Unix and Novell
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Unix and Novell






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    Unix and Novell Unix and Novell Presentation Transcript

    • General Motors (GM) built the world's first operating system, GMNAA I/O, way back in 1956. It didn't do much, other than automatically running a series of programs, as soon as the previous was completed. GM NAA I/O ran on an IBM 704, pictured above with a GM engineer
    • The core software that allows a computer to run as a useful device. It manages the hardware, the user interface and all other software running on the computer Applications Disk Drives Monitor Operating System It allows us to interact with the computer Mouse Peripherals Keyboard
    • Through a command-line operating system, like the Disk Operating System (DOS), where you type a text command and the computer responds according to that command. Through a graphical user interface (GUI) operating system. An example of this is Windows. You interact with the computer through a graphical interface with pictures and buttons and give our commands by using the mouse and keyboard.
    • UNIX is the father of Linux, SunOS, BSD, Ultrix and many other non-Windows systems. Some UNIX commands are the normal English word for the function that you want to accomplish, such as : WHO – to display a list of all users currently on the system CLEAR – to clear the current display console TALK – to open a session between 2 users, allowing them to communicate directly HISTORY – to display a list of past commands executed by a single user MAN – to display the online manual pages to verify the syntax of commands
    • A popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s First designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers as a workbench more than to be used to run application software. One of the first operating systems to be written in C, a high-level programming language. Widely used in servers, workstations, and mobile devices. Unix environment and the client-server program model were essential elements in the development of the internet
    • The history of UNIX starts back in 1969, when Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others started working on the “little-used PDP-7 in a corner” at Bell Labs and what was to become UNIX. Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie The PDP-7
    • 1972-1973 Unix was rewritten in the programming language C, an unusual step that was visionary. Due to this decision Unix was the first widely-used operating system that could switch from and outlive its original hardware. Other innovations were added to Unix, in part due to synergies between Bell Labs and the academic community 1979 The ``seventh edition'„ (V7) version of Unix was released, grandfather of all Unix systems. The academic community, led by Berkeley, developed a variant called the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), while AT&T continued developing Unix under the names ``System III'' and later ``System V''.
    • Early 1980‟s Large UNIX community develops and Unix branches emerge UNIX goes commercial Start of the UNIX Wars AT&T permitted to sell UNIX
    • Late 1980's through early 1990's The ``wars'' between these two major strains raged. After many years each variant adopted many of the key features of the other. AT&T sells its subsidiary Unix System Laboratories and all Unix rights to Novell. Later Novell transfers the Unix trademark to the X/Open group. Commercially, System V won the ``standards wars'' (getting most of its interfaces into the formal standards), and most hardware vendors switched to AT&T's System V. The result was many different versions of Unix, all based on the original seventh edition.
    • Late 1990's through 2000‟s Several Unix system vendors agreed on SVR4's Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) as the standard for binary and object code files. The common format allows substantial binary compatibility among Unix systems operating on the same CPU architecture. X/Open merges with Open Software Foundation to form The Open Group. The Open Group announces Version 3 of the Single UNIX Specification (formerly Spec 1170). HP-UX, IBM‟s AIX, and other open source UNIX based operating systems were released. The core volumes of Version 3 of the Single UNIX Specification are approved as an international standard.
    • Late 2000‟s through early 2010‟s Unix celebrated its 40th year Unix market hits 69 billion dollars with expected sales to reach 74 billion dollars in 2013. Unix finds its way on the desktop with Apple reporting 50 million desktops, all Certified Unix systems, and growing
    • Portability The system is written in high-level language making it easier to read, understand, change and, therefore move to other machines. The code can be changed and complied on a new machine. Customers can then choose from a wide variety of hardware vendors without being locked in with a particular vendor. Machine-independence The System hides the machine architecture from the user, making it easier to write applications that can run on micros, minis and mainframes.
    • Multi-User Operations UNIX is a multi-user system designed to support a group of users simultaneously. The system allows for the sharing of processing power and peripheral resources, while at the same time providing excellent security features. Multi-Tasking Operations UNIX permits the use of more than one program to run at once. It does this in the same way as a multi-user system, by rapidly switching the processor between the various programs.
    • Hierarchical File System UNIX uses a hierarchical file structure to store information. This structure has the maximum flexibility in grouping information in a way that reflects its natural state. It allows for easy maintenance and efficient implementation. UNIX shell UNIX has a simple user interface called the shell that has the power to provide the services that the user wants. It protects the user from having to know the intricate hardware details.
    • Pipes and Filters UNIX has facilities called Pipes and Filters which permit the user to create complex programs from simple programs. Utilities UNIX has over 200 utility programs for various functions. New utilities can be built effortlessly by combining existing utilities. Software Development Tools UNIX offers an excellent variety of tools for software development for all phases, from program editing to maintenance of software
    • The UNIX system is functionally organized at three levels: Kernel Schedules tasks and manages storage Shell Connects and interprets users' commands, calls programs from memory, and executes them Tools and Applications Offer additional functionality to the operating system
    • Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system. Very efficient virtual memory, so many programs can run with a modest amount of physical memory. Access controls and security. All users must be authenticated by a valid account and password to use the system at all. All files are owned by particular accounts. The owner can decide whether others have read or write access to his files. A rich set of small commands and utilities that do specific tasks well. Ability to string commands and utilities together in unlimited ways to accomplish more complicated tasks.
    • A powerfully unified file system. Everything is a file: data, programs, and all physical devices. Entire file system appears as a single large tree of nested directories, regardless of how many different physical devices (disks) are included. A lean kernel that does the basics for you but doesn't get in the way when you try to do the unusual. Available on a wide variety of machines - the most truly portable operating system. Optimized for program development, and thus for the unusual circumstances that are the rule in research.
