C. prinsip2 hk lingkungan 14
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C. prinsip2 hk lingkungan 14

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    C. prinsip2 hk lingkungan 14 C. prinsip2 hk lingkungan 14 Presentation Transcript

    • Prinsip & Konsep Pengaturan Hukum Lingkungan
    • • Seberapapun canggihnya sains dan teknologi, perlindungan lingkungan tidak akan dapat dilaksanakan jika berdasarkan pertimbangan ekonomi tidak memungkinkan dan dari aspek sosial-politik tidak dapat diterima. • Meskipun dalil-dalil ekonomi dan dana mencukupi tetapi tidak tesedia teknologi yang memadai perlindungan lingkungan tidak akan mencapai hasil yang maksimal. • Tersedianya teknologi, dana dan dalil-dalil ekonomi tidak ada artinya tanpa adanya kemauan politik dan kesadaran masyarakat yang bersangkutan untuk melindungi lingkungan. • Walaupun kesadaran masyarakat cukup tinggi dan ada kemauan politik dari pemerintah tetapi dana dan teknologi tidak tersedia, upaya perlindungan lingkungan tidak akan dapat tercapai sesuai dengan yang diharapkan. Pendekatan interdisipliner
    • Pendekatan Antropocentris Pr.2 Dek Stockholm-72: The natural resources of the earth, including the air, water, and flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems, must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generation through careful planning or management, as appropriate. Pembukaan para. 3(a) WCN-1982: Every form of life is unique, warranting respect regardless of its worth to man and, to accord other organisms such recognition, man must be guided by a moral code of action[.] Pembukaan World Charter for Nature 1982: Mankind is a part of nature and life depends on the uninterrupted functioning of natural systems which ensure the supply of energy and nutrients. Pr.1 Dek Rio-92: Human beings are at the center of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature
    • Pendekatan Fungsional Pr. 21 the 1982 World Charter for Nature: States and, to the extent they are able, other public authorities, int’l organizations, individuals, groups and corporations shall: (a) Cooperate in the task of conserving nature through common activities and other relevant actions, including information exchange and consultations; (b) Establish standards for products and manufacturing processes that may have adverse effects on nature, as well as agreed methodologies for assessing these effects; (c) Implement the applicable int’l legal provisions for the conservation of nature and the protection of the env’t; (d) Ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the natural systems located within other States or in the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction; (e) Safeguard and conserve nature in areas beyond national jurisdiction.
    • Pr.7 Dek Stockholm-72: States shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the seas by substances that are liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea. Pr.22 World Charter: Taking fully into account the sovereignty of States over their natural resources, each State shall give effect to the provisions of the present Charter through its competent organs and in cooperation with other States. Art.192 KHL-1982: States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment. Pendekatan Fungsional
    • Kepentingan Bersama Ummat Manusia The 1972 UNESCO Conv Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage: the deterioration or disappearance of any item of the cultural or natural heritage constitutes a harmful impowerishment of the heritage of all nations of the world. The 1979 Bonn Conv on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals: ... wild animals in their innumerable forms are an irreplaceable part of the earth’s natural system which must be concerned for the good of mankind; ... each of man holds the resources of the earth for future generations and has an obligation to ensure that this legacy is conserved and, where utilized, is used wisely [.] The 1974 Paris Conv for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources: the marine environment and flora and fauna which it support are of vital importance to all nations.
    • Preservation & Protection of the environment Protection: general principle which includes both abstaining from harmful activities and taking affirmative measures to ensure that env'l deterioration does not occur. Preservation: long term perspective which take into account the rights and interests of future generations for whom natural resources should be safeguarded. Sustainable development Pengertian: 'dev't that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (The 1987 Bruntland Report, “Our Common Future”)
    • • Prinsip ini dibentuk tidak hanya untuk mengendalikan pencemaran dan untuk menghilangkan kerusakan • Tetapi juga untuk mencegah munculnya dampak lingkungan hidup yang negatif dari kegiatan manusia yang mungkin terjadi, jika mungkin pencegahan dilakukan pada sumber dan dengan tujuan pengurangan resiko. • Ini juga dikenal sebagai produksi yang bersih, yang meliputi identifikasi sumber pencemaran dalam proses produksi dan menghilangkannya dari proses atau menggantikannya dengan cara produksi yang kurang merusak lingkungan hidup
    • • Dasar  siapapun yg menyebabkan pencemaran wajib membayar ganti kerugian/biaya pemulihannya. • Perkembangan  menekankan pada pentingnya internalisasi biaya2 untuk penanganan dampak lingkungan (internalize the externalities) • Penerapan prinsip melalui pendekatan ekonomi (cost- benefit analysis). • Legal  prinsip ini terkait dgn pembayaran ganti rugi karena menyebabkan perusakan lingkungan hidup (liability scheme). Polluter pays principle Pengertian: 'the costs of pollution prevention, control and reduction measures are to be borne by the polluter'. The principle obliges the polluter to incorporate the costs of pollution control in its own costs, to 'internalize' them.
