Geothermal Reseources in Canadian Cordillera

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  • This is my presentation with topic of geothermal energy potential in the Canadian Cordillera
  • It is simply the natural heat of the Earth
  • As we know western Canada sits along the Pacific Plate, known also with their volcanoes as well as considerable amount of thermal springs.
    These are all indications of geothermal resources that exists in the region.
    However, Canada still remains the only country on the Pacific plate as ring of fire that has not yet produced the energy for electric generation
  • The presentation will cover introduction on geothermal systems and their key elements
    I will also show you how those key elements of the geothermal resources are distributed in the Canadian Cordillera
  • So the main point I want to deliver here is an overview of types of geothermal resources
    that potentially occur in the Canadian Cordillera
  • A cartoon that may give you a better idea about geothermal system and what needed.
    Three elements are required, fluid as medium to transfer the heat below the ground, commonly associated with intrusion bodies or volcanism. The last one is the permeable conduits so the fluid can convectivelly flow to the surface. Recharge area is needed to make the system become sustainable.
  • One parameter in classifying the geothermal system is based on their reservoir temperatures.
  • Another way to classifiy the system from their nature and geological settings
    Types of geothermal systems
    1. Volcanic geothermal systems, typically have high temperature reservoirs and associated with
    magmatism or hot intrusion.
    2. Convective deep fluid systems or thermal spring systems in which the heat source is the hot crust
    at depth of 1-3 km, in tectonically active areas with above average heat-flow having normal to
    slightly higher geothermal gradients. In these systems, the meteoric waters circulate to greater
    depth of more than 1 km, through mostly fault systems with vertical fractures, to extract the heat
    from the rocks.
    3)Sedimentary geothermal systems, are commonly found worldwide, characterized by low to
    moderate temperature. Heat flow regime in the systems is normally low. However as sedimentary
    rocks generally are low in thermal conductivity, the rocks can capture much of heat which leads to
    high geothermal gradients.
    4. Hot dry rock systems, also known as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), are high
    temperature systems usually associated with granitic plutonic intrusion with absence of natural
    convective hydrothermal resources.
  • A map showing how the Canadian Cordillera is divided into morphological belts based on their various tectonic and geological settings.
    The Canadian Cordillera developed in response to the collision from Jurassic to Tertiary of island-arc terranes against
    the western margin of North America. These can be roughly defined as deformed sedimentary strata of either North
    American (Foreland belt) or island-arc affinity (Insular and Intermontane belts) that are separated by belts of plutonic
    and high-grade metamorphic rocks (Coast and Omineca belts). Compressional deformation ended abruptly in the
    southeastern Canadian Cordillera during the Late Paleocene.
    At this time, crustal-scale extensional faults formed with associated
    plutonism and volcanism. From Eocene to Recent, the southwestern Canadian Cordillera has been affected by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting.
    In addition, the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt (Fig. 2) developed from late Tertiary to Quaternary (Lewis and Souther 1978).
  • Geothermal map of North America showing heat flow distribution with red and pink colors representing
    High to very high heat flow
  • Showing intrusive bodies in the southern Cordilerra with count out data the amount of the heat generation
  • Types of geothermal systems
    1. Volcanic geothermal systems, typically have high temperature reservoirs and associated with
    magmatism or hot intrusion. The systems can be located within volcanic complexes with tectonic
    setting of adjacent to active plate boundaries or hot spots. The heat flow system is mainly governed
    by permeable fractures and fault zones.
    2. Convective deep fluid systems or thermal spring systems in which the heat source is the hot crust
    at depth of 1-3 km, in tectonically active areas with above average heat-flow having normal to
    slightly higher geothermal gradients. In these systems, the meteoric waters circulate to greater
    depth of more than 1 km, through mostly fault systems with vertical fractures, to extract the heat
    from the rocks. Typical geothermal manifestations present are warm to hot thermal springs.
    Sedimentary geothermal systems, are commonly found worldwide, characterized by low to
    moderate temperature. Heat flow regime in the systems is normally low. However as sedimentary
    rocks generally are low in thermal conductivity, the rocks can capture much of heat which leads to
    high geothermal gradients.
    4. Hot dry rock systems, also known as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), are high
    temperature systems usually associated with granitic plutonic intrusion with absence of natural
    convective hydrothermal resources. Hydraulic fracturing technology to exploit the hot dry rock
    systems have been actively applied recently particularly in Australia and France.
    Figure

