Python GTK (Hacking Camp)

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  • 1. Python-GTK Tutorial Yuren Ju <yurenju@gmail.com>
  • 2. 請先安裝● sudo apt-get install python-pywapi glade
  • 3. Yuren Ju● Yurens Info Area● Hacking Thursday
  • 4. 本份投影片……● 假設你學過任何一種程式語言 ● 特別有可能是 Java
  • 5. +Python GTK+
  • 6. TIOBE 程式語言社群指標 Source: TIOBE Software index
  • 7. ?Source: "Why?", Mike Luckovich, Pulitzer-Winning Political Cartoonist (1 of 4), cc-by-deed
  • 8. 別人怎麼說…● 適合初學者,但也適合進階開發者● 高度彈性:從大型專案到小型專案都適合使用● you can get the job done Source: What is Python and Why Python
  • 9. 對我來說的 Python 優點● 短小精簡● 程式碼簡潔● 快速驗證想法● 處理工作雜事 ● e.g. 產生報表、字串置換等
  • 10. Python
  • 11. Start!將程式碼寫於檔案中 打開終端機直接鍵入程式
  • 12. 打開你的終端機!$ python
  • 13. python command-line
  • 14. print "Hello World!!"
  • 15. 資料型態str, int, float, bool, list, dict
  • 16. 數值指定 不需要宣告形態● String ● Boolean ● var = "this is String" ● var = True● Integer ● Float ● var = 1 ● var = 0.1 String var = "this is String"; int var = 1; boolean var = true; float var = 0.1;
  • 17. list & dict● list => 陣列● dict => hash table
  • 18. list● actors = ["Neo", "Smith", "Trinity", "Oracle"]● mixed = ["hi", "apple", 0, 0.1, False]● print actors[1]● actors.append ("Morpheus")● del actors[1]● actors.remove ("Oracle")● actors[-1]● actors[:2]● [1,2,3] + [4,5,6]
  • 19. If, else, for, while
  • 20. 開頭原本是用括號的地方改用冒號4 個空白或是一個 tab if first == True: print "Mr. Anderson." else: print "Welcome back, we missed you." 結尾不需要括號
  • 21. list (cont.)for a in actors: print afor a in actors[2:]: print aprint sorted (actors)del actors[2:]
  • 22. dictperson = {"name": "Yuren Ju", "website": "http://yure...", "birthday": "yyyy/mm/dd"}print person["name"]print person["website"]
  • 23. dictfor k in person: print "%s: %s" % (k, person[k])if person.has_key ("age"): print "no age attribute"
  • 24. File Access● f = open(your_file) ● Open file● readline()● readlines()
  • 25. 來處理些瑣事吧!
  • 26. COSCUP● 前天系統爆炸了● 我發起了一個紀錄爆炸過程的小活動
  • 27. 無法閱讀Python 上場!
  • 28. 目標輸出成 HTML 方便閱讀
  • 29. 流程● 下載 google docs 的 csv 檔案● 開啟檔案● 讀取內容● 切割字串● 產生 HTML 網頁 http :/ / j.m p / p yg tk-c osc up
  • 30. Gen.py
  • 31. functiondef func (arg1, arg2): #Do something... return ret
  • 32. 奇技淫巧● newlist = [n for n in oldlist if n > 50]● function return tuple
  • 33. Editor將程式碼寫於檔案中
  • 34. 建議● Geany● Gedit● eclipse● Of cause~ vim!
  • 35. Hello-world.py# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-print "你好世界!"
