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  • I hope we can have the listening and the first part... But I must tell you I've been waiting for it a long time -as you can see in my first comment- and this author haven't replied to me... Not even in his blog -I think, I'll check again in a second...
    Thanks anyway to the author and good luck to you 'remeline'.
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  • can you please share the first module to me, i am a teacher and this one will help me a lot. thanks.
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  • Hi! This one is really great. I'm an English teacher and it'll help to prepare my classes... DO you think you can send me the listenings? Or do you have all the books you mention for each listening? Please, let me know: e17elisenda@hotmail.com
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Module Of Pronunciation 2 Module Of Pronunciation 2 Document Transcript

  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 1 Introduction to Discourse and Intonation Objective: Introducing the concept of discourse and intonation with its aspects A. Intonation in Discourse The term intonation refers to the way the voice goes up and down in pitch when we are speaking. Intonation is considered a fundamental part of the way we express our own thoughts and enables us to understand the other people’s thoughts when they talk to us. Intonation enables us to know the speaker’s attitude and how she/he feels about what she/he is saying. Discourse is any meaningful stretch of language. If we analyze intonation in discourse, it means that we analyze intonation in a wider context of conversation or monologue; we see how intonation conveys ideas and information. Here is the guidance related to intonation: 1. Information questions with Who, what, where, etc.  Falling intonation (if being asked for the first time), e.g. What’s your name? What’s the time? Where do you live? 2. Questions expecting a ‘yes/no’ answer  Rising (Is it the blue one? Have you got a pen?) 3. Statements  Falling (He lives in the house on the corner. It’s over there.) 4. Imperatives  Falling (Sit down. Put it on the table.) 5. Question tags expecting confirmation  Falling (You’re French, aren’t you? He’s very tall, isn’t he?) 6. Question tags showing less certainty  Rising (You’re French, aren’t you? Your train leaves at six, doesn’t it?) 7. Lists of items  Rising, rising and finally falling (You need a pen, a pencil and some paper. The stall sells ribbon, bead, elastic and buttons.) 1 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 B. Tones, Tonic Syllables and Tone Units Tones is the main movements of pitch, within a tone unit. Tonic syllables are the syllables where the main pitch movement in the utterance occurs. Tonic syllable is the last stressed syllable in a tone unit. Tone units are the utterance with tonic syllables. One tone unit is composed by only one tonic syllable. Example: She LIVES in LONdon. Lon is tonic syllable. She lives in London. The tone is fall. // She LIVES in LONdon // The sentence is one tonic unit and conventionally is noted by being enclosed within two pairs of slanted lines. C. Activities Activity 1: Intonation in Discourse Listen to the tape and circle true or false: Koyomi is from Japan: true / false 1. Sara is from Spain: true / false 2. Sara is sure that Koyomi is from Japan: true / false 3. Koyomi is sure that Sara is from Italy: true / false 4. (Taken from Kelly, Gerald. 2003. How to Teach Pronunciation. Essex: Longman, p. 91) Activity 2: Intonation in Question tags 1 Listen to the ten sentences and check whether the speaker expects a real answer (Yes) or she/he just expects confirmation (No): They’re busy, aren’t they? (Yes / No) 1. This bus goes to Brand Street, doesn’t it? (Yes / No) 2. It was a great movie, wasn’t it? (Yes / No) 3. This bus doesn’t go to Riverside, does it? (Yes / No) 4. The biology books are over there, aren’t they? (Yes / No) 5. 6. The history department isn’t offering History 207 this term, is it? (Yes/ No) 2 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 7. The test wasn’t very hard, was it? (Yes / No) 8. The homework was interesting, wasn’t it? (Yes / No) 9. We didn’t have to do Chapter Five, did we? (Yes / No) 10. The food at this party is fabulous, isn’t it? (Yes / No) (Taken from Hartmann, Pamela. 2000. Quest: Listening and Speaking in the Academic World Book 1, United States of America: The McGraw-Hill, p. 11) Activity 3: Intonation in Question tags 2 Listen to the five sentences and check whether the first speaker is really asking for information or she/he is just making small talk. Check (√ ) Real Question or Small Talk. No Real Question Small Talk 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (Taken from Hartmann, Pamela. 2000. Quest: Listening and Speaking in the Academic World Book 1, United States of America: The McGraw-Hill, p. 11) Activity 4: Intonation in Wh-Questions Listen to the following questions. If you hear a wh- question, circle the down arrow (↷). If you hear a yes-no question, circle the up arrow ( ↺ ): 1. 5. ↺ ↺ ↷ ↷ 2. 6. ↺ ↺ ↷ ↷ 3. 7. ↺ ↺ ↷ ↷ 4. 8. ↺ ↺ ↷ ↷ (Taken from Hartmann, Pamela. 2000. Quest: Listening and Speaking in the Academic World Book 1, United States of America: The McGraw-Hill, p. 69) Activity 5: Tones, Tonic Syllables and Tone Units Listen to these five sentences. Tone groups are already marked. Rewrite them indicating the tonic syllable and indicating if the tone movement is a fall, or a fall-rise: 1. //im sorry//but I really don’t know// ___________________________ 3 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 2. //is this going to go here//or there// ___________________________ 3. //that’s another big bill we’ve got to ___________________________ pay// 4. //that letters for you //and this ones ___________________________ for me// 5. //id like to offer you the job// ___________________________ (Taken from Kelly, Gerald 2000. How to Teach Pronunciation. Essex: Pearson Education Limited., p.138) Activity 6: Intonation in informal English Several interjections in English are common in conversation. They are informal. Here are some examples: INTERJECTIONS MEANINGS Uh-huh. Yes. You’re welcome. Huh? What? Pardon? Uh-uh. No. Uh…/Um… I’m thinking; I’m not sure what to say. Uh-oh. I made a mistake. There is a problem. (Taken from Hartmann, Pamela. 2000. Quest: Listening and Speaking in the Academic World Book 1, United States of America: The McGraw-Hill, p. 31) 4 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Listen to each conversation. What does the second person mean? Check (√ ) the answer. SECOND PERSON’S MEANING CONVERSATION You’re There’s a Yes No What/Pardon? welcome problem 1 2 3 4 5 6 (Taken from Hartmann, Pamela. 2000. Quest: Listening and Speaking in the Academic World Book 1, United States of America: The McGraw-Hill, p. 32) 5 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Unit 2 Intonation in Dialogue and Monologue Objective: Showing various models of intonation in monologue and dialogue Intonation in language is like a tune or melody in music. It is important to pay attention to the intonation because it is an extra signal which helps us to understand the speaker’s attitude. In English, different intonation patterns used on the same word or group of words tell us what the speaker is really thinking. Listen to the following patterns on the word “yes”: 1. yes falling tone 2. yes rising tone 3. yes rising tone but it doesn’t go as high as the last tone 4. yes fall rise tone 5. yes rise fall tone (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 21) The followings are the meanings of the tones: 1. Lectures begin tomorrow yes means exactly what it says 2. Lectures begin tomorrow yes means “do they” “are you sure” 3. Lectures begin tomorrow yes means “please go on” and my supervisor….. 4. Lectures begin tomorrow yes means “I’m not sure that you’re right” 5. Lectures begin tomorrow yes means “that’s great” (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 21) 6 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 The first two patterns, the rising tone and the falling tone, tend to be used frequently and they are quite easy to learn. “yes /no” question is used when we are not sure about something and we ask someone to confirm or deny it. This kind of question uses rising tone. For example: Was that a Railway Square bus, just went past? When we give the answer to that question, we tend to use falling tone (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 21) When we give the answer to that question, we tend to use the falling tone For example: No it was a special. (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 21) However these two patterns vary according to the situation and the speakers. For example in the following dialogue the speaker uses rising tone to give information:  You’ve been waiting long? About twenty minutes. (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 22) The speaker uses a falling tone to ask yes/no question:  So you work around here. (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 22) In the first example the speaker is not quite sure about how long he’s been waiting so when he says the following he uses rising tone:  About twenty minutes. (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 22) 7 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 In the second example the speaker is fairly sure that the person he is talking to does work in the area. So he is not asking a real yes/no question but merely for confirmation of his opinion and so he uses falling tone.  