Transcript

  • 1. 1 Potential of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Canadian Cordillera GLGY 707 Geology and Geophysics of Western Canada By : Yulini Arediningsih 2nd December, 2011 University of Calgary
  • 2. 2 Keywords Geo means Earth Thermal means Heat Other keywords : geothermal systems, geothermal reservoirs, geothermal resources, surface manifestation
  • 3. 3 Fast Facts  Western Canada sits along the Circum Pacific, Ring of Fire  Rich in active young volcanoes, intrusions and numerous surface thermal manifestations (hot and warm springs) BUT, currently Canada still remains as the only country on the Pacific Rim that has not utilized geothermal resources for electric generation Source : http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov
  • 4. 4  Introduction  Geothermal systems and their key elements  Canadian Cordillera  Distribution of the Geothermal Systems  Conclusions Outline
  • 5. 5 To overview :  Types of geothermal systems that potentially occur in the Canadian Cordillera  Key elements of geothermal systems in the Canadian Cordillera and distribution of the geothermal systems IntroductionObjectives
  • 6. 6 Geothermal Systems Source : http://geothermal.marin.org HEAT SOURCE Permeable conduits Recharge area CONVECTION FLOW Key elements
  • 7. 7 Geothermal Systems Based on temperature range of the reservoir Types 150°C 200°C Medium temperature system High temperature system Low temperature system 250 - ~300°C~ 80-90°C
  • 8. 8 Geothermal Systems Based on their nature and geological settings : 1. Volcanic geothermal systems 2. Convective deep fluid or thermal spring systems 3. Sedimentary geothermal systems 4. Hot dry rock systems, also known as Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) Types
  • 9. 9 Canadian Cordillera (Lebel, 2009) Morphological belts
  • 10. 10 Canadian CordilleraGeological Controls High to very high heat flow throughout the Canadian Cordillera. The highest heat flow in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt (>200mW/m2) (Blackwell and Richards, 2004) (Grasby and Hutcheon, 2010)
  • 11. 11 Canadian CordilleraGeological Controls Potential heat source for high temperature volcanic geothermal systems (Hickson, 2000)
  • 12. 12 Canadian CordilleraGeological Controls Potential heat source for hot dry rock systems or thermal spring systems (Lewis et al, 1992)
  • 13. 13 Canadian Cordillera (Grasby and Hutcheon, 2001) Numerous thermal springs in SE British Columbia and SW Alberta associated with major extension faults and main thrust faults in the Rocky Mountains Geological Controls
  • 14. 14 Canadian Cordillera (Grasby et al, 2011)
  • 15. 15 MC-6 well, South Meager field in Pemberton Valley being flowed tested in Nov. 2004. This well can supply a 20 kW pilot geothermal power facility www.geothermalmagazine.eu
  • 16. 16  All types of geothermal resources from low to high temperatures geothermal systems potentially can occur in the Canadian Cordillera  The tectonic and geological settings of the Canadian Cordillera adjacent to Pacific Plate margin, associated with active volcanism, felsic intrusions and major extension faults and main thrust faults may provide the main key elements of heat source and permeable conduits that are required for the occurrence of the geothermal resources. Conclusions
  • 17. 17 The distribution : 1) Volcanic geothermal systems : mainly in the Cascade/Coastal Plutonic Belt 2) Convective deep fluid systems : broadly distributed throughout the Cordilleran belts. 3) Sedimentary geothermal systems : the Peace Region, NE of British Columbia (Foreland Belt) and Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 4) Hot dry rock systems : Potentially exist in all for morphological belts except Foreland Belt Conclusions
  • 18. 18 Blackwell,D.D. and Richards,M., 2004. Geothermal Map of North America. Am. Assoc. Petrol. geol., 1 map sheet, 1:6,500,000. Gabrielse,H., Monger,J.W.H., Wheeler, J.O. and Yorath,C.J. 1992. Chapter 2, Tectonic framework, Part A. Morphogeological belts, tectonic assemblages and Terranes. In – Geology of the Cordilleran Orogen in Canada, Ed.Gabrielse,H and Yorath,C.J., Geological Survey of Canada, Geology of Canada, No. 4. Lewis, T.J., Bentkowski, W.H. and Hyndman, R.D., 1992. Crustal Temperatures near the lithoprobe southern Canadian Cordillera Transect. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 29: 1197-1214. Slemmons, Engdahl, Zoback, and Blackwell, Geol.Soc.Am., Decade Map Volume 1, 445-456. Grasby and Hutcheon, 2010, Controls on the Distribution of Thermal Springs in the Canadian Cordillera, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, 25-29 April 2010 Grasby, S.E., Allen, D.M., Bell, S., Chen, Z., Ferguson, G., Jessop, A., Kelman, M., Ko, M. Majorowicz, J., Moore, M., Raymond, J., and Therrien, R. 2011, Geothermal Energy Resource Potential of Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6914, 322. Hickson, C.J., 2000, Volcanic hazards in Canada: a review, GeoCanada 2000. Calgary, Alberta. May 29-June 2, 2000 Lebel, D. (ed), 2009, Geoscience Needs for Geothermal Energy Development in Western Canada: Findings and Recommendations, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Petroleum Geology Open File 2009- 03, 18 pages. Monger, J.W.H., Price, R.A. and Templeman-Kluit, D.J., 1982. Tectonic accretion and the origin of the two major metamorphic and plutonic welts in the Canadian Cordillera. Geology, 10: 70-75. Some of the Cited References
  • 19. 19 Thank you Any questions ?