  • 36. line 1 Python StringByte String Unicode String 預設 # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
  • 37. gedit
  • 38. 翻譯
  • 39. http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/services/language/translate?v=1.0&ie=utf8&q=test&langpair=en|zh-twhttp://j.mp/dXYwLT
  • 40. #!/usr/bin/env python# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-from urllib2 import urlopenfrom urllib import urlencodeimport simplejsonimport sysdef translate(text): sl="zh-tw" tl="en" langpair=%s|%s%(tl,sl) base_url = http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/services/language/translate? data = urlencode({v:1.0,ie: UTF8, q: text, langpair:langpair}) url = base_url+data urlres = urlopen(url) json = simplejson.loads(urlres.read()) result = json[responseData][translatedText] return resultif __name__ == "__main__": print translate (sys.argv[1]) https://gist.github.com/801339
  • 41. tw-weather.py#!/usr/bin/env python# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-import pywapicities = pywapi.get_cities_from_google(tw, zh-tw)for c in cities: print "%s: " % (cities.index(c)+1), print c[name]num = int (raw_input ("type: "))city = cities[num-1]weather = pywapi.get_weather_from_google(,,,%s,%s % (city[latitude_e6],city[longitude_e6]), zh-tw)print "天氣:%s" % weather[current_conditions][condition].encode (utf-8)print "濕度:%s" % weather[current_conditions][humidity].encode (utf-8)print "現在溫度:%s" % weather[current_conditions][temp_c].encode (utf-8) https://gist.github.com/801493
  • 42. Class/Object#!/usr/bin/env python class FirstClass { private String[] data;# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- public FirstClass() {class FirstClass: String[] data = {"a", "b", "c"}; this.data = data; def __init__(self): } self.data = ["a", "b", "c"] public void printData() { for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) { def print_data(self): System.out.println (data[i]); print self.data } }if __name__ == "__main__": public static void main (String[] args) { f = FirstClass() FirstClass f = new FirstClass(); f.print_data() f.printData(); } }
  • 43. GTK+
  • 44. GTK+ Qt wxWidgets Windows FormAndroid MFC Swing/AWTView/Widget/Layout
  • 45. Cross Platform crossing the line, Jkönig, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  • 46. GTK+C/C++ Python Perl Ruby C# PHP ... Linux Windows Mac
  • 47. 使用 GTK 的軟 / 硬體 Nokia n900
  • 48. #!/usr/bin/env pythonimport pygtkpygtk.require (2.0)import gtkif __name__ == "__main__": window = gtk.Window (); window.show () gtk.main ()
  • 49. Event Handler
  • 50. widget.connect("signal-name", callback)
  • 51. #!/usr/bin/env pythonimport pygtkpygtk.require (2.0)import gtkdef destroy (window): gtk.main_quit ()def hello (button): print "Hello World"if __name__ == "__main__": window = gtk.Window () window.connect ("destroy", destroy) window.show () button = gtk.Button ("hello"); button.connect ("clicked", hello) button.show () window.add (button) gtk.main () gtk reference - gtk.Button
  • 52. Keep state, using class/object #!/usr/bin/env python import pygtk pygtk.require (2.0) import gtk class HelloWorld: def __init__ (self): window = gtk.Window () window.connect ("destroy", self.destroy) window.show () button = gtk.Button ("hello"); button.connect ("clicked", self.hello) button.show () window.add (button) self.position = 0 def destroy (self, window): gtk.main_quit () def hello (self, button): print "Hello World, position: %d" % self.position self.position += 1 if __name__ == "__main__": hello = HelloWorld () gtk.main () https://gist.github.com/801496
  • 53. Layout.layouts, Kemeny_x, CC BY-NC 2.0
  • 54. GTK+ Layout – box packing
  • 55. HBoxVBox
  • 56. HBox VBox VBox
  • 57. pack_start / pack_endhbox = gtk.HBox()vbox1 = gtk.VBox()vbox2 = gtk.VBox()hbox.pack_start(vbox1)hbox.pack_start(vbox2)
  • 58. window = gtk.Window ()hbox = gtk.HBox()vbox1 = gtk.VBox()vbox2 = gtk.VBox()hbox.pack_start(vbox1)hbox.pack_start(vbox2)label = gtk.Label ("Text: ")vbox1.pack_start (label)textview = gtk.TextView ()vbox1.pack_start (textview)button_ok = gtk.Button ("OK")vbox2.pack_end (button_ok)button_cancel = gtk.Button ("Cancel")vbox2.pack_end (button_cancel)hbox.show_all()window.add(hbox)window.show()
  • 59. layoutexpand=True expand=True expand=Falsefill=True fill=False fill=False
