[SfN 2013] Neural correlates of flow


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[SfN 2013] Neural correlates of flow

  1. 1. Neural correlates of “flow” Kyongsik 1, Yun Saeran 2, Doh Elisa 1, Carrus Shinsuke 763.01 GGG43 1 Shimojo 1Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 2Department of Food Business Management, Miyagi University, Miyagi, Japan, yunks@caltech.edu Introduction Flow : “In the zone” mental state (e.g., skilled game players and professional athletes) -> Interesting psychological concept Problem? -  Hard to quantify because of its subjective nature Solution? -  Devised a method to objectively quantify the subjective flow experience using auditory evoked potential (AEP) suppression Hypothesis -  In the flow state, AEP of the task-irrelevant beeps would be suppressed What we did -  Detected the flow state in skilled game players and investigated the underlying brain dynamics The higher the experience of flow, the better the gaming performance The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the temporal pole (TP) found as the core brain areas involved in flow ACC Functional connectivity increased during the flow state 0.13 0.22 0.15 0.22 0.15 0.17 Effective connectivity using PDC between regions of interest, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), temporal pole (TP), and primary motor (M1) cortex. TP Conclusions Methods -  EEG during a first-person-shooting computer game -  Distinguished the flow state using objective and subjective criteria: (1) suppression of the AEP (2) self-reported, retrospective flow ratings (every 5min) -  Localized the neural correlates of flow -  Characterized effective connectivity between those regions from the EEG data A significant positive correlation was found between the overall occurrence of the flow experience and the performance distribution throughout the game play (Pearson’s correlation, R=0.68, p=0.014) Substantial attenuation of the AEP amplitude only during the flow period Flow Non-flow Experimental procedure M1 (A)  Source localization (sLORETA) showing the contrast of flow state minus non-flow state for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (x=-6, y=25, z=21), (B)  temporal pole (TP) (x=-55, y=10, z=-25) and (C)  the flow minus non-flow contrast for beginners minus experts in the precentral gyrus (M1) (x=15, y=-20, z=70) (non-parametric permutation test, red: p<0.05, yellow: p<0.01). Detected the mental state of “flow” using 1.  Objective measure (AEP suppression) 2.  Subjective measure (flow ratings) Found correlations between 1.  Flow ratings 2.  Behavioral performance 3.  Neural activity (TP, ACC, M1) Further information http://yunkslab.blogspot.com http://neuro.caltech.edu AEP of the task-irrelevant beeps (randomly presented) measured - AEP activation: non-flow - AEP suppression: flow Time-frequency analyses of auditory evoked activity during (A) flow and (B) non-flow state. The nonflow trials showed significant evoked potential activation and the flow trials showed significant evoked potential suppression (channels Fz and Pz; nonparametric permutation test, p<0.05). The vertical line represents the onset of the beep. Correlation between the behavioral flow ratings and source localized EEG activity. For the (A) temporal pole (TP), (B) anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and (C) primary motor cortex (M1).