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  1. 1. From Greek word LOGOS (λογοσ )which means study, reason or discourse Defines as the science and art of correct thinking
  2. 2. Port Royal Logic Logic is the art of reasoning  Too narrow; the term reasoning restrict the scope of logic to one class of mental processes
  3. 3. Hegel Logic is the science of pure idea  ideas refers to all realities  too wide; defines logic as the science of mental processes or the operations of the mind
  4. 4. St. Thomas Aquinas Logic is the science and art which so direct the mind in the process of reasoning & subsidiary processes as to enable it to attain clearness (order), consistency & validity in those processes
  5. 5. St. Thomas Aquinas Logic is directive; different from psychology Logic deals w/ mental processes in relation to truth; different from metaphysics Differs from ethics Differs from Rhetoric or the art of persuasion
  6. 6. Is Logic a science or an art? It is science in so far as it not merely formulates rules for right thinking but deduces those rules from general principles based on nature of mind & truth Art in so far as it is directly & immediately related to performance; to the acts of the mind
  7. 7. Transcendental Logic Inquiry into human knowledge for the purpose of determining what elements or factors in human thought are a priori An application of mathematical methods to the processes of thought; uses conventional symbols to represent terms, propositions & relations among them Symbolic Logic
  8. 8. Applied Logic Logic applied to the study of the natural sciences The native power of the mind by which most persons are competent to judge correctly & reason validly about the affairs & interest of everyday life Natural Logic
  9. 9. Aristotle the founder of logic Compiles his logical works -TREATISES- ORGANON (Instrument) Treatise includes  Categories  On Interpretation  Prior Analytics  Posterior Analytics  Topics  On Sophistical Refutation /Sophism
  10. 10. ORGANON Examined & analyzed the thinking processes for the purpose of formulating laws of thought
  11. 11. WHO IS ARISTOTLE? A disciple of Plato belongs to an aristocratic family tutors Alexander the Great founded Lyceum father of science died in exile in Chalcis
  12. 12. Pre-Aristotlean Logic in Greece philosophers devoted attention to the origin of the universe Eleatics, the Sophist & the Megarians developed the art of argumentation Socrates & Plato laid great stress on definition, induction & dialectics None of them formulated the laws & rules of reasoning
  13. 13. Post-Aristotlean Logicians among Greeks Aristotle’s disciple Theophrastus & Eudemus (invented hypothetical syllogism) Stoics – responsible for coining LOGIC  improved Aristotle’s logic in many points Epicureans- rivals of Stoics  professed contempt for logic  claims that knowledge of physical phenomena acquired through the senses is the only knowledge that is of value on the pursuit of happiness
  14. 14. Commentators Alexander of Aphrosidias – known as the commentator Porphyry – author of Isagoge, an introduction to Aristotle’s logic Galen – introduced the 4th syllogistic figure they abridge, explain, defend the text of Aristotle’s work on logic Greek commentators
  15. 15. Commentators Aristotle works carried to Rome Cicero’s abridgment of “Topic”  first logical treatise in Latin Isagoge was also translated in latin St. Augustine  “Categoriae Decem”  “Principia Dialectica” Marianus Capella  De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae Boethius – translated into latin much of Aristotle’s works Latin commentators
  16. 16. The Scholastics No modifications of Aristotle’s logic but an improvement was emphasized made clear many points, fix technical meanings of terms in modern language device various memory-aiding contrivances for teaching & learning
  17. 17. Modern Logic attacked Aristotlean method contending it as unscientific Francis Bacon Rene Descartes made logic serve the purposes of mathematician John Stuart Mill rejected all necessary truth, discarded the syllogism as useless & fallacious
  18. 18. Logic as a SCIENCE It is s science because it is systematized body of logical truths and principles governing correct thinking
  19. 19. Logic as an ART It is an Art because it guides man’s reason so he can proceed with order and ease and without error in the constructive activity of making decisions, propositions, syllogism and so on. Logic is ARS ARTIUM, the arts of arts because it develops & perfects the intellect
  20. 20. Reasons for studying Logic gives norms for recognizing correct / good thinking; incorrect / bad thinking develops a habit of analyzing our thought enable us to pinpoint the defects of faulty arguments & explained their error Logic is an introduction to the study of Philosophy
  21. 21. Reasons for studying Logic as medical students logic gives rationality to our chosen profession enhances and fortify our discovered strategies promotes the art of critical thinking Logic guides us to arrive at correct thinking
  22. 22. Limitations of Logic It is a tool of reason, makes no direct contribution to the content of our thought  does not give any knowledge of the real things
  23. 23. Limitations of Logic It presupposes means of attaining truth  assumes that we accept many truths independently of logic & logical procedure
  24. 24. Try this If you can not be certain on what the truth is, based on experience, how can you know anything at all?
  25. 25.  Customs and Traditions  we experienced & witnessed them critique: not always acceptable because culture is changing  Divine Revelation  based on religious affiliation critique: Not everybody believe on the Bible
  26. 26.  Authority  experts on their field  reliance on them on things we have not witnessed Critique:  liable to err  Majority, Plurality & Consensus  majority rules, unanimous opinion  truth can not be found on counting noses
  27. 27. Refer to the operations of the mind by which we grasp the meaning of the term, deny or affirm it and reason out for our action
  28. 28. 3 Operations or activities of HM;  Simple Apprehension  Judgment  Reasoning
  29. 29.  Taken from the latin word prehendere which means to sieze  The first operation of the human mind
  30. 30.  The operation of the mind by which we mentally grasp a thing, making it present in & to our minds without affirming or denying anything about it  the operation by which we grasp the essences of the things
  31. 31. Types of S.A. Incomplex Apprehension  uncompounded notions  verbally expressed by one word Complex Apprehension  represent the notions implied by group of words taken collectively
  32. 32. Error in Simple Apprehension Indistinctiveness  Arise either due to imperfections of our faculties  limited knowledge of objects which form our conceptions
  33. 33. Object of SA  refers to what we grasp by simple apprehension  Material Object  the whole thing that is known by SA  the thing as itself & w/ all its attributes  Formal Object  the essences or quiddities of things  what is known about MA through the use of some faculty  SA grasp only what a thing is
  34. 34. Concept  product which SA produces within the mind as means of knowing the essences of things  The mental expression of an essence or quiddity  pure image or sign; function as giving knowledge of whatever it signifies
  35. 35. Thanks till next meeting!