So you work around here. (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 22) Listen to the following examples and repeat the intonation patterns: Just went past was that a Railway Square bus just went past? A special no, it was a special. Waiting long? You’ve been waiting long? Twenty minutes about twenty minutes. Terrible service along here terrible service along here. Isn’t it terrible service along here, isn’t it? Sure it sure is. Sometimes I’ve waited 40 minutes for a bus sometimes Work around here so you work around here. Post Office at the Kingsford post office. Ah huh Before I thought I’d seen you before. Post Office that’s my local post office Blocks away I live a couple of blocks away. (Taken from Drury, Helen (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanved Learner of English, p. 22-23) 8 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Now listen to the real dialogue. Repeat the intonation patterns the speakers use in the pauses on your tape. 1ST PERSON: Was that a Railway Square bus, just went past? 2ND PERSON: No, it was a special. 1ST PERSON: Oh… you’ve been waiting long? 2ND PERSON: About twenty minutes. Terrible service along here isn’t it? 1ST PERSON: It sure is. I’ve waited forty minutes for a bus sometimes. 2ND PERSON: So you work around here? 1ST PERSON: Yeah – at the Kingsford Post Office. 2ND PERSON: Ah huh – I thought I’d seen you before … I… er… that’s my local Post Office. 1ST PERSON: Oh. 2ND PERSON: Yeah… I live a couple of blocks away. 1ST PERSON: Oh. (Taken from Drury, Helen. (1992). English Speech Practice: A Pronunciation Course for Advanced Learner of English, p. 23) 9 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activities Activity 1: Intonation in Dialogue Listen to your lecturer and practice the following dialogue with your partner based on what you heard: A: Can I help you? B: I’d like a sweater, please. A: Which size would you like? Small, medium or large? B: Medium please. A: How about this one Sir? B: That’s perfect. Thank you. (Taken from Taylor, Linda (1993). Pronunciation in Action. London: Prentice Hall, p.166) 10 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 2: Fairy Story Read the following story as though you are reading it to a small child: Once there was a poor widow who lived in a cottage with her son Jack. One day, she said to him, “we have no money. You must go to the market and sell the cow.” Well, on the way, Jack met a man who persuaded him to exchange the cow for some beans. Jack’s mother was so angry when she heard what had happened that she threw the beans out of the window. But, what do you suppose happened? The beans grew and grew into a huge beanstalk , right up to the sky. Jack climbed up the beanstalk, and at the top there was a castle. Jack opened the door, Cre-e-e-ek! Inside there was a wicked-looking giant. Jack quickly hid in a cupboard. “Fee-fi-fo-fum. I smell the blood of an Englishman,” said the giant. In the room there was a golden harp and a magic hen. “Lay!” said the giant, and the hen laid an egg of gold. “Sing!” said the giant, and the harp sang so sweetly that the giant was soon fast asleep. Then, Jack crept out of the cupboard, snatched up the harp and the hen, and ran home as fast as his legs would carry him… (Taken from Taylor, Linda.(1993). Pronunciation in Action. London: Prentice Hall, p.160) Activity 3: Intonation in Speech Listen to the cassette and pay attention to the intonation, then practice the following speech: PRINCIPAL : Good morning, everybody. Now, first of all I’d like to start by welcoming you all to the college. We’re delighted to have you here and we hope you are going to enjoy your stay with us. My name is Mary Smithers and I’m the college principal. (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. (1999). Insights into IELTS. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, p.161) 11 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 4: Intonation in Lecture Listen to the cassette and pay attention to the intonation. Then practice reading the following lecture based on what you heard: LECTURER: Now I’d just like to recap on what we were talking about last week before going ahead with this week’s lecture. We were, if I remember rightly, looking at the main causes of the Second World War and I’d just like to go back to some of the points I made. But first, does anyone have any questions? (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. (1999). Insight into IELTS. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, p.160) Activity 5: Extract from a play Mark’s Anthony speech from “Julius Caesar” by William Shakespeare. Read this as though you are on a large stage, playing to a large audience. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones; So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious. If it were so, it was a grievous fault; And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest – For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral. He was my friend, faithful and just to me; But Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honourable man… (Taken from Taylor, Linda.(1993). Pronunciation in Action. London: Prentice Hall, p.161) 12 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 6: Intonation in News Report Listen to the news and pay attention to the intonation. Then practice reading the following news: NEWSREADER: And now, closer to home and the health service … The prime minister announced today that the Government would be looking at ways of reducing hospital waiting lists in Australian hospitals. At present patients can wait up to two years for a hospital bed for operations not considered to be life-threatening. A spokesperson for St Michael’s Hospital said some patients wait for over two years for operations such as hip replacements and other so-called minor surgery. (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. (1999). Insight into IELTS. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, p.164) 13 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Unit 3 Intonation in Shared Knowledge and New Information Objective: Showing the difference between intonation in shared knowledge text and new information text When a speaker is speaking about information she/he thinks is new for the person she/he is speaking to, she/he uses fall tone ( ). While when she/he is speaking about the information she/he thinks that the person she/he is speaking to has already known about or had the experience of, she/he uses fall-rise tone ( ). The information that is new for the hearer is called New Information while the information that the hearer has already known or experienced of is called Shared Knowledge. We can see it from the following diagram: The shaded area in the diagram is called Common Ground (Shared Knowledge). According to David Brazil, Coulthard, and Johns it does not only mean shared knowledge but also the knowledge that the speaker (think she/he) shares about the world, about each other’s experiences, attitudes and emotions. Listen to your teacher reading this following example: B: // I’m GOing to the THEatre // on SATurday // 14 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 This is a suitable response in a context like this: A: // Let’s go to the theatre. B: // I’m Going to the THEatre // on SATurday // Where the theatre is an idea already shared by A and B. The part of the message which the speaker regards as part of the existing common ground is usually delivered with fall-rise tone ( ). For a tone unit which she or he sees as adding to the common ground, she or he will use fall tone ( ). The terms used by David Brazil are referring (r) for and proclaiming (p) for . Example: // (r) what we COULD DO // (p) is go OUT for a MEAL // The r tone on the first tone unit indicates that the question as to what the interlocutors could do together has already arisen. The choice of the p tone on the second tone unit indicates that the information is presented as new. In David Brazil’s example, the negotiation of common ground is significant. He argues that what his system captures at the most general level could best be characterized in social terms: In making the referring choice, the speaker invokes the togetherness aspect of the conversational relationship, speaking as it were for the ‘we’ who are the participants. In making the proclaiming choice, he adopts the stance of the ‘I’ who is set over against the ‘you’ in a situation of unassimilated viewpoints. (Brazil as quoted by Dalton and Seildhofer, 1994: 62) Expressions such as actually, frankly, or surely are often employed to evoke solidarity, agreement, or intimacy. Example: // (r) HONestly // (r) I’ve Always FOUND him a bit STRANGE // 15 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 In this example, ‘honestly’ clearly does not provide any new information, since being honest is regarded as the conversational norm and therefore does not need to be mentioned specially. However, ‘honestly’ can also be used to express divergence, lack of agreement, or distance. In order to signal this meaning, the speaker would choose a falling tone which proclaims this attitude: // (p) (but) HONestly // (p) you’re being unFAIR // According to Brazil, the speaker has two choices each for referring and proclaiming tones as shown in the following figure: r --- ‘fall-rise’ Refer either r+ --- ‘rise’ either p --- ‘fall’ proclaim either p+ --- ‘rise-fall’ (Brazil as quoted by Dalton and Seildhofer, 1994: 62) Activity 1: Questions and Responses Match the questions with the corresponding answers. Think about what the speakers seem to consider common ground (r ) and what is seen as adding to the common ground (p ). Questions: 1. When do you want to travel the world? 2. Why do you turn the radio on before leaving the house? 3. What do you do before leaving the house? 4. What do you want to do when you finish school? 