Hostory and style of modern art

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  • 1. ARTS 10 HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART Amanda Rosa Blanca R. Arevalo Grade 10-St. Therese of Avila 17 January 2012 Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is often called Contemporary art or Postmodern art. Country road in Provence by Night 1889 By Vincent van Gogh Modern art begins with the heritage of painters like Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse Lautrec all of whom were essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists including the pre-cubist Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism. Henri Matisse's two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. It reflected Matisse's incipient fascination with primitive art: the intense warm color of the figures against the cool blue-green background and the rhythmical succession of the dancing nudes convey the feelings of emotional liberation and hedonism. Initially influenced by Toulouse Lautrec, Gauguin and other late 19th century innovators Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone. With the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. Analytic cubism was jointly developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Demoiselles d'Avignon 1907 By Pablo Picasso Candlestick, Paris, from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by Synthetic cubism, practiced by Braque, Picasso, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and several other artists into the 1920s. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, surfaces, collage elements, papier collé and a large variety of merged subject matter. The notion of modern art is closely related to Modernism. H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 2. ARTS 10 HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science. Renaissance art, perceived as a "rebirth" of ancient traditions, took as its foundation the art of Classical antiquity, but transformed that tradition by the absorption of recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by application of contemporary scientific knowledge. Renaissance art, with Renaissance Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities. Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early modern age. Early Renaissance (Early 1400s) Renaissance marks the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the Modern world. It represents a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries. Early Renaissance, mostly in Italy, bridges the art period during the fifteenth century, between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance in Italy. It is generally known that Renaissance matured in Northen Europe later, in 16th century. The term renaissance means rebirth and is used to mark an era of broad cultural achievement as a result of renewed interest in the classical art and ideas of Ancient Greece and Rome. The main idea of rebirth lies at the belief that through the study of the intellectual and artistic treasures of the Greco-Roman antiquity, inspired by Humanism, can be reached the artistic greatness, wisdom and enlightenment. The rediscovery of classical world radically altered the art of painting. By the year 1500, the Renaissance revived ancient forms and content. The spiritual content of painting changed - subjects from Roman history and mythology were borrowed. Devotional art of Christian orientation became classically humanized. Classical artistic principles, H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 3. ARTS 10 HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART including harmonious proportion, realistic expression, and rational postures were emulated. During this artistic period two regions of Western Europe were particularly active: Flanders and Italy. Most of the Early Renaissance works in northern Europe were produced between 1420 and 1550. In many parts of Europe, Early Renaissance art was created in parallel with Late Medieval art. By 1500 the Renaissance style prevailed. As Late Renaissance art (Mannerism) developed, it took on different and distinctive characteristics in every region. High Renaissance (1450 to 1520) The 'birth' of new interest in Classical Greco-Latin world, that artistic revolution of the Early Renaissance matured to what is now known as the High Renaissance. There has never been growth as lovely as that of painting in Florence and Rome, of the end of 15th and early 16th centuries. High Renaissance in Italy is the climax of Renaissance art, from 1500-1525. It is also considered as a sort of natural evolution of Italian Humanism (Umanesimo. It has been characterized by explosion of creative genius. Painting especially reached its peak of technical competence, rich artistic imagination and heroic composition. The main characteristics of High Renaissance painting are harmony and balance in construction. Italian High Renaissance artists achieved ideal of harmony and balance comparable with the works of ancient Greece or Rome. Renaissance Classicism was a form of art that removed the extraneous detail and showed the world as it was. Forms, colors and proportions, light and shade effects, spatial harmony, composition, perspective, anatomy - all are handled with total control and a level of accomplishment for which there are no real precedents. We find it in the works of the greatest artists ever known: the mighty Florentines, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo; the Umbrian, Raffaello Sanzio; along with the great Venetian masters Titian, Tintoretto and Veronese. Renaissance artists painted a wide variety of themes. Religious altarpieces, fresco cycles, and small works for private devotion were very popular. For inspiration, painters in both Italy and H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 4. HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART ARTS 10 northern Europe frequently turned to Jacobus de Voragine's Golden Legend (1260), a highly influential source book for the lives of saints that had already had a strong influence on Medieval artists. The rebirth of classical antiquity and Renaissance humanism also resulted in many Mythological and history paintings. Ovidian stories, for example, were very popular. Decorative ornament, often used in painted architectural elements, was especially influenced by classical Roman motifs. TECHNIQUES USED : • The use of perspective. The first major treatment of the painting as a window into space appeared in the work of Giotto di Bondone, at the beginning of the 14th century. True linear perspective was formalized later, by Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti. In addition to giving a more realistic presentation of art, it moved Renaissance painters into composing more paintings. • Foreshortening. The term foreshortening refers to the artistic effect of shortening lines in a drawing so as to create an illusion of depth. • Sfumato. The term sfumato was coined by Italian Renaissance artist, Leonardo da Vinci, and refers to a fine art painting technique of blurring or softening of sharp outlines by subtle and gradual blending of one tone into another through the use of thin glazes to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality. This stems from the Italian word sfumare meaning to evaporate or to fade out. The Latin origin is fumare, to smoke. The opposite of sfumato is chiaroscuro. • Chiaroscuro. The term chiaroscuro refers to the fine art painting modeling effect of using a strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or threedimensionality. This comes from the Italian words meaning light (chiaro) and dark (scuro), a technique which came into wide use in the Baroque Period.; Sfumato is the opposite of chiaroscuro. • Balance and Proportion. Use of proper