McGuire’s Four General Categories• Cognitive motives: focus on the person’s need for being adaptively oriented toward the environment and achieving a sense of meaning.• Affective motives: deal with the need to reach satisfying feeling states and to obtain personal goals.• Preservation-oriented motives: emphasize the individual as striving to maintain equilibrium.• Growth motives: emphasize development MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 9 Behaviour
Nike plus MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 10 Behaviour
Motivation Survey findings For which occasion(s) below stimulate you to use tripadvisor.com?
When you read online reviews what aspect(s) of that review is most important for you?
• “ the main online activities for trip planning would be price comparison for flight, accommodation, map, rental car”• “I trust sincere review and we can find small motels or B&B as well as big chain hotels, there are lots of good information of these kinds of small or not well- known local places to use lower budget.”
Motivation Secondary research• What Motivates Consumers To Write Online Travel Reviews?• Motivations for contributing e-WOM1) Enjoyment2) Exertion of collective power over companies3) Venting negative feelings4) Concerns for other consumers5) Helping the company6) Expressing positive feelings7) Positive self-enhancement MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 14 Behaviour
Motivation Secondary research Motivation Construct Enjoyment/positive self- 28% 27% enhancement Venting negative feelings & collective power 18% Concerns for other 27% consumers Helping the company MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 15 Behaviour
Motivation Secondary research• Demographic Differences more motivated •to help the to ease their company negative feelings. •Enjoyment/self- enhancement• The low-income group: Higher perceived risk of travel.• Express negative emotions. MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 16 Behaviour
The Reasons Why Feel Favorable towards Tripadvisor.com •Yes, reputation •it is because tripadvisor is theCompetitive says biggest online travel community, rather than travel •It is more famous... agency. •looks more organized • the interface is too complicated. The information about the city I was traveling Humanistic says too however was very helpful Methodical says •Yes •Trip advisor has a good foundation of •No information and many member features. •No idea I like being able to track my travels with a world map. Spontaneous says MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer 6/04/2012 23 Behaviour
Personality Secondary research• Research on correlation between the way people look online and personality types. – 140 respondents were asked. – Being eye tracked when skim over the website – Complete MBIT assessment individually MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 24 Behaviour
Secondary research Result • Difference in Viewing Habits MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 25 Behaviour
Secondary research Result• Preference over metaphorical and realistic image MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer 6/04/2012 26 Behaviour
Reference Group The nature of RG influence • Information influence • Normative influence • Identification influence MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer 6/04/2012 28 Behaviour
Most influential reference group Friends 6.74% Family 14.04% 38.20% Colleagues 5.62% Travel agency 11.24% Professional reviews 24.16% Others
Benefits from Word-of-mouth1. There is more potential input to a decision2. Internet information is more diverse.3. Higher quality input into a decision
Evaluation of online reviews • Based on Content • Based on SourceThe perception that the source is similar to the reader leads to greater persuasive effect.
Effects On Consumer Decision Process
Advantage of Online Reviews saves time 54% enjoyable travel planning 52% helps plan a trip 55% ease decision 62% provide ideas 68% reduce uncertainty 61% avoid places/services 50% evaulate alternatives 62% learn about destination 65% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Prime Source Of Information 0.65% 3.87% 7.74% Internet search Travel agent 18.06% 43.32% Social network Word of mouth Maganize Printed media 8.39% Other 18.06%
To what degree will ranking list affects your trip planning 23% 39% 38% decision?How likely will these online peer Unlikely reviews affect your purchasing 13% 42% 46% Indifferent intention? Likely To what extent, do you trust 14% 45% 42% online peer reviews? 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer6/04/2012 35 Behaviour
Willingness To Post Comments How often do you make comments after using tripadvior.com for purchasing?80.00%70.00%60.00%50.00%40.00% How often do you make comments after using 72.15% tripadvior.com for purchasing?30.00%20.00%10.00% 24.05% 0.00% 3.80% Never Occasionally Frequently MKTG7503 Advanced Consumer 6/04/2012 36 Behaviour