  • 60. window = gtk.Window ()hbox = gtk.HBox()vbox1 = gtk.VBox()vbox2 = gtk.VBox()hbox.pack_start(vbox1)hbox.pack_start(vbox2, expand=False)label = gtk.Label ("Text: ")label.set_property(xalign, 0.0)textview = gtk.TextView ()vbox1.pack_start (label, expand=False)vbox1.pack_start (textview)button_ok = gtk.Button ("OK")button_cancel = gtk.Button ("Cancel")vbox2.pack_end (button_ok, expand=False)vbox2.pack_end (button_cancel, expand=False)hbox.show_all()window.add(hbox)window.show()
  • 61. 用程式刻 UI 累了嗎? Tired Joy!, Tambako the Jaguar, by-nd
  • 62. Gtk Builder
  • 63. Gtk Builderbuilder = gtk.Builder ()builder.add_from_file ("layout.glade")window = builder.get_object ("window1")window.show ()builder.connect_signals (self)
  • 64. 翻譯軟體 – GTK 版本 ● 拉 UI (glade) ● 事件分配 (glade) ● 事件分配 (python)
  • 65. gtk.TextView 顯示文字內容gtk.TextView 操作文字:gtk.TextBuffer - insert - delete
  • 66. UI FreezeFrozen Moment, drinksmachine, by-nc-nd
  • 67. English 中文UI Freeze
  • 68. 費時的操作 UI Freeze
  • 69. Thread 嘿 Neo, 又是我
  • 70. 費時的操作 Thread UI update
  • 71. Threaddef translate(text): ... ...class TransThread (Thread): def __init__(self, text, obj): self.text = text Thread.__init__(self) def run(self): try: self.result =translate(self.text) except: self.result = "error"
  • 72. Communication?UI part ? Thread part
  • 73. 概念● 繼承 gobject 或 gtk.Object● 註冊一個信號 (signal)● 連接此 signal● 當 Thread 結束後射出 (emit) 此 signal
  • 74. 步驟● gobject.type_register (Translation)● gobject.signal_new("thread-complete", Translation, gobject.SIGNAL_RUN_FIRST, gobject.TYPE_NONE, ())● self.connect ("thread-complete", self.thread_complete)● self.obj.emit("thread-complete") gtk-gtr2.py
  • 75. 範例
  • 76. View ModelTreeView ListStoreTreeViewColumn TreeStoreCellRendererText
  • 77. Glade ListStore
  • 78. Weather 產生城市列表 取得城市天氣selected_city __init__ load-cities-completed load-weather-completed Create CitiesThread Create WeatherThread
  • 79. __init__def __init__(self): self.__gobject_init__() self.builder = gtk.Builder() self.builder.add_from_file ("weather.glade") self.builder.connect_signals(self) win = self.builder.get_object("window1") win.show_all() self.register_signals() self.cities_thread = CitiesThread(self) self.cities_thread.start() self.tree = self.builder.get_object("treeview_cities") col_name = gtk.TreeViewColumn("city name") self.tree.append_column(col_name) cell = gtk.CellRendererText() col_name.pack_start(cell, True) col_name.add_attribute(cell, text, 0) self.tree.connect("cursor-changed", self.selected_city)
  • 80. CitiesThreadclass CitiesThread(Thread): def __init__(self, obj): self.obj = obj Thread.__init__(self) def run(self): self.cities = pywapi.get_cities_from_google(tw, zh-tw) gtk.gdk.threads_enter() self.obj.emit("load-cities-completed") gtk.gdk.threads_leave()
  • 81. WeatherThreadclass WeatherThread(Thread): def __init__(self, obj, latitude, longitude): self.obj = obj self.latitude = latitude self.longitude = longitude Thread.__init__(self) def run(self): weather = pywapi.get_weather_from_google(,,,%s,%s % (self.latitude, self.longitude), zh-tw) self.weather = {"condition": weather[current_conditions][condition], "humidity": weather[current_conditions][humidity], "temp_c": weather[current_conditions][temp_c]} gtk.gdk.threads_enter() self.obj.emit("load-weather-completed") gtk.gdk.threads_leave()
  • 82. load-cities-completeddef load_cities_completed(self, obj): self.cities = self.cities_thread.cities self.liststore = self.builder.get_object("cities") for city in self.cities: self.liststore.append ([city[name], long(city[latitude_e6]), long(city[longitude_e6])])
  • 83. load-weather-completeddef load_weather_completed(self, obj): weather = self.weather_thread.weather self.builder.get_object("label_temperature") .set_markup ("<span size=xx-large>溫度:%s</span>" % weather[temp_c]) self.builder.get_object("label_current") .set_label ("現在天氣:%s" % weather[condition]) self.builder.get_object("label_humidity") .set_label ("濕度:%s" % weather[humidity])
  • 84. selected_citydef selected_city(self, tree): selection = self.tree.get_selection() (model, iter) = selection.get_selected() name = model.get_value(iter, 0) latitude = model.get_value(iter, 1) longitude = model.get_value(iter, 2) print "%s (%s, %s)" % (name, latitude, longitude) self.weather_thread = WeatherThread(self, latitude, longitude) self.weather_thread.start()
  • 85. gtk-weather.py https://gist.github.com/800513
  • 86. 釣竿● Dive Into Python 中文版● PyGTK 2.0 Tutorial● PyGTK 2.0 Reference Manual● google "python gtk < 問題關鍵字 >"● 在 stackoverflow.com 上面找答案