    • • Prinsip kehati-kehatian berbunyi bahwa pendekatan berhati-hati akan diterapkan secara luas oleh negara- negara bagian sesuai dengan kapabilitasnya. • Ketika ada ancaman serius atau kerusakan yang tidak dapat dikembalikan, ketiadaan kepastian ilmiah (scientific uncertainty) yang sempurna/penuh tidak bisa digunakan sebagai alasan penundaan upaya pencegahan (cost-effective) untuk mencegah merosotnya lingkungan hidup atau dampak yang lebih luas. Precautionary principle • Tercantum jelas pd Rio Declaration 1992 prinsip ke -15. • Asumsi dasar dlm penerapan prinsip ini: * lingkungan itu rentan; * akurasi sains dalam memprediksi bahaya atau ancaman thd lingkungan memiliki keterbatasan; dan * tersedianya alternatif berupa proses dan produk yg lebih rendah bahayanya terhadap lingkungan.
    • integral dgn “Preventive principle” • golden rule for safe-guarding the environment. • It requires state to exercise 'due diligence', which means to act reasonably and in 'good faith' and to regulate public and private activities subject to its jurisdiction or control that are possibly harmful to any part of the env't. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (contains 27 principles); Principle 15: "In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation."
    • Integrated Protection & Pollution Control • Pendekatan ini berasal dari Laporan Bruntland yang mengkritik pendekatan tradisional secara partial, tidak terpadu (compartmentalised approach) untuk pengendalian pencemaran, yang meliputi pendekatan media yang spesifik dan tidak memper-timbangkan dampak lintas media dari pencemaran. • Prinsip ini mengusulkan pendekatan keseluruhan (a holistic approach) untuk pengendalian pencemaran dalam kaitannya dengan berbagai media (air, tanah dan udara) dan strukturisasi lembaga
    • Common heritage of mankind Pengertian: bhw kekayaan dasar samudera dalam adl warisan bersama ummat mns. tdk sm dg prinsip2 dlm hk. laut 'res nullius' ataupun 'res communis'. Konsep dasar: • exclusive use for peaceful purposes; • rational utilization in a spirit of conservation; dan • good management and transmission to generations to come. Common concern of humanity • General basis for the int'l community to act.. • The respect and protection of such concern is the legal basis of regulation which imposes obligations on states, regional or local authorities and can limit, when necessary, individual freedoms and rights, but which also can support such rights. • Dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif dr sistem 'kontrak'.
    • Common but differentiated responsibility Prinsip ini dikembangkan dari penerapan prinsip umum HI 'equity' dan pengakuan thd keadaan neg berkembang dlm proses pengembangan, penerapan dan interpretasi ketent2 hk lingk int'l. Intergenerational equity (right of future generation) • right of each generation to benefit from and develop the natural and cultural patrimony inherited from previous generations in such manner that it can be passed on to future generations in no worse condition than it was received. • each generation should be required to conserve the diversity and maintain the quality of the planet, and provide each member with equitable rights of access to the legacy of past generations and should conserve this access for future generations.
    • International human rights (1948 UNDHR, 1966 ICESCR, 1966 ICCPR, 1950 ECHR, 1961 ESC, 1969 ACHR, 1981 African Charter, UNGA Res. 2398(XXII) 1968; pr. 1 D. Stockholm 1972; D. Den Haag- 1989; dsb.) Economic & social rights: the entitlement to realization of eco- nomic, social & cultural rights indispensable for dignity; stan-dard of living; standard of health; safe & healthy working con-ditions; protection of children against social exploitation; dsb. Civil & political rights: the right to life; prohibition against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment; the right to equal protection against discrimination; the right to receive information; the right to a fair and public hearing; the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs; dsb. Environmental security env'l disaster may constitute real threats to int'l security (military, political & economic)