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Week V (Elizabethan Period)
 

Week V (Elizabethan Period)

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    Week V (Elizabethan Period) Week V (Elizabethan Period) Presentation Transcript

    • History of English Literature Elizabethan Period (  1550 – 1620)
    •  Renaissance period
      • In the 14th century in Italy
      • The revelation of thought of Western European people from the middle age
      • Their behaviours & thoughts were very limited  determined by traditions & church
      • Arabian works, followed by Greeks’ classic works
      • Never happened before
      • Humanism  ism which believes that study about human’s written works (classic) is more advantageous for human needs generally than obsolete theology
      • Church’s authority replaced by science
      • Passive attitude changed with self-looking attitude
    • More about general characteristics:
      • Characteristics: free, enthusiastic, individualistic, realistic, daring to act, having strong persistence in inventing new things & secularized
      • During Elizabeth I  Renaissance spirit was extremely strong in England  signified by patriotism, religious toleration, social harmony, intellectual improvement, & high spirit. All reflected in the works during that period (golden age)
      • Drama mostly developed very quickly (Shakespeare)
      • Early modern English
      • Synthetic grammar (using form of words to show the relation between sentences <old English>  Analytical grammar (using word order & functional words)
      • Language became simpler
    •  Poetry
        • Edmund Spenser (1552 – 1599)  influenced by Chaucer
        • The Faery Queen  written in new stanza pattern called “Spenserian Stanza”
        • Shepherd’s Calendar  consists of 12 stanza, each represents one month  pastoral lives
        • Petrarch (The 14th century Italian artist)  allegorical purposes
        • Spencer was an idealist  depicted man how man should be depicted based on his sight. He didn’t have sense of humour  his works tended to reshuffle. He lived in his own imagination. To strengthen, he used some ancient words so that his poems were hard to understand
        • Many other active artists
        • Writing poems were just side work; mostly in the government, business & politics
        • Thomas Sackville, Philip Sydney, George Chapman, Michael Drayton
    •  Prose
          • John Lily (1554 – 1606)  Euphues the Anatomy of Wit (1578)  feeling, moral contemplation  common characters  later known with “euphuism” : consisting of long sentences & full of metaphors
          • Pastoral romance  Arcadia by Philip Sydney  now identical with “pastoral nature”
          • Picaresque Chronicle derived from Spanish “picaro” meaning “criminal”  pioneer of “gangster” novels  realistic story & rougher language  Thomas Nash (1567 – 1601)  The Unfortunate Traveller, The Life of Jack Wilton (1594)
          • Renaissance created critical attitude  literature criticism (formerly in Italy spread out to Western Europe)
          • Apologia for Poetrie (1595) by Philip Sydney  the first literary criticism in English  based on Aristoteles’ principles  language used was very complicated
          • Non-fiction prose by Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626): a philosopher, politician, judge, & artist  The Advancement of Learning and Essays 
          • From “euphuism” to close-to-modern scientific prose style: short & condensed
    •  Drama
      • Drama developed very rapidly during Elizabethan Age  reaching its artistic level, no longer used to teach religion or moral but to show human’s life
      • A drama talks about a matter or a conflict
      • Always started with “exposition”, followed with Complication” and then “Climax” or ‘Crisis’, closed with “Denoument”  solution (in comedy) and disaster (in tragedy)
      • Classic & Romantic Drama
      • Three unities: Time, place & act, supported with chorus
      • Ralph Roister Doister: the first comedy which applied classical principles
    • More about drama….
      • From classic to romantic  Marlowe, Shakespeare, John Lily & Thomas Kid
      • John Lily  developing euphuism  comedies: Endymion, the Man in the Moon, Alexander and Campaspe .  classic Mythology and history  the first British playwright using “high comedy”  the life & gentle feeling of cultured people or top people
      • Thomas Kid  The Spanish Tragedy (1585)  passion as the theme  inspired Marlowe & Shakespeare
      • Ben Jonson (  1573-1637)  realism: Every Man in His Humour based on ancient Greek medical science about humour  there are four substances in human body: “blood”, “phlegm”, “choler”, & “black bile”. Volpone, The Alchemist .
      • Other playwrights  sensationalism: Beaumont, Fletcher, John Webster, Thomas Dekker & Philip Massinger.