TribalismFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor the Enter Shikari album, see Tribalism (album).The social structure of a tribe can vary greatly from case to case, but, due to the small size of tribes, it isalways a relatively simple role structure, with few (if any) significant social distinctions between individuals.The other concept to which the word tribalism frequently refers is the possession of a strong cultural or ethnicidentity that separates one member of a group from the members of another group. This phenomenon isrelated to the concept of tribal society in that it is a precondition for members of a tribe to possess a strongfeeling of identity for a true tribal society to form. The distinction between these two definitions for tribalism is animportant one because, while tribal society no longer strictly exists in the western world, tribalism, by thissecond definition, is arguably undiminished. People have postulated that the human brain is hard-wiredtowards tribalism due to its evolutionary advantages. See Tribalism and evolution below.Many tribes refer to themselves with their languages word for "people," while referring to other, neighboringtribes with various epithets. For example, the term "Inuit" translates as "people," but they were known tothe Ojibwe by a name Eskimo translating roughly as "eaters of raw meat." This fact is often cited asevidence that tribal peoples saw only the members of their own tribe as "people," and denigrated all others assomething less. In fact, this is a tenuous conclusion to draw from the evidence. Many languages refined theiridentification as "the true people," or "the real people," dehumanizing the other people or simply consideringthem inferior. In this, it is merely evidence of ethnocentrism, a universal cultural characteristic found in allsocieties.Tribalism and violenceThe anthropological debate on warfare among tribes is unsettled. While typically and certainly foundamong horticultural tribes, an open question remains whether such warfare is a typical feature of hunter-gatherer life, or an anomaly found only in certain circumstances, such as scarce resources (as with the Inuit),or among food producing societies. There is also ambiguous evidence whether the level of violence amongtribal societies is greater or lesser than the levels of violence among civilized societies.If nothing else, conflict in tribal societies can never achieve the absolute scale of civilized warfare. [citationneeded] Tribes use forms of subsistence such as horticulture and foraging which, though more efficient, cannotyield the same number of absolute calories as agriculture. This limits tribal populations significantly,especially when compared to agricultural populations. When tribal conflict does occur, it results infew fatalities. Lawrence Keeley argues in War Before Civilization, however, that as apercentage oftheir population, tribal violence is much more lethal. Nevertheless, Keeley also admits that the absolute
numbers are so low that it is difficult to disentangle warfare from simple homicide, and Keeleys argument doesnot ever cite any forager examples, save the anomalous Inuit.Tribalism and evolutionTribalism has a very adaptive effect in human evolution. Humans are social animals, and ill-equipped to live ontheir own. Tribalism and ethnocentrism help to keep individuals committed to the group, even whenpersonal relations may fray. This keeps individuals from wandering off or joining other groups. It alsoleads to bullying when a tribal member is unwilling to conform to the politics of the collective.Socially, divisions between groups fosters specialized interactions with others, based on association: altruism(positive interactions with unrelated members), kin-selectivity (positive interactions with related members), andviolence (negative interactions). Thus, groups with a strong sense of unity and identity can benefit from kinselection behavior such as common property and shared resources. The tendency of members to unite againstan outside tribe and the ability to act violently and prejudicially against that outside tribe likely boosted thechances of survival in genocidal conflicts.Modern examples of tribal genocide rarely reflect the defining characteristics of tribes existing prior tothe Neolithic Revolution--for example, small population and close-relatedness.According to a study by Robin Dunbar at the University of Liverpool, primate brain size is determined by socialgroup size. Dunbars conclusion was that the human brain can only really understand a maximum of 150individuals as fully developed, complex people (see Dunbars number). Malcolm Gladwell expanded on thisconclusion sociologically in his book,The Tipping Point. According to these studies, then, "tribalism" is in somesense an inescapable fact of human neurology, simply because the human brain is not adapted to working withlarge populations. Beyond 150, the human brain must resort to some combination of hierarchicalschemes, stereotypes, and other simplified models in order to understand so many people.Nevertheless, complex societies (and corporations) rely upon the tribal instincts of their members for theirorganization and survival. For example, a representative democracy relies on the ability of a "tribe" ofrepresentatives to organize and deal with the problems of an entire nation. The instincts that theserepresentatives are using to deal with national problems have been highly developed in the long course ofhuman evolution on a small tribal scale, and this is the source of both their usefulness and their disutility.Indeed, much of the political tension in modern societies is the conflict between the desire to organize a nation-state using the tribal values of egalitarianism and unity and the simple fact that large societies are unavoidablyimpersonal and sometimes not amenable to small-society rules.In complex societies, this tribalistic impulse can also be channelled into more frivolous avenues, manifestingitself in sports rivalries and other such "fan" affiliations.
"New tribalism"In the past 50 years, anthropologists have greatly revised the understanding of the tribe. Franz Boas removedthe idea of unilineal cultural evolution from the realm of serious anthropological research as too simplistic,allowing tribes to be studied in their own right, rather than stepping stones to civilization or "living fossils".Anthropologists such as Richard Borshay Lee and Marshall Sahlins began publishing studies that showed triballife as an easy, safe life, the opposite of the traditional theoretical supposition. In the title to his book, Sahlinsreferred to these tribal cultures as "the Original Affluent Society," not for their material wealth, but for theircombination of leisure and lack of want.This work is for the progression of humanity and the enlightenment of ourselves, such as that advocatedby John Zerzan or Daniel Quinn. These philosophers have led to new tribalistspursuing what Daniel Quinndubbed the "New Tribal Revolution". The new tribalists use the term "tribalism" not in its widely thought ofderogatory sense, but to refer to what they see as the defining characteristics of tribal life: namely, anopen, egalitarian, classless and cooperative community. New tribalists insist that this is, in fact, the naturalstate of humanity, and proven by two million years of human evolution.The answer depends on each persons preferences as well as on the particular tribes that are used as a pointof reference - because tribal life itself is not the same for all tribes; the environment where a tribe lives has anespecially important influence.
