THE HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING
                                   By: Yusuf Kurniawan




Introduction
The deve...
2


radio. 3 However, telegraphy was the pioneer and became the foundation of the
wireless age. Then radio became the firs...
3


hemisphere of the globe. The first radio broadcasters that used Short Waves band
broadcasting were BBC, CBS and NBC. A...
4


transmission programme directly from it. Cable TV developed very quickly after
cable technology has shifted to optic f...
5


                             BIBLIOGRAPHY


Berners-Lee, Tim (1999), Weaving The Web: The Past, Present and Future of ...
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History Of International Broadcasting

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History Of International Broadcasting

  1. 1. THE HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL BROADCASTING By: Yusuf Kurniawan Introduction The development of communication technology evolves with the evolution of the world. Even more, the present technology is capable of predicting the future, in terms of the sophistication. In this digital age communication technology has really revolutionised the face of the globe, making it ‘narrower and narrower’ from day to day. Especially with the emergence the information superhighway (internet) and then followed with the invention the World Wide Web that was invented and released by Tim Berners-Lee on August 1991 1, communication among nations, individuals and organisations became quicker, more effective and interactive. People now can make teleconferencing to do some businesses to save time and cost. What I am going to explain in this short paper is about the history of international broadcasting in general. Broadcasting is closely related with the development of communication technology. It can not be separated from the previous communication technologies like semaphore telegraphy, electric telegraphy, wireless telegraphy and wireless telephony. 2 Then, if we look at the sophistication of broadcasting equipment today --TV , radio, satellite TV and Cable TV--, we will be amazed about them. Supported with modern and sophisticated facilities and reliable means of transportation, time and space are no longer obstacles for reporters, journalists and photographers to gather news and broadcast it from any places on every corner of the earth. The History of International Radio Broadcasting in Brief Radio broadcasting has a long history. It was preceded with many successive experiments and inventions like semaphore telegraph, electric telegraph and finally 1 Berners-Lee, Tim (1999), Weaving The Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor, Orion, London. 2 Flichy, Patrice (2000), The Wireless Age: radio broadcasting in in Mackay, Hugh & O’Sullivan, Tim, eds., The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage, London, p.73-88.
  2. 2. 2 radio. 3 However, telegraphy was the pioneer and became the foundation of the wireless age. Then radio became the first means of communication that was capable of broadcasting news to all over the world. Because of its simplicity and practicality radio can be produced and sold in massive scale. For instance, by 1939 more than 70 per cent of German households had radio, a number higher than anywhere else in the world. 4 More importantly, it does not need bilateral negotiation even though the broadcast comes across the boundaries of other countries. 5 Radio broadcasting emerged around 1920s with the establishment of radio stations on medium wavelengths. 6 It was then followed by the establishment of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1927 as a non-profit broadcasting company. However, the world’s first short-wave radio broadcasting was done in 1925 from Moscow. It was intended for campaigning communism. And then followed by Germany in 1933. 7 It was in the time of World War II, in which radio was manipulated as the tool for disseminating propaganda worldwide. And it was proven that radio became strong and effective medium to disseminate information and news. As it was done by Benito Mussolini in Italy to disseminate his fascism, and Hitler with his Nazi propaganda in Germany. Along with the development of radio stations in all over the world such as the BBC, Deutche Welle (German Radio), the Voice of America (VOA), Nipon Hoso Kyoka (NHK), Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) etc., the news agencies which had been founded earlier also developed very quickly. For instance, Reuters now has more than two thousand staffs who work in 163 countries and producing news in 25 languages. 8 Radio broadcasting became very global when it started using short waves band, since these waves can reach other countries in different continents on the other 3 Flichy, Patricia (1995), Dynamics of Modern Communication, Sage Publications Ltd, London. 4 Lax, Stephen (1997), Beyond the Horizon: Communications Technologies: Past, Present and Future, John Libbey, Bedforshire, p.25. 5 Thussu, Daya Kishan (1999), International Communication: Continuity and Change, Arnold, London, p. 26. 6 Herman, Edward S. and Mc.Chesney, Robert W. (1999), The Global Media: the new missionaries of corporate capitalism, Cassell, London, p. 14. 7 Thussu, Daya Kishan (1999), International Communication: Continuity and Change, Arnold, London, p. 27. 8 Data from National Museum of TV and Film in Bradford, UK.