16 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Answers: A. (r) When I finish school // (p) I want to travel the world. B. (r) I want to travel the world // (p) when I finish school. C. (r) I turn the radio on // (p) so as to scare off burglars. D. (p) I turn the radio on // (r) before leaving the house. Activity 2: Intonation Used in Delivering New Information and Shared Knowledge Read the following part of the news and pay attention to the intonation used in delivering new information and shared knowledge: Did you see UFO’s? WITNESSES are being urged to come forward after unidentified flying objects (new information) were spotted in the sky (shared knowledge - of course they were in the sky flying) over Hemlock Stone, near Stapleford. Mr. Anthony James (new information), organizer of East Midlands UFO Research Association, said he received three (new information - we didn’t know the number before) sightings of strange objects (shared knowledge - already mentioned) between 7.30 pm and 7 am during March 28 to 29 (new information). The sightings were from two independent witnesses (shared knowledge) living within half a mile of each other (new information). (Taken from Taylor, Linda.(1993). Pronunciation in Action. London: Prentice Hall, pp.163) 17 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 4 Grammar and Intonation (I) (Intonation in ‘wh’ questions, ‘yes/no’ questions and statements) Objective: Showing the students examples of texts in the models provided (intonation in ‘wh’ questions, ‘yes/no’ questions and statements) and enabling them to pronounce a text individually based on its context. Many attempts have been made to show connections between intonation patterns and particular types of grammatical structure. In this unit you will learn grammatical structures implicate intonation patterns in sentences. Since there are more than six patterns of sentences we are going to learn, therefore they are spread into two units, Units 4 and 5. Unit 4 discusses about intonation in ‘wh’ questions, ‘yes/no’ questions and statements, while the rests are discussed in Unit 5. In fact, there is a more important thing than just intonation itself that is the context. For instance, in order to get the whole picture of a conversation, we need to look at the negotiation process. It is in this process of negotiation that intonation plays the most crucial part. In portraying the real situation and condition of a discourse it is also necessary to pay attention to the word stress and prominence. Word- stress relates to the highlighting of the primary syllables in polysyllabic words which is relatively stable. Though it changes, it does bear much change. For example: - Amanda was not PREsent at this morning’s class. - Amanda is going to preSENT her paper next week. The difference is on the stressing of the syllables. In the first sentence ‘present’ serves as an adjective, whilst in the second sentence it serves as a verb. However, prominence is to a large extent a matter of speaker’s choice. It is an indication as to what the speaker wants to make primary or important in ongoing discourse. What the speaker chooses to highlight depends on the context, the situation, and what has happened in the conversation so far. Let’s have a look at these examples: 18 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 1. JOHNNY will eat this (not someone else) 2. Johnny WILL eat this (whether he wants or not) 3. Johnny will EAT this (not just look at it) 4. Johnny will eat THIS (rather than something else) A. Intonation in questions started with question words Generally, information questions with who, what, where, when, why and how have falling intonation in the end. It is somewhat different from the same kind of questions in Indonesian which tend to be rising. Here are some examples of information questions with question words. Listen to your lecturer pronouncing the following sentences: A: What’s your name? 1. B: My name’s Jimmy. A: What’s the time? 2. B: It’s half past three. A: Where do you live? 3. B: I live in Jakarta. Listen to the following dialogue. Pay attention to the arrows indicating the rise and fall. A: The concert was really crowded last night. How did you 1. manage to find a place to sit? B: Well it wasn’t easy. We ended up taking a seat on the floor. 2. A: Where’s Anne? B: She’s at the neighbour borrowing a rake. 3. A: What does Professor McConnell do to relax? B: Well, I often see her working in the garden on Sundays 4. A: What happened to Bill? B: He said goodbye at the door (Taken from Listening Comprehension for the TOEFL Course, UPT P2B UNS, 2003 1 Activity 1, No. 1, 7, 8 & 11). 19 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 B. Intonation in ‘yes/ no’ questions Sometimes we are not aware of the intonation we use in interrogative sentences which expect ‘yes/no’ answer. They are often mistaken or overlapped with the intonation used in questions with question words discussed in part A. it is necessary to remember the sentence patterns in order not to forget the intonation when we speak or read sentences containing those patterns. The intonation in interrogative sentences which require ‘yes or no’ answers is rising at the end. Here are a few examples of questions requiring ‘yes or no’ answers. Listen to your lecturer pronouncing the sentences below. Pay attention to the arrows indicating the rise and fall. 1. A: Is it the blue one? 2. A: Have you got a pen? 3. A: Could you give me a lift? Listen to the following sentences and draw arrows on the sentences below indicating the rise and fall of the intonation like what you have heard from your lecturer. 1. Shall we ask Dave if he wants to join Larry’s softball team? 2. Can I borrow your history book for a few days? 3. Do you see your family much? (Taken from Listening Comprehension for the TOEFL Course, UPT P2B UNS, 2003, 1 Activity 1 No 3, 5, & 9) C. Intonation in statement sentences Statement sentences commonly have falling intonation at the end. Listen to your lecturer pronouncing the following sentences and pay attention to the arrows indicating the intonation. 1. He lives in the house on the corner. 2. It’s over there. 3. The train leaves at 7 a.m. 20 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 D. Activities Activity 1 Practice the following sentences by putting the prominence in sequence, from the first word to the last one and identify the difference of the meaning caused by the shifting of the prominence. 1. ANDY went to the fitness centre twice a week. 2. The MISSION was aborted. 3. ANGELA finally accomplished her study. 4. The EXPEDITION is worth to risk. 5. SHE is not a lawyer. Activity 2 Listen to the recording and then mark the sentences below with arrows indicating the intonation of each of the sentences as indicated in the example. Example: I don’t like this house very much. 1. Larry will lend you the book you wanted 2. Did you like the dessert? 3. Do you know your account number? 4. Bovetoya is one of the most isolated places in the world. (No 1,2 & 3 are taken from Listening Comprehension for the TOEFL Course, UPT P2B, 2003, 5 Activity 3, No 3, 6, & 7 and No 4 is taken from the Movie “Alien vs Predator”) Activity 3 After accomplishing Practice 2, pronounce each sentence very clearly based on the arrows you have drawn. Activity 4 Make your own sentences, consisting of interrogative sentences with question words and auxiliaries, and statements. Then, pronounce each of them loudly and clearly before your friends and lecturers. Identify the intonation whether it falls or increases in each sentence. 21 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 5 Grammar and Intonation (II) (Intonation in Imperative Sentences, Question Tags and List of Items) Objective: Showing the students examples of texts in the models provided (intonation in imperative sentences, question tags and list of items) and enabling them to pronounce a text individually based on its context. E. Intonation in Imperative Sentences Imperative sentence in this unit is divided into two, i.e. imperative sentence in suggestion and imperative sentence in command. The intonation of imperative sentence in suggestion sounds polite and friendly, whilst that of in command sounds less friendly. Listen to the following recording, which distinguishes between the intonation in suggestion and the intonation in command and pay attention to the stressed syllable and its intonation. Suggestion Command Have a HOLiday, Mrs. Bloggs. Have a HOLiday, Mrs. Bloggs. Stop WASHing, Mrs. Bloggs Stop WASHing, Mrs. Bloggs Don’t drop that POT, Mrs. Bloggs. Don’t drop that POT, Mrs. Bloggs. Put it on the BOX, Mrs. Bloggs. Put it on the BOX, Mrs. Bloggs. (Adapted from Baker, Ann. 1988. Sheep or Ship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.26-27) 22 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 F. Intonation in Question Tags Expressions formulated in question tags can mean two things, i.e. expecting confirmation and showing less certainty. They are determined by the intonation at the end of the sentences. If the intonation is falling, it signifies an expectation of confirmation from the counterpart. Whilst if the intonation is rising, it indicates that the speaker is not very certain whether or not what she asks is correct. Listen to the following extracts: 1. M: Hello, Mrs. Smith. I’m Craig Rearic. Do you remember me? W: You’re the man who delivered the package, aren’t you? 2. W: Clyde sees his mother and father a lot, doesn’t he? M: As a matter of fact, he rarely visits his parents. The sentence number one implies that the speaker assumes that the person asked is French, but he just wants to expect confirmation from the person to say ‘yes’. Now, look at the following examples 1. You’re French, aren’t you? 2. M: Should we invite Peter to join us at the concert? W: He likes classical music, doesn’t he? 3. M: I’d like to go fishing in Canada next week. W: You’re going to begin your new job next week, aren’t you? (Taken from Listening Comprehension for the TOEFL Course, UPT P2B Team, 2003. 