Process Management ImplementationProcedure model and Resistance to Change<br />
Adaption Efficiency<br />Resource Efficiency<br />Functional<br />Organisational Structure<br />Process<br />Efficiency<br...
Management<br />Central departments<br />Controlling<br />IT<br />Personnel<br />Finances<br />Division C<br />(Non-foodma...
Adaption Efficiency<br />Resource Efficiency<br />Divisional Organisation Structure<br />Motivation<br />Efficiency<br />P...
Sales/ <br />Stores<br />Procurement<br />Logistics<br />Topic A:<br />Seniors<br />Topic B:<br />WeeklyActivities<br />To...
Design of OrganisationsModern: Process-Oriented Organisation<br />Organisational units are formed on the basis of business...
Resource Efficiency<br />Adaption Efficiency<br />Functional<br />Organisational Structure<br />Divisional<br />Organisati...
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Modeling Project Management<br />Procedure Model<br />
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Project ManagementObjectives<br />Objectives are the fundamental basis for planning, controlling and supervising activitie...
Steering committee<br />Decision maker  and surveying unit of the project<br />Leader<br />Coordination of the project tea...
Tasks<br />Surveying and steering<br />Ensure the predefined objectives<br />Methods of the project controlling<br />Match...
Create readiness of change<br />Involve employees in the brainstorming of potential solutions<br />Ensure the commitment o...
Modeling Project Management<br />Goal definition<br />
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Sample Modelling Objectives<br />Organisational<br />Information Systems<br />Engineering<br />Engineering<br />Documentat...
Target Fields of Process Modelling<br />
Priorities of Target Fields<br />very important<br />important<br />neutral<br />less important<br />unimportant<br />
Project Example<br />
Modellingwith PICTURE<br />Scope Definition<br />
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyFunctions of a Regulation Framework<br />Control the complexity of a huge amount o...
Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyFunctions of a Regulation Framework<br />Fundamental focus: Revelation of superior...
Regulation Frameworks ofthe Public BodyConstructionProcessof a Regulation Framework<br />Take two important aspects into a...
Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyStrategic Component<br />Definition of the objectives of the process management pr...
Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyGraphical Component<br />Reorganisational projects can only be successful with the...
Regulation Frameworks ofthe Public BodyReference Design<br />Basic structure of reference design “house”<br />Meise (2000)...
Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />Meise (2000)<br />
Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />“Retail-H”<br />
Mgmt<br />Controlling, Quality Management<br />Routing<br />Prozesse<br />Entitlement<br />Daten<br />Logging<br />Functio...
Samples ofregulationframeworks<br />Y-CIM-Model<br />
Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />House-of-Facilities<br />
Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />IT-department<br />
Regulation Frameworks ofthe Public BodyCommune GK5<br />
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Capturing Methods<br />Interview (oral interrogation)<br />Questionnaire (written interrogation)<br />Observation<br />Act...
Sample Contents<br />Task<br