Iberian PeninsulaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"Iberia" redirects here. For other uses, see Iberia (disambiguation).Iberian Peninsula within Europe, delineating the three states found within it, Spain, Portugal, and Andorra.Positions of the different countries and territories of the Iberian Peninsula.The Iberian Peninsula (Asturian, Leonese, Mirandese, Spanish, Portuguese and Galician: PenínsulaIbérica, Catalan:Península Ibèrica, Aragonese and Occitan: Peninsula Iberica, French: PéninsuleIbérique, Basque: Iberiar Penintsula), sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwestof Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states ofSpain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the BritishOverseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas — theIberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas. It is bordered on the southeast and east by theMediterranean Sea, andon the north, west and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean. The Pyrenees form the northeast edge of the
peninsula, separating it from the rest of Europe. In the south, it approaches the northern coast of Africa. It is thesecond-largest peninsula in Europe, with an area of approximately 580,000 km2 (220,000 sq mi).NameGreek nameThe English word Iberia was adapted from the use of the Ancient Greek word Ιβηρία (Ibēría) by the Greekgeographers under the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. Atthat time the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people.  Strabos Iberiawas delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass south-west (he named it"west") of there.The Ancient Greeks discovered the Iberian peninsula by voyaging westward. Hecataeus of Miletus was the firstknown to use the term around 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was theywho made the Greeks acquainted with ... Iberia." According to Strabo prior historians used Iberia to meanthe country "this side of the Ἶ βηρος (Ibēros)" as far north as the Rhone river in France but currently they setthe Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as farsouth as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on theseaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia."Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are to bedistinguished from either Celts or Celtiberians.Roman namesMain article: HispaniaWhen the Romans encountered the Greek geographers they used Iberia poetically[clarification needed] and spoke ofthe Iberi. First mention was in 200 BC by the poet Quintus Ennius. The Romans had already had independentexperience with the peoples on the peninsula during the long conflict with Carthage. The Roman geographersand other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania.As they became politically interested in the former territories of Carthage, the Romans came to use HispaniaCiterior and Hispania Ulterior for near and far Spain. Even at that time large sections of itwere Lusitania (Portugal south of Douro river and Extremadura in western Spain), Gallaecia (NorthernPortugal and Galicia in Spain), Celtiberia (central Spain),Baetica (Andalusia), Cantabria (northwest Spain) andthe Vascones (Basques). Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, and distancethem as near and far. He was living in a time when the peninsula was divided into Roman provinces, ofwhich Baetia was supervised by the Senate, whereas the others were governed on behalf of the Emperor.
Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for Basque,protected by the Pyrenees.EtymologyNortheast Iberian script from Huesca.The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro river, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus orHibērus in Latin. The association was so well known it was hardly necessary to state; for example, Ibēria wasthe country "this side of the Ibērus" in Strabo.Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "thewhole of Spain" Hiberia because of the river Hiberus. The river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BCbetween Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of thetreaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name"is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination.The early range of these natives, stated by the geographers and historians to be from southern Spain tosouthern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yetunknown language, dubbed Iberian. Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks fortheir residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations onetymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remainunknown also.GeographyMain articles: Geography of Portugal and Geography of SpainOverall characteristics
An 18th century map of the peninsula depicting various topographical features of the land, as published in RobertWilkinsons General Atlas, circa 1794.Major rivers of the IberianPeninsula:Miño/Minho, Duero/Douro, Tajo/Tejo, Guadiana,Guadalquivir, Segura, Júcar/Xúquer, Ebro/Ebre.The Iberian peninsula extends from the southernmost extremity at Punta de Tarifa (36°00′15″N 5°36′37″W) to the northernmost extremity at Estaca de Bares Point (43°47′38″N 7°41′17″W) over a distance between lines of latitude of about 865 km (537 mi) based on a degreelength of 111 km (69 mi) per degree, and from the westernmost extremity at Cabo da Roca (38°46′51″N 9°29′54″W) to the easternmost extremity at Cap de Creus ( 42°19′09″N 3°19′19″E) over adistance between lines of longitude at 40° N latitude of about 1,155 km (718 mi) based on an estimated degreelength of about 90 km (56 mi) for that latitude. The irregular, roughly octagonal shape of the peninsulacontained within this spherical quadrangle was compared to an ox-hide by the geographer, Strabo.Approximately ¾ of the octagon is the Meseta Central, a low and rolling plateau of up to several hundredmetres in altitude. It is located roughly in the centre, staggered slightly to the east and tilted slightly towardthe west (the conventional centre of the Iberian Peninsula has long been considered to be Getafe just southof Madrid). It is ringed by mountains and contains the sources of most of the rivers, which find their waythrough gaps in the mountain barriers on all sides.