  3. 3. 3 hemisphere of the globe. The first radio broadcasters that used Short Waves band broadcasting were BBC, CBS and NBC. And they became the first major broadcasters that broadcast their domestic news internationally. 9 Radio broadcasting (mainly the BBC) dominated and enjoyed its ‘golden age’ between 1945 and 1960. 10 The History of International TV Broadcasting at a Glance The emergence of TV broadcasting has brought a new dimension to audience that beforehand they could only listen to the news, but then they could listen as well as watch moving images on the screen of box that we call television. It was initially developed by many scientists from all over the world. One of them was Karl Braun, from Germany, who developed the cathode ray tube in 1897. 11 However, it was not the definite answer that television broadcasting could have begun. There were still many experiments and inventions by scientists around the world to develop both the TV sets and the broadcasting equipment. And BBC was also involved in developing television since 1929. 12 TV broadcasting (in Britain) came into realisation on 2 November 1936, when the British government permitted the commencement of the BBC Television broadcasting service. 13 The History of International Cable TV and Satellite TV Broadcastings in Brief International satellite communications emerged by 1960s. 14 There is a little bit difference between Cable TV and Satellite TV in the way the transmission received. Even though cable TV also depends on satellite, it does not receive 9 Herman, Edward S. and Mc.Chesney, Robert W. (1999), The Global Media: the new missionaries of corporate capitalism, Cassell, London, p. 15. 10 Crisell, Andrew (1997), An Introductory History of British Broadcasting, Routledge, London, p. 68. 11 Crisell, Andrew (1997), An Introductory History of British Broadcasting, Routledge, London, p. 71. 12 Crisell, Andrew (1997), An Introductory History of British Broadcasting, Routledge, London, p. 71. 13 Crisell, Andrew (1997), An Introductory History of British Broadcasting, Routledge, London, p. 72. 14 Hudson, Heather E. (1990), Communication Satellites: Their Development and Impact, Collier Macmillan, Inc., London, p. 21.
  4. 4. 4 transmission programme directly from it. Cable TV developed very quickly after cable technology has shifted to optic fibre. It was demonstrated in the mid 1960s. 15 Optic fibre was formerly used only for communication, replacing the conventional coaxial cable. But then this new technology that is capable of carrying data image hundreds of times bigger and faster than conventional cable is also used for TV broadcasting, especially Cable TV. The first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar I, was launched in 1962. It enabled television pictures to be transmitted instantly across the Atlantic. 16 Compared to satellite TV, Cable TV networks seems to have bigger future, because the broad-band technology enables TV Cable to be interactive TV. Moreover, the technological development of satellite transmission also shows significant achievement. Unlike ordinary satellite that can only transmit 16 channels, digital satellite is capable of transmitting 160 channels. 17 The number of TV, Cable and Satellite TV media kept increasing until the late 1990s. CNN, MTV, ESPN, HBO, CBS, etc. By 1997 Disney and Time Warner became the largest media that provided the programmes for their own television networks and cable channels. 18 15 Lax, Stephen (1997), Beyond the Horizon: Communications Technologies: Past, Present and Future, John Libbey, Bedforshire, p.14. 16 MacGregor, Brent (2000), ‘Making Television News in the Satellite Age’ in Mackay, Hugh & O’Sullivan, Tim, eds., The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage, London, p.253. 17 Data obtained from the National Museum of TV and Film in Bradford. 18 Herman, Edward and McChesney, Robert (2000), ‘The Global Media in the late 1990s’ in Mackay, Hugh & O’Sullivan, Tim, eds., The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage, London, p.178-202.
  5. 5. 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY Berners-Lee, Tim (1999), Weaving The Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor, Orion, London. Crisell, Andrew (1997), An Introductory History of British Broadcasting, Routledge, London. Flichy, Patricia (1995), Dynamics of Modern Communication, Sage Publications Ltd, London. Mackay, Hugh and O’sullivan, Tim, eds., The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, Sage, London. Herman, Edward S. and Mc.Chesney, Robert W. (1999), The Global Media: the new missionaries of corporate capitalism, Cassell, London. Hudson, Heather E. (1990), Communication Satellites: Their Development and Impact, Collier Macmillan, Inc., London. Lax, Stephen (1997), Beyond the Horizon: Communications Technologies: Past, Present and Future, John Libbey, Bedforshire. Thussu, Daya Kishan (1999), International Communication: Continuity and Change, Arnold, London. ______, Data obtained from the National Museum of TV and Film in Bradford, the United Kingdom.

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