1 Activity 2 and 3) Unlike the two sentences in the previous page, the three sentences above have rising intonation at the end. They imply that the speaker is not quite certain. So that an individual who makes such question tag should not expect too much from the person asked to answer ‘yes’. 23 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 G. Intonation in List of Items Uttering a sentence which has list of items in it should be patterned to a particular intonation. You may not pronounce the items with random intonation. Listen to the examples below: - Would you like COFFEE or TEA? - Would you like VEAL or BEEF? - Would you like COFFee or MILK or TEA? (Taken from Baker, Ann. 1988. Ship or Sheep: An Intermediate Pronunciation Course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 5) H. Activities Activity 1: Friendly or unfriendly? Divide the class into two teams. The lecturer reads the following sentences. Students take turns to decide if s/he is friendly or unfriendly. Score a point for each correct answer. a. Put these socks in the BOX. b. Put it on top of the CLOCK. c. Make the coffee HOT. d. Go to the HOSpital. e. See a DOCtor. f. Don’t wash these SOCKS. g. Don’t borrow Tom’s WATCH. h. Don’t go to the wrong OFFice. i. Don’t go to the wrong REStaurant. j. Buy some binoculars. (Taken from Baker, Ann. 1988. Sheep or Ship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 27) Activity 2 Practise with somebody, using the intonation in list of items. Would you like leek soup or pea soup? Leek soup, please. 24 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 3: List of items in question Using the menu in activity 1, practise in a group of four people: You are in a restaurant. One person is the waiter. One person asks the questions: Would you like ……or ……? Then you must give your order to the waiter. The waiter must remember the order. (Taken from Baker, Ann. 1988. Sheep or Ship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 6) Activity 4: List of items in statement Listen to the cassette and repeat the sentence you hear. Pay attention to the intonation and then draw arrows on the syllables which are stressed (indicated by capitalised letters) - He bought a CUP and some NUTS. - He bought a CUP, some NUTS and some HONey. - He bought a CUP, some NUTS, some HONey, and a BRUSH. (Taken from Baker, Ann. 1988. Sheep or Ship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18) Activity 5: Question tag Listen to your lecturer pronouncing the sentences below, and then repeat them. She couldn’t COOK, COULD she? He wouldn’t LOOK, WOULD he? Practise in pairs like the example below. A: She couldn’t COOK, COULD she? B: No, she COULDn’t 1. He couldn’t play FOOTball. 2. You couldn’t cook a cake without SUGar. 3. You wouldn’t like to meet a BULL. 4. You wouldn’t like to meet a WOLF. 5. He shouldn’t put good books on the COOKer 6. He shouldn’t look at that WOMan. 7. You couldn’t cook a BOOK. 8. They shouldn’t read these BOOKS. 25 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 6 QUIZ I The materials of Quiz I should cover those outlined in Unit 1 until Unit 5. 26 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 7 Attitude and Intonation (I) (Expressing an insight and attitude: description of the implication of intonation to attitude and opinion) Objective: Students are able to express their insight and attitude by using acceptable intonation Attitude and intonation are actually two inseparable things. To express an attitude verbally, someone must be able to clearly show correct and appropriate intonation in his speech in order not to be misunderstood or misinterpreted by his counterpart. Activity 1 Listen to the following discussion between a professor and his two students about Pluto. In the discussion the Professor of Astronomy is arguing that Pluto is not considered as planet, whilst his students question his statement. Identify how the intonation of the speakers implies their attitude and insight on the subject matter. P : Well, I today thought we talked about some of the reasons why Pluto’s status as a planet has been debated. You see until recently what makes a planet a planet was one of the simple concepts in the draft. It’s always been deemed, so it’s so obvious, so basic that it was never officially defiled. So anyway, hmm improvement in telescopes related to technology has lent the whole host of the discoveries in our solar system, with one result being that now even the generally accepted idea about the planet has been or disqualified. And this directly affects the status of Pluto. W : So, what makes Pluto so different that it could be hmm classified? P : Well, actually there are several important differences between Pluto and the other planets. First, when you look at the other planets, especially the planets in the outer solar system were Pluto orbit. You see that Pluto stands out. It’s the outboard. And how can you one guess why? M : It’s got to be the size, Jupiter, Saturn and hmm Uranus and Neptune? They’re the gas giants. Well, Pluto isn’t. P : Well, exactly! Compared to the gas giants, Pluto is very different! It’s neither gaseous nor a giant. See Pluto is less than a half of the size of the smallest planet, Mercury. It’s even smaller than our moon. And smaller than other moons in our solar system. So Pluto is very small for a planet. Maybe it’s not large enough to be considered a planet. 27 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 W : But, Pluto orbits the sun, and that’s one of what planets do. P : You’re right that most planets orbit the sun and Pluto certainly does that every two hundred forty eight years, but with a highly eccentric orbit. Take a look at this! What I mean when I say eccentric is it’s not like the other planets’ orbits. Instead, it’s different in two major ways. One, it’s elliptical but the others are nearly circular. So for parts of the orbit Pluto is closer to the Neptune and for the rest it’s further away. And two, Pluto orbits on a different plain. That’s all the planets orbits on the same plain, except Pluto which orbits at the 17 degree angle to the other orbit. You see that it looks like crosses the other orbit. W : But I don’t see where being small and having unusual orbit which change Pluto’s status. I mean it’s one of the features that the other planets have, doesn’t it? It’s got an atmosphere, there, and even there is a moon. P : That’s true! In fact if it wasn’t for the discovery of the Kyperbelt there wouldn’t probably a question about Pluto’s status. M : Well, I’m sorry. The white belt? P : It’s the Kyperbelt. It’s like a swirl of icy rocky object up beyond Neptune. It turns out that Kyperbelt objects, which are also called KBOs have a lot in common with Pluto. For one, KBOs and Pluto are made of the same stuff, namely rock and ice. And for most of its orbit, Pluto is in the Kyperbelt. Remember when said that Pluto is eccentric orbit? Well many KBOs do too for the same reasons. Their orbits are influenced by Neptune’s gravity. Now without going in too much detail let me just say that Neptune’s gravity’s sort of pools of Pluto and KBOs around. This results in orbits that are elliptical and exactly one and a half longer than Neptune’s. in line of the similarity, some suggest that Pluto is just the largest KBO found to date. Now, I’m saying this because several other Kyperbelt objects have been found. Some are as large as Pluto. Some scientists believe that they might be other KBOs as large as Pluto. M : So you’re saying that Pluto is more like a KBO than a planet? W : Yah, I mean considering everything you’ve said, if Pluto were discovered today even, even well wouldn’t it be called a planet? P : Well, let’s see, you tell me! Mhh, well I still call it a planet. Like I said before even if it’s small, but it has atmosphere and a moon, it orbits the sun.. M : Come on. It’s obviously a KBO I mean it’s in the Kyperbelt, it’s made of same material, it orbits the same way and it’s smaller than the other planets. I think it’s clear. P : Well, nobody knew about the Kyperbelt when Pluto was discovered so they called it a planet. But now, I think its status will continue to be questioned until there is an official definition for planet. (Taken from Next Generation TOEFL (Audio CD). 2003. Princeton: ETS) 28 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 From the conversation we learn that the Professor tries to convince the man and woman about Pluto status which has recently been questioned. According to him, Pluto is not a planet, whilst the woman and the man disagree. They say that Pluto is planet based on the common characteristics that a planet has. In conclusion, there are two parties in the conversation which have opposite opinions about Pluto, but each defends its attitude by making the intonation of their speech in such a way. Activity 2 Find an example, a discourse, which shows the attitude of the speaker/s. You may obtain it from a cassette, CD, VCD or other sources. 29 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 8 Attitude and Intonation (II) Objective: Practicing to identify attitude and opinion Listen to the following tape. Paola is an Italian Student of English at a school in London. Read and listen to her letter to David. While you listen, identify the expressions that show Paol’s attitude and opinion opinion, and study its intonation. 72 Newton Drive London Sw 6 3rd October Dear David How are you? I’m in London, at the International School of English. I’m in class 3 with eight other students. They’re all form different countries – Spain, France, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland, and Thailand. Our teacher’s name is Peter Briscall. He’s very nice. He’s funny and he’s a very good teacher. My new address is at the top of the letter. I’m with an English family, the Browns. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have three children. Thomas is fourteen, Catherine is twelve, and Andrew is seven. They are all very friendly, but it isn’t easy to understand them!. London is very big and very interesting. The weather is good – cold but sunny—and the parks are beautiful!. Hyde Park, Green Park, and St James’ Park are all in the center. It isn’t easy to use the underground, but I understand it now. It’s very expensive!. English food is OK, but the coffee is horrible! Write to me soon. Love, Paola P.S. Is my English OK (Taken from Soars, Jon & Liz. 1993. Headway Elementary, Student’s Book. Oxford: OUP. Tapescript T12a) 30 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 2 Listen to the following tape 1. While you are listening to the tapes, identify the opinion of the speaker. 2. Identify the intonation of the expression that shows the opinion of the speakers. 3. Repeat the expressions showing that opinions. Bob and Sheila spent two years living in New York because of Bob’s work woks as a banker. Neither of them had lived in a big city before. They now live back in England in a small village outside London. I Interviewer S Sheila B Bob I: How long did yon live in the States? B: We were there for two and a half years, in New York. I: And did you enjoy it? S Oh, tremendously. We had a wonderful time. B Yes, what I like best was that I could works and still lead a normal life. I mean, the shop are open till 10 o’clock. I All shops? S Yes, everything, food shops, chemists … There’s a huge department store called Gimbles on 86 th street that B was still open until 9.00. S And some supermarkets are open twenty-four hours a day. Most shop don’t open as early as in England, well hey don’t open until about uhm…. 10 or 11 in the morning. B Yes, that’s right. S Because they all work much later And everything open on Sundays. B And the holiday, the public holidays are much shorter than here, in the States only the bank are shut. Everything else stays open, so it makes life much easier. You could do what you liked. S And it was easier with the children, because I could wait till you got back and we did the shopping together, didn’t we? B Yes. I I See, um … do you think New York is as cosmopolitan as London? 31 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 S Oh Yes, but it’s not mixed. Nationalities stay in their own areas: like there’s the Ukrainian section, The Russian section, The German section … B The German section. We were in German town, York Town, which is called German Town. And there was a row of German shops., all German-speaking. S Yes B But you didn’t find that anywhere else. And the Ukrainians were down on 14th and 2nd, and the Spanish kept to Spanish Harlem. S I think the major difference was the height of the place. Everything was up. We lived on the twenty-ninth floor. B And I work on the sixty – third floor. S But I like heights. And of course everything is faster. And the people are much ruder. B Which means of course that we’re much ruder ourselves that now we’re back in Britain. I Oh, in what ways? B Well, pushing in the street. S Oh, I don’t! B Fight about getting on the bus. No good English queues. I But are all Americans like that ? S Oh yes. Well, all New Yorkers anyway. Not so much in other places. When we went to California it was very different. There weren’t the same pressures at all, were there? B I think we were aware that New York is quite a dangerous place. We never had any problems at all, but when there was a crime, it was horrendous. S Oh yes, the subways are unusable. They’re dirty, uncomfortable. I Did you make many friends? S Well, that’s what’s interesting really. We made more friends there than we have after two years of living here. I think American are more open, they you know, they speak their minds, so if they don’t like something, they actually tell you directly. Not like he British, who might think one thing and say another. So I suppose you could say that the English are ruder than the Americans. B Or that they’re less honest S Mmm. Yes. B Something else. We’re actually moving here back to London try to find the things we liked in new York, but I don’t suppose we’ll find them. (Taken from Soars, Jon & Liz. 1993. Headway Intermediate, Student’s Book. Oxford: OUP. Tapescript17 a and 17b) 32 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Unit 9 Proclaiming (falling) Tone within Discourse Objectives: Showing and practicing proclaiming (falling) tone within discourse A. Proclaiming Tone A discourse approach to intonation examines how the stresses we make and the tone we employ when we are speaking, relate our utterance to the surrounding language. The term ‘discourse’ refers to a stretch of meaningful language. Intonation can be used to present information within utterance, conversations and monologues. Look at the followings. 1. Say this sentence: You need a pen, a pencil and some paper. When you say the statement, you voice tend to rise on pen and pencil, showing that there is more item to come after pen and pencil. The voice then may fall on the word paper to indicate that that is the end of the list of the items. 2. Say this sentence: When you get to the office, you’ll see a tall man named Sean. In the sentence above the name Sean is new information, and the voice when you say it fall on the word Sean. 3. Say this sentence: When you see Sean, give him this letter. This time, there is fall-rise on Sean, showing that the name is now a shared knowledge between the two speakers It also helps indicate that there will be instruction following, ‘give him this letter.’ The choice you make, though for the most part it is unconscious, helps you to guide and control the conversations. A falling tone as illustrated above (on the words paper and Sean in the first and second sentences) is called as proclaiming tone. (a p tone) Proclaiming tone is used: 33 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 1. to express information that is presumed to be new, or is adding to something to the discussion. 2. to give facts, express opinion we believe to be true, and 3. to ask for new information. Look at the followings: Example Explanation // WHAT time does you TRAIN I’m asking you a piece of leave // information, A p tone indicates this. // She’s LIVED in LONdon // I’m telling you some facts about since she was TWENty // her that you don’t know. The p tone indicates that this is new information. B. Activities Activity 1 Listen to an interview between a journalist (J), and Mr William (W), a writer. While you are listening to the tapes, identify the intonation and pay attention to the part of the dialogues in which the p tone occur. J What’s your job, Mr William? W I’m a writer. J That’s interesting. What sort of things do you write? W Well, uhm, articles for newspapers and magazines, er… film reviews, you know, uhm, and occasionally some fiction, poems, and short stories. J Do you find it a very demanding job? W (sigh) Well, yes, and no. It’s very nice to works at home, of course, and has the choice of when to work. But I work long hours at home, usually ten hours or more a day, and it’s very lonely sometimes, sitting in front of typewriter. 34 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 J What are you working on at the moment? W Well, actually I am doing something different from my usual work. I’m writing a biography of Leonard Benson, the jazz musician. J So I suppose you are spending a lot of time together. W (Laugh) well, no, in fact. He lives in the States. I am doing a lot of research, naturally, visiting this country at the moment, and I have an appointment with him. But we haven’t met very often. J Well, thank you, Mr. Williams. That was very interesting and good luck with the book. W Not at all. (Taken from Soars, John & Liz. 1993. Headway Intermediate: Student’s Book. Oxford: OUP. Tapescript1) Can you write down the utterance in which the p tone occurs? --------------------------- --------------------------- -- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- --------------------------- --------------------------- --- --------------------------- --------------------------- --- Activity 2 a. Practise the use of proclaiming tone. Read the following new excerpt as if you read it to an audience. NEW YORK: Oprah Winfrey and her friend Gayle King want to be clear: They are not gay. In the August issue of O, the Oprah Magazine, the talk show host explains that some peoples misunderstand her close friendship with King. 35 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 “I understand why people think we’re gay,” she says. “There isn’t a definition in our culture for this kind of bond between women. So I get why people have to label it – how can you be this so close without it being sexual?.” In a long article, Winfrey, 52, and King converse about their 30 years of friendship and ‘four-times-a-day phone calls.” King, who hosted The Gayle King Show in 1997, is an editor of O, the Oprah Magazine. Says Winfrey: “Something about this relationship feels otherworldly to me, like it was designed by a power and a hand greater than my own. Whatever this friendship is, it’s been a very fun ride.” AP b. Can you identify on what unit of utterances proclaiming tones occurs when you read the news above? c. Can you identify the functions of the proclaiming tones occurred in the reading above, based on the function of proclaiming tone explain in the discussion part? 36 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 10 Referring (fall-rise) Tone in Discourse Objectives: Showing and practicing referring (fall-rise) tone in a discourse A. Referring (fall­rise) Tone From unit 9 we have learned about proclaiming tone (p tone). In addition to p tone, the most basic intonation choice in English is referring tone (r tone). These terms and ideas were originally developed by David Brazil. The choice between proclaiming tone and referring tone indicates two alternatives. The choice of a falling tone (proclaiming tone), as explained in unit 9, indicates that the speaker wants to express information that is presumed to be new, adding something to discussion, etc. The choice of rise-fall tone (referring tone) indicates that the speaker is referring to information that is presumed to be shared between the speakers. In cases where r tone is used in questions, it functions to make sure what we are saying is correct, or to check information. Look at the examples and explanation below Example Explanation // WHAT time does your TRAIN I am asking for you a piece of leave // information. A p tone on the word ‘what’ indicates this. // WHAT time does your TRAIN You’ve told me the train time earlier leave // but I’ve forgotten. I use the r tone on the word ‘what’ to indicate that there has been shared information, and to make sure. // She’s LIVED in LONdon // We both know that she lives in since she was TWENty.