the scope of semantics


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the scope of semantics

  1. 1. The Scope Of Semantics Class : 5B Ayi Yulianty 112122058 Alifya Nurul Fauziah 112122076 Rizki Aryanti 112122079
  2. 2. Naming • Language might be thought of as a communication system with on the one hand “the signifier”, and on the other “the signified”. • Signifier ----------- Signified • a word the object in • in the language the world that it • stands for/ refers to/ • denotes
  3. 3. • Problems with this view:  Words, then, are „names‟ or „labels‟ for things.  It seems to apply only to nouns; therefore, it seems impossible to extend the theory of naming to include the other parts of speech.  Adjectives : beautiful, handsome, difficult, etc  Verbs : run, think, swim, etc  Others: prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns
  4. 4. • Abstract Nouns ??? – e.g. love, hate, inspiration, nonsense That is to say: Words are not just names of things Words are not simply names of the objects of our experience. • Even where there are identifiable physical objects, the meaning is not necessarily the same as its denotation.
  5. 5. Scientific vs Common knowledge • e.g. tomato vs apple? One possible way working out the problem: • Some words actually denote objects That children learn some of them as labels. The reminder are used in some way derived from the more basic use.
  6. 6. • Bertrand Russell : object word • Learned ostensibly, by pointing at objects dictionary word • To be defined in terms of the object words.
  7. 7. CONCEPTS • According to de Saussure, as we have seen, the linguistic sign consists of a signifier and a signified, these are, however, more strictly a sound image and a concept, both linked by a psychological 'associative' bond.
  8. 8. Ogden and Richards saw the relationship as a triangle.
  9. 9. Bloomfield (1933) S ----------- r ……………s ----------- R Stimulus------ words ----- Response, this view shows that meaning is as a description from a situation which there are stimulus (S) that may cause someone to say something (r) and the response ( R) is an effect of the words said by someone (s)
  10. 10. The definition of sense: Sense is abstract and de- contextualized, and it refers to the inherent meaning of the linguistic form. Sense is concerned only with intra- linguistic relations. It is the collection of all the semantic features of the linguistic form.
  11. 11. The definition of reference: Reference is what a linguistic form points to in the real world. It deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and the metalinguistic world of experience.
  12. 12. A- Sense many references B- Reference many senses C- Sense no reference D- Reference no sense ***
  13. 13. The Word The word is the product of naming. There are two kinds of words : • Full words, e.g : tree, sing, boy, like, etc. • Form words, e.g : it, the, of, and, etc. Look at the example below : The boy likes to play. The girl hates to fight.
  14. 14. Ullman made the distinction of the words : • Transparent words : Are those whose meaning can be determined from the meaning of their parts, e.g : Chopper, driver, etc • Opaque words : Are the words whose meaning can not be determined from the meaning of their parts, e.g : hammer, porter, spanner, etc.
  15. 15. There are a lot of terms appeared in relation to the words and meaning. Minimum free form Morpehemes Phonaestethic Idioms
  16. 16. The Sentence The sentence is the expression of a complete thought. English sentence will minimally have a subject noun phrase and the verb phrase. E.g : birds fly. There are two possible meanings in the sentence : • Meaningful sentence • Ambiguous sentence
  17. 17. Sentence meaning (written) Utterance meaning (oral)
  18. 18. More complex , there are other kinds of meaning related to the sentence : Prosodic and Paralinguistic Irony ( says something means another) Intonation’s reference A problem associated with the sentence Variety of social relation (context) Speech act