sizes. Baroque art grew during the 17th and 18th centuries. It is considered part of the Counter-Reformation, the movement which sought to reconfigure the Catholic Church as a response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque art placed great emphasis on high detail and overly ornate decorations. It would develop into Rococo H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 5. HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART ARTS 10 in the mid-18th century, which was even more richly decorated and gaudy. Contempt for such ornateness would eventually inspire Neoclassicism. Baroque was born in Italy, and later adopted in France, Germany, Netherlands, and Spain. The word "baroque" was first applied to the art of period from the late 1500s to the late 1700s, by critics in the late nineteen century. Baroque covers a wide range of styles and artists. In painting and sculpture we recognize three main forms of Baroque: • Baroque that was primarily associated with the religious tensions within Western Christianity, the division on Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. In response to the Protestant Reformation of the early sixteen century, the Roman Catholic Church had embarked in the 1550s on a program of renewal known as the Counter Reformation. As part of the program, the Catholic Church used art of the magnificent display for the campaign. It was intended to be both doctrinally correct and visually and emotionally appealing so that it could influence the largest possible audience. But as the century progressed the style made inroads into the Protestant countries. Main representatives of this form of Baroque were Bernini and Rubens. • Baroque that use revolutionary technique of dramatic, selective illumination of figures out of deep shadow - a hallmark of Baroque painting. Contrary to the traditional idealized interpretation of religious subjects, Baroque realistically presents models from the streets. Caravaggio is key painter of this form of Baroque. • Baroque that was developed mainly in Flemish countries emphasis realism of everyday life. It has been seen in works of Rembrandt and Vermeer. At the same time, scientific advances and exploration with the development of the press, forced Europeans to change the view of the world. New knowledge in astronomy was of great importance. In the eighteen century scientific literature became so plenteous, that the period has gotten the name - Age of Enlightenment. Economic growth in most European countries and Colonial America, both North and South, helped create a large, prosperous middle class ardent to invest in fine houses and even palaces. The art produced in the American colonies was closely related to that of Europe. The new Baroque style is a dynamic art which reflects the growth of absolutist monarchies and is suitable to manifest power. It is also known as "the style of absolutism". Baroque is a style in which painters, sculptors, and architects rummaged emotion, movement, and variety in their works. Baroque favors higher volumes, exaggerates decorations, adds colossal sculptures, huge furniture etc. Sense of movement, energy, and tension are dominant impressions. Strong contrasts of light and shadow often enhance dramatic effects. In architecture, there was a H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 6. HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART ARTS 10 special attention given to animation and grandeur achieved through scale, the dramatic use of light and shadow. The classical period is considered to be the period of time from 1750 to 1820. During this time, much of the ornate styles of the baroque era were dropped, and a simpler style was adopted. Artists, musicians, and architects wanted to get away from the strange opulence of the Baroque period and move to emulate the clean, uncluttered style of Classical Greece. This period is called Classical because of that desire to emulate the works of the ancient Greeks. People in the classical period revolutionized every sphere of fine arts: painting, sculpture, architecture and music. They were believers in perfection as their artworks overtly advocate. Characteristics of the Classical Period • The Church and Monarchs were no longer the principle benefactors of the arts due to the political upheaval in Europe at the time. • The aristocracy were the main patrons of the arts. They wanted impersonal but tuneful music from their composers. This led to the term “absolute” music - which is music that is written for music’s sake. • All of the Classical composers were employed by various wealthy patrons. Much of their music was written for parties, ceremonies, or simply as a commission for a new work. • The center of Classical music was Vienna, which is where all of the major composers lived and worked. • There was also a sense of Nationalism in the compositions. • Lively presentation of figures. Artist made lively and colorful paintings and murals. Their paintings were in expressive form using bright colors and life-sized human figures. H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 7. HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART ARTS 10 • Use of pottery culture of the Greek and Roman era. Bowls and jugs were decorated with pictures of mythological deities and various designs. They demonstrate fine art skill of the artists. • Sculpture work in Classical art period was characterized by ‘joyous freedom of movement and expression’. They depicted mankind as liberated individual and articulated their vision in a more naturalistic way. • The use of semi-circular arches and hemispherical domes and niches, with more stress on geometrical formation and other mathematical expression like proportion and symmetry. Beginning with the late -18th to the mid -19th century (17901850), new Romantic attitude begun to characterize culture and many art works in Western civilization. It started as an artistic and intellectual movement that emphasized a revulsion against established values (social order and religion). Romanticism exalted individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination, emotions and nature - emotion over reason and senses over intellect. Since they were in revolt against the orders, they favored the revival of potentially unlimited number of styles (anything that aroused them). Romantic artists were fascinated by the nature, the genius, their passions and inner struggles, their moods, mental potentials, the heroes. They investigated human nature and personality, the folk culture, the national and ethnic origins, the medieval era, the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the occult, the diseased, and even satanic. Romantic artist had a role of an ultimate egoistic creator, with the spirit above strict formal rules and traditional procedures. He had imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth. The German poets and critics August Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel first used the term 'Romanticism' to label a wider cultural movement. For the Schlegel brothers, it was a product of Christianity. The culture of the Middle Ages created a Romantic sensibility which differed from the Classical. Christian culture dealt with a struggle between the heavenly perfection and the human experience of inadequacy and guilt. This sense of struggle, and ever-present dark forces was allegedly present in Medieval culture. H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1
  • 8. HISTORY AND STYLE OF MODERN ART ARTS 10 While this view partly explains Romantic fascination with the Middle Ages, the actual causes of the Romantic movement itself correspond to the sense of rapid, dynamic social change that culminated in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. H I S T O RY A N D S T Y L E O F M O DE RN A RT Page 1