance created critical attitude  literature criticism (formerly in Italy spread out to Western Europe) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apologia for Poetrie (1595) by Philip Sydney  the first literary criticism in English  based on Aristoteles’ principles  language used was very complicated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-fiction prose by Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626): a philosopher, politician, judge, & artist  The Advancement of Learning and Essays  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From “euphuism” to close-to-modern scientific prose style: short & condensed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6.  Drama <ul><li>Drama developed very rapidly during Elizabethan Age  reaching its artistic level, no longer used to teach religion or moral but to show human’s life </li></ul><ul><li>A drama talks about a matter or a conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Always started with “exposition”, followed with Complication” and then “Climax” or ‘Crisis’, closed with “Denoument”  solution (in comedy) and disaster (in tragedy) </li></ul><ul><li>Classic & Romantic Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Three unities: Time, place & act, supported with chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Ralph Roister Doister: the first comedy which applied classical principles </li></ul>
  7. 7. More about drama…. <ul><li>From classic to romantic  Marlowe, Shakespeare, John Lily & Thomas Kid </li></ul><ul><li>John Lily  developing euphuism  comedies: Endymion, the Man in the Moon, Alexander and Campaspe .  classic Mythology and history  the first British playwright using “high comedy”  the life & gentle feeling of cultured people or top people </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Kid  The Spanish Tragedy (1585)  passion as the theme  inspired Marlowe & Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Jonson (  1573-1637)  realism: Every Man in His Humour based on ancient Greek medical science about humour  there are four substances in human body: “blood”, “phlegm”, “choler”, & “black bile”. Volpone, The Alchemist . </li></ul><ul><li>Other playwrights  sensationalism: Beaumont, Fletcher, John Webster, Thomas Dekker & Philip Massinger. </li></ul>