// London; the shared information show by the r tone in the first tone unit, in the words ‘she’s’. You have asked me how long she’s lived there. This new information is reflected by he p tone 37 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 in the second tone unit. // She LIVES in the house on We both know that we’re talking the CORner // about the house on the corner. You have just said John’s buying the house on the corner, isn’t he? I’m telling you something you appear not to know, and this is shown by the p tone on ‘lives’ B. Activities Activity 1 Listen to the tapescript of an excerpt. While listening, identify the r tone Tapescript 1 Over the past 150 years, bicycles have undergone an enormous number of changes. In fact, the bicycle is now a ‘mature’ product; so much so that any dramatic advances are no longer likely. However, there are still exciting times ahead of the bike. Concerns about pollution, health and traffic congestion, as well as, fashion and new construction metals are highlighting the role of the bicycles in our everyday lives and for many people especially over short distances of less than 8 kilometers, using bike can often be much faster than driving a car. Tapescript 2 The new Education building on campus is known as an ‘intelligent building’. That means that the lifts are supposed to know if you are waiting for them and the lights should go off automatically if there’s no one in the rooms. But in fact, the lights often go off in the middle of lectures and you have to get up and wave your arms around to turn them on again. And in the summer the air conditioning is so cold you often need to wear a coat. I don’t think that’s very intelligent, do you? (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa, IELTS Practice Tests, p 163) 38 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 2 Match the questions below with the corresponding answer. Think about what the speakers seem to consider shared knowledge, (r tone), and what is seen as adding to the shared knowledge (p tone) 1. When do you want to travel the world? 2. Why do you turn the radio on before leaving the house? 3. What do you do before leaving the house? 4. What do you want to do when you finish school? a. (r tone) When I finish school // ( p tone) I want to travel the world. b. (r tone) I want to travel the world // ( p tone ) when I finish school. c. ( r tone) I turn the radio on // (p tone) so as to scare off burglar. d. ( r tone) I turn the radio on // ( r tone) before leaving he house.. We can see here that answer D, for example, is given in a situation where the notion of leaving the house has already been introduced (question 3). In natural conversation, of course, it is often only the ‘p’ part of the answer which is given, the one which adds new information. Activity 3 Read the sentence showing a situation below: A man with a pack on his back entered a field, and died. In a small group, discuss any possible answers for the cause of the death Note down all your possible answers. Examples: He might have been attacked by an animal. Perhaps he was attacked by an animal. If he was attacked by an animal, he could have run away. 39 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 He can’t have been attacked by an animal. That’s too easy. Activity 4 Write the utterance down and mark the stressed syllables and tone movements. Underline stressed syllables, and draw arrows to show the tone movements. Examples: // he MIGHT have been // aTTACKED by an Animal // // perHAPS he was // aTTaCKED by an Animal// // if he WAS attacked by an animal// he COULD have run aWAY// // he CAN’T have been attacked by an animal// THAT’S too Easy// Now work with your own list of possible answers. ----------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------. 40 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 5 Read the following article aloud and observe yourself taking choice as to which either p tone or r tone is taken. School seems tougher than it was in my day As the school year began, students packed up their toys and picked up their notebooks. The Jakarta Post asked parents how they were feeling now classes are in full swing. Poppy Chaeruddin is a 46 year old doctor. She lives in Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta. She has a daughter who just started at a popular high school near her house: It was much easier to enroll my daughter this year. Thanks to the internet registration, we quickly found out she was accepted. Her first day at school sounded nice, compared to the stories I have heard of new students being forced to do silly things by their seniors. I am told the principal kept a close eye on everything. I as so lucky my daughter got into the best school. I hope she will later get into a good university. Si Nur, 47, is a housewife living in Ulujami, South Jakarta. She recently enrolled her six-year –old Francisco Pandapotan in elementary school. I was really stressed out about my son going to school. I was worried he would not be able to follow the teacher’s instructions. Thank God, I was worrying for no reason. My son’s class work seems fine, and he understood what the teachers wanted him to bring to class tomorrow. I am excited as my son about his lessons. But school seems tougher than it was in my day. The teachers are strict. They did not allow mothers to wait for their children inside the classroom. I think that is a good idea, because it teaches children to be independent. I do not doubt my son’s independence. His teacher told me there would be some tests two weeks from now. I think he is up to it. (Taken from The Jakarta Post) 41 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 11 QUIZ II The materials tested in Quiz II should cover those of Unit 7 until Unit 10 42 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 12 Intonation in Indirect Questions Objective: Introducing the students intonation in indirect questions A. Indirect Questions Do you know what indirect question is? Activity 1 The following sentences are indirect questions showing the context of seeking information from a stranger. Read the following expressions in appropriate intonation! the bank the post office Do you know where the chemist’s is please? Could you tell me where the doctor’s the bus station the police station Activity 2 While reading, answer the following questions!  How many tone units are there in each sentence?  What are the stressed words and tonic in each sentence?  What is the main tone movement of each sentence? 43 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 3 Confirm your intonation to the following options, which option is the most appropriate intonation according to you? A. // do you KNOW // where the BANK is please // B. // do you KNOW // where the BANK is please // C. // do you KNOW where the BANK is please // Go to the next page to find the most appropriate answer! Activity 4 Study and practice the following intonation! Follow the arrow! Tonic syllables are underlined and in capital. Do you know where the BANK is please? Could you tell me where the POST office is please? the CHEMist’s is please? the DOCtor’s is please? the BUS station is please? the POLICE station is please? The pattern here is quite clear. It is also the suggested intonation for the above sentences. 44 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Note for activity 2 Point C from the options is the more appropriate way of asking those questions. It has one tone unit, with the main tone movement (a fall – rise) being on the noun, and the verbs are stressed being set as a key. Note for activity 3 The question forms (Do you know where ……. and Could you tell me where) are elicited, they are pronounced using a high but level key. Fall – rise is appropriately used on and after the nouns Activity 5 Make your own indirect questions and pronounce them properly! 45 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 13 Intonation in Negotiation Objective: Introducing intonation in negotiation discourses A. Intonations in a negotiation-based discourse The role of intonation is very crucial in a negotiation process; it includes the general notions of topic, floor, and positioning of participants. Negotiation is different from natural conversation, this idea exchange implicates understanding not only an understanding of the meaning but also a process of achieving an agreement from both parties which in some points a process of insisting can not be avoided. It is even greater when the ideas of both parties are in contrast. Intonation is very important to make a salient point as the prominence. Activity 1 Listen the dialogue and practice it with your partner! Student : I’m afraid I haven’t been able to finish the history essay, and I was hoping that you would give me an extension. Lecturer : When do you think you could let me have it? Student : Well… I should be able to finish it by next Monday. Lecturer : Well… OK. As long as I can have it by then. That’ll be fine (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. 1999. Insight into IELTS, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, p. 160) 46 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 B. Identifying the intonation of negotiation-based discourses Pay attention on the following terms as the factors dealing with the way we manage our verbal exchanges: Prominence : how to make salient the important points we make. In a negotiation base text, the prominence is thing being negotiated. Topic management : how to signal and recognize where one topic ends and another begins. Information Status : how to mark what we assume to be shared knowledge as opposed something new Turn Taking : when to speak and when to be silent, how (not) to yield the floor to somebody else Social meanings and roles: how to position ourselves vis a vis our interlocutor(s) in terms of status, dominance/ authority, politeness, solidarity/ separateness Degree of involvement: how to convey our attitudes, emotions, etc. Activity 2 After listening and practicing the intonation of activity 1, answer the following questions! 1. How is the prominence shown? 2. Is there any topic management found? If yes, please show the part! 3. How is the information status used by the both participants? 4. In which parts are the turns taking employed? 5. How is the position of both participants regarding the social roles? Can we find any emotions and attitudes as the degree of 6. involvement used? How do the six factors affect the intonation of the sentences in the dialogue in Activity 1? Listen to the script in Activity 1 again and pay attention to how the six factors influence the intonation. 47 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 3 Read the following dialogues carefully using appropriate intonation! Dialogue 1 Student A : Hi Sue. It’s Mario here. Student B : Oh, hi. How are you? Student A : Fine – look I was wondering if you were free on Saturday evening. I’ve got some tickets for a concert. Would you like to come? Student B : Oh, look, I’m sorry …. I’d really like, but … like … I’m studying for my exams at the moment, and well …. I’m sorry … I can’t. Student A : OK – not too worry. Some other time then. I suppose Student B : Right …. sure (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. (1999). Insight into IELTS, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, P. 166) Dialogue 2 Teacher : Michael, did you do this work yourself? Student : Yes, sir. Of course I did Teacher : It seems to have been remarkably well done, for you! Student : Guess I had a good day, sir. Teacher : Michael, I wasn’t born yesterday. Student : No, sir (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. (1999). Insight into IELTS, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, P. 167) Have you pronounced them appropriately? Check by listening to the recordings of dialogue 1 and 2! 48 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 UNIT 14 Intonation in Argumentative Texts Objective: Introducing intonation in argumentative text A. Intonation in an argumentative text Argumentative text is characterized by a statement of a set of idea supported by the justification or reasons. This type of text is used to deliver one’s view and followed by the intention of insisting others upon the view. Fall and rise as the intonation and stressed words are very important to support the expression orally, by emphasizing the prominence and other verbal exchanges factor. The following words can be the characteristics of argumentative texts: I believe that ……….. However……… I insist that ……… I strongly agree ……… I think………. Etc Activity 1 Listen and practice! While listening, pay attention to the fall – rise voice and stressed words, mark them! Text 1 “Incoming governments often make promises which they cannot keep. For instance they say they will reduce unemployment, but the number of people out of work remains static” (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. 1999. Insight into IELTS, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, P. 168) 49 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Text 2 Reporter : Excuse me, Minister. Can you tell us whether your government intends to increase student university fees in the next budget? Politician : The government has every intention of insuring that student will not be disadvantaged by any increase in fees which it may be necessary to introduce, by offering grants and scholarships to students wherever possible. (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. 1999. Insight into IELTS, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, P. 166) Can you find the prominence of the both argumentative texts? How is the intonation of the prominences pronounced? Activity 2 Listen and Practice Pay attention the following doctor’s suggestions; identify the way he pronounces his argumentative statements! Jenny is a heavy smoker; she takes about thirty a day. Doctor : Well, in that case let me suggest five things which you can do. First of all, if you smoke strong cigarettes, you should change to milder ones. Jenny : Yes, doctor. Doctor : But that won’t help if you smoke more. So, secondly, don’t smoke as many cigarettes. Try to cut down by one or two every day. OK? The next three points are to do with how you make smoke. The most important is this: don’t breathe the smoke in. It is when you breathe in the smoke that you do most damage to your health. Next, don’t keep the cigarette in your mouth all the time. Put it in on ashtray when you’re not smoking it. And finally, don’t smoke all the cigarette. The end of a cigarette is very dangerous to your health. So put the cigarette out after you’ve smoked half of it. All right? Jenny : Yes, I’ll try doctor……… (Taken from J. Garton-Sprenger T.C. Jupp P. Prowse, 1982. Exchanges Part B. London: Heineman Educational Books, UNIT 6 Lesson 26 of Listening Passage) 50 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 B. Argumentative Text in Interviews Practice with your partner the following text and check your intonation. Pay attention on the italic words on how the sentences are pronounced! Interviewer : Dr. Clarke, global warming was the threat of the 1980s but it seems to have fizzled out of people’s minds – why do you think that is? Dr. Clarke : Yes, in a way you’re right. I think scientists have become occupied with the task of trying to find out whether it really is happening and, if so, whether it’s caused by human activity. Interviewer : A greenhouse effect is after all, a natural phenomenon…….. Dr. Clarke : Yes, as we know, naturally occurring gases float above us, acting as insulators that prevent heat being radiated into space. Interviewer : And the fear is that the insulation might get thicker. Dr. Clarke : Yes, and because of this, the Earth might get warmer. (Taken from Jakeman, Vanessa and Clare McDowell. 1999. Insight into IELTS, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, P. 173) Having practiced the text above, then listen to the recording and check your intonation! 51 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Unit 15 Intonation in Entertainment-Based Texts (Stories) Objective: Introducing intonation in entertainment-based texts (stories) A. Functions of Intonation Generally speaking, people use intonation to convey information, mainly through choice of significant pitch variation. Crystal (1987) introduced six functions of intonation as follows: 1. Emotional: expression of attitudinal meanings such as excitement, surprise, reserve, etc. 2. Grammatical: marking of grammatical contrasts, such as chunking into clauses and sentences, or contrast between questions and statements; e.g. ‘John phoned’ (statement/falling tone) vs ‘John phoned?’ (question/rising tone). 3. Information structure: marking of the distinction between what is already known and what is new; for example, if someone says ‘I saw a BLUE car’, this is presupposes that it is already known that a car is being talked about, and ‘blue’ is the new information. 4. Textual: marking of the structure of larger stretches of discourse, such as the distinctive melodic shape which different paragraphs are given in news-reading. 5. Psychological: organization of discourse into units that are more easily perceived and memorized, for example, the tendency to divide telephone numbers into rhythmical chunks. 6. Indexical: markers of personal identity, and of group membership, for example: members of certain occupations have distinctive ways of speaking, such as preachers, sports commentators, street vendors, etc. B. Intonation in Stories 52 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Stories are interesting examples of entertainment-based texts. In the story, we are able to have examples of how attitudinal meanings like excitement, surprise, worries and unhappiness are realized. Pay close attention on how those expressions of emotion are revealed through intonation. Activity 1 For the purpose of reading a story as one type of entertainment texts, most probably the emotional function of intonation would be the most frequently used. Below is an example of a story. Listen to Maria and identify different functions of intonation she is using in her story. He was very frightened now. He got up and went to the bathroom to wash her face. He looked in the mirror and screamed. In front of him, in the mirror, there was the head of a dead man. There were no eyes, and no nose, just deep black holes. Then suddenly the head came alive, and it began to laugh. (Taken from Soars, Jon & Liz. 1993. Headway Elementary: Student’s Book. Page 89 tape script 76) 53 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 2: Tell the story entitled ‘A Sad Story of A Sad Man’ in the form of a dialogue. Assign two students to play the roles of the characters in the story. Apply the appropriate intonation. . One Sunday evening two men met in a London pub. One of them was very unhappy. ‘Life is terrible, everything in the world is really boring’ he said. ‘Don’t say that’ said the other man. ‘Life is marvelous! The world is so exciting! Think about Italy. It’s a wonderful country. Have you ever been there?’ ‘Oh, yes. I went there last year and I did not like it’ ‘Well, have you ever been to Norway? Have you ever seen the midnight sun?’ ‘Oh, yes. I went in 1984 and I saw the midnight sun. I did not enjoy it’ ‘Well, I have just returned from a safari in Africa. Have you ever visited Africa yet?’ ‘Yes, I went on safari in Africa last year and I climbed Mount Kilimanjaro. It was really boring.’ ‘Well, said the other man, ‘I think that you’re very ill. Only the best psychiatrist can help you. Go to see Dr. Greenbaum in Harley Street.’ ‘I am Dr.Greenbaum’, answered the man sadly. (Taken from Soars, Jon & Liz. 1993. Headway Elementary: Student’s Book. p. 95) 54 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 3: Listen to the following text (a feature or biography) then repeat after the speaker by modeling after the intonation. She worked from 5.30 in the morning until 9.00 at night. She cleaned all the rooms in the house before breakfast. She earned £ 25 a year. In 1921 she moved to another family. She liked her new job because she looked after the children. There were five children, four sons and one daughter. She loved them, especially the baby, Robert. She stayed with that family for twenty years. Ellen never married. She just looked after other people’s children until she retired when she was seventy years old. (Taken from Soars, Jon & Liz. 1993. Headway Elementary: Student’s Book. page: 45- T.35b) Activity 4: Group work Divide the members of the class into a group of two or three. Each group should find one example of each function of intonation mentioned above (there are six functions). Then each member records his/her voice into the tape. Share the results in front of the class. 55 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Unit 16 Intonation in Entertainment texts (News and Reports) Objective: Introducing intonation in entertainment texts, especially in news and reports A. Aspects of Intonation in Discourse In making choices when interacting with others, a speaker needs to consider the aspects of time and space, i.e speaking in a formal situation (conference) or chatting face to face or on the phone might imply a different strategy. In a telephone conversation, there are some intonation idioms (established form/set of intonation) for example in pronouncing hold on a minute, who is speaking, please? when somebody is speaking on the phone. In terms of social status, intonation may vary due to the type of relations the speakers are engaged in. The closer their relationship, the higher the intensity of using interruption, or fillers such as ‘m’; ‘erm’ and back-channels ‘right’, ‘yes’, ‘wow’. Besides, there are also false starts and incomplete constructions, which are the characteristics of informal talks. When speaking, a speaker will make some choices, even though in real life, the distinctions between the different choices are not at all clear cut, they happen simultaneously and interact in ways which sometimes make it impossible to tell them apart. The choices a speaker is making may cover aspects such as:  Prominence: how to emphasize the important point we make  Topic management: how to signal and recognize where one topic ends and another begins  Information status: how to mark what we assume to be shared knowledge as opposed to something new.  Turn-taking: when to speak, and when to be silent, how (not) to give the floor to somebody else  Social meanings and roles: how to position ourselves before the interlocutors in terms of status, authority/dominance, politeness, solidarity/separateness.  Degree of involvement: how to convey our attitudes, emotions, etc. 56 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 Activity 1: Listen to the news on the radio. Identify how the topic and prominence determine the way the speaker varies the intonation. For your information, phonetically speaking, content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives) are usually more prominent than function words (articles, auxiliaries, prepositions). (Music) ANCHOR: Good evening and welcome to the six o’clock news. Today’s top story is the meeting of the G 7 in Paris. The Group of seven, leaders of the largest industrialized nations are meeting this week to discuss trade issues. The major issue is farm policy. Our correspondent, Sarah Flint is in Paris. SARAH: The big topic in Paris this week is trade. The leaders of the seven major industrialized nations met today to discuss trade problems. The most important issue is imported agricultural products. Almost half of the countries attending the conference are protesting pressure to open their markets to foreign farm products, especially beef. Don’t expect to see foreign steaks, roast beef, and hamburgers here anytime soon. Little progress is expected. The issue of beef is important for the protesting countries, since several leaders are facing elections this year. Farmers are demanding protection. This is Sarah Flint in Paris. ANCHOR: And if things aren’t already crazy enough in San Francisco, rock star Jerry Ward announced today that he is entering the race for mayor. Ward is best known for his loud music and his pink hair. He hopes to use his popularity and his well-known support of striking hospital workers to make up for his late start. Ward was active in the strike at the city hospitals last year when he appeared with several hundreds doctors, nurses, and other medical workers at a large rally. Ward knows he has to make up for his last start in the election. He says he knows what the people want, because rock is the music of the people. His campaign slogan is: ‘From the concert hall to City Hall. Jerry’s with you’ Will the people of San Francisco agree? We’ll know in the six months. That’s when the election will be held. In sports, the Vancouver Bulldogs beat the Portland Wildcats eleven to one. The eleven-to-one win was 57 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 pitcher Juan Sanchez’s second win of the season. Don Bryce pitched for the Wildcats. The Bulldogs are the only team with no losses this season. Can they remain undefeated? We’ll find out when they play the San Jose Lions tomorrow. That game will be played in San Jose. The Bulldogs-Lions game will be broadcast live at seven o’clock tomorrow night. And finally, from New York. Passengers on Transglobal Airlines flight sixty - five were in for a surprise yesterday. Flight sixty-five was waiting to take off at New York’s Kennedy Airport when passengers heard a loud banging on the plane’s door. When the crew checked, they found the plane’s pilot. He had been locked out. The plane took off ten minutes late. That’s the news. Have a good evening. (music) (Taken from Active Listening, Building unit: 19 page: T27) Activity 2 Listen to an informant reporting the history of ‘jeans’, the most important ‘youth uniform’. In terms of the information status, identify how the speaker differentiates the intonation of the shared and the new knowledge. Reporter: Jeans: The ‘uniform of youth’. Jeans are very popular with young people all over the world. Some people say that jeans are almost the ‘uniform’ of youth. But they haven’t always been popular. The story of jeans started almost two hundred years ago. People in Genoa, Italy. Made pants. The cloth made in Genoa was called ‘jeanos’. The pants were called ‘jeans’. In 1850, a salesman in California began selling pants made of canvas. His name was Levi Strauss. Because they were so strong, ‘Levi’s pants’ became popular with gold miners, farmers, and cowboys. Six years later, Levi began making his pants with a blue cotton cloth called denim. Soon after, factory workers in the United States and Europe began wearing jeans. Young people usually didn’t wear them. In the 1950s, two people helped make jeans popular with teenagers. Elvis Presley, the king of rock and roll, and James Dean, a famous movie star. Elvis wore tight 58 English Department, UNS, 2006/7
  • Module of Pronunciation II For Semester 2 jeans. Most parents didn’t like Elvis or his music. But teenagers loved him and started to dress like him. In Rebel Without a Cause, James Dean wore jeans. He was a hero to many young people. During the 1960s, rock and roll became even more popular. Young people had more freedom. Their clothes showed their independence. Some people decorated their jeans with colourful patches and flowers. In the seventies and eighties, jeans became very expensive. In addition to the regular brands like Levi’s and Lee, famous designers like Calvin Klein and Pierre Cardin began making ‘designer jeans’. They were very stylish and very expensive. Jeans are so popular that Levi’s has sold over twenty billion pairs. Almost everywhere in the world you know what young people want to wear: jeans! (Taken from Active Listening, Building Tapescript 24) Activity 3: Home assignment Practise reading news articles or news report of your own with acceptable intonation suggested by the examples above (you may collect them from newspapers or magazines). Then tape them. The tapes are to be played in the class for a class discussion. 59 English Department, UNS, 2006/7