    • The traditional command line shell interface is designed for the programmer, not the casual user. Commands often have cryptic names and give very little response to tell the user what they are doing. Much use of special keyboard characters - little typos have unexpected results. To use Unix well, you need to understand some of the main design features. Its power comes from knowing how to make commands and programs interact with each other. Richness of utilities (over 400 standard ones) often overwhelms novice users. Documentation is short on examples and tutorials to help you figure out how to use the many tools provided to accomplish various kinds of tasks.
    • Novell NetWare is the venerable file and print server that has been around for as long as there has been a local area network (LAN). The core NetWare system is launched from DOS . . . you boot up the server under DOS and then run NetWare. At that point, NetWare takes over the system and DOS is no longer the dominate operating system. Novell pioneered the PC LAN network operating system in the PC market. From a technology perspective, however, Novell offered few true innovations in the area of file and print sharing. Most of the concepts Novell implemented were borrowed from other computer markets.
    • A multinational software and services company in Provo, Utah that is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Attachmate Group Builds enterprise software that makes people productive and makes work environments secure and easy to manage Supports thousands of organizations around the world with collaboration, endpoint management, and file and networking products Novell Inc. Provo, Utah Campus
    • Instrumental in making the Utah Valley a focus for technology and software development. Technology contributed to the emergence of local area networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe computing model and changed computing worldwide Introduced the multi-platform network operating system (NOS), Novell Netware Primary focus today is on developing software for enterprise clients
    • An operating system introduced by Novell in 1983 that supports the networking of personal computers (PCs). Installed on a PC, NetWare creates a server environment for the sharing of files, printers, and other network "services.“ The NetWare server manages the transmission of data among the network devices, stores and retrieves data from hard disks, manages one or more file systems, ensures data integrity, manages printers and printing, and allocates and manages memory.
    • NetWare evolved from a very simple concept : file sharing instead of disk sharing. 1983 the first versions of NetWare originated 1984 IBM validated Novell's alternative approach and this helped promote the NetWare product. In the late 1980‟s early versions of Netware appeared and these were one of the first software products designed for PC networking. NetWare 3 was originally called "NetWare 386" and released for use with Intel's 80386 processor. In the early 1990s Novell developed NetWare 4 for the Intel 80486.
    • Beginning in the mid-1990s, NetWare encountered stiff competition from Microsoft with the introduction of Windows NT Server products. With NetWare version 4.11, also called IntranetWare, Novell introduced its new NOS, Novell Directory Services (NDS) to help network administrators manage enterprise networks. Version 5, the latest version to be released, addresses the integration of LANs, WANs, network applications, intranets, and the Internet, into a single global network. As NDS continued to mature, it was given a new name for the ebusiness age; it is now called the NDS eDirectory NetWare 5 has been available since September, 1998 and NetWare 6 in 2001. Together, NetWare 3, 4, 5, and 6 enjoy an installed base of millions of servers worldwide.
    • In 2003, Novell announced the successor product to NetWare: Open Enterprise Server (OES). First released in March 2005, OES completes the separation of the services traditionally associated with NetWare (such as Directory Services, and file-and-print) from the platform underlying the delivery of those services. OES offers all the services previously hosted by NetWare v6.5, and added the choice of delivering those services using either a NetWare v6.5 or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server .
    • File Services NetWare file services are part of the NDS database. NDS provides a single-point logon for users and allows users and administrators alike to view network resources in the same way. Printing Services Printing services are transparent (invisible) to the user of a client computer. Any print request from a client is redirected to the file server, where it is handed off to the print server and finally to the printer. The same computer can serve as both file server and printer server. You can share printer devices that are attached to the server, to a workstation, or directly to the network by means of the devices' own network interface card (NIC). NetWare print services can support up to 256 printers.
    • Security NetWare provides extensive security, including : Logon security that provides authentication or verification based on user name, passwords, and time and account restrictions. Trustee Rights that control which directories and files a user can access and what the user is able to do with them. Directory and file attributes that identifies the kinds of actions that can be carried out on a file (viewed, written to, copied, made shareable or nonshareable, or deleted).
    • Sending Messages to Others By using some simple commands, users can send a short message to other users on the network. Messages can be sent to groups as well as to individuals. Users can also disable or enable this command for their workstations. When a user disables the command, no broadcast messages will be received by that workstation.
    • Increased Productivity Novell Netware offers numerous benefits when used accordingly. It can improve productivity and provide more ways to communicate with other users, as well as sharing of resources. A reliable network system is a vital component in today‟s computer systems and is a necessity in the operation of most businesses. Better Security Features Netware server has a dedicated workstation with an encrypted password and the administrator does not have access to the password. The administrator can only remove user‟s permission if the users have their own passwords. Even if you have access to the Netware server, you will not access resources or information since they have to pass through the security system.
    • Messaging Services Novell Netware is also equipped with a message handling feature that offers ease of data transmission between several fronted applications. Moreover, the application facilitates data sharing over the Novell network and LANs. Flexibility The operating system also offers a great deal of flexibility, as it allows users to share multiple printers. There is no need to attach the printers to the primary print server for them to be operational.
    • Usability and Configurability Novell Netware comes with easy configuration, paper documentation, as well as electronic form, and books are provided to ensure that you are conversant on how to operate the network. Furthermore, it allows the users to share resources and information with ease.
    • Poor when it comes to printing data/information, network status and management. The built-in management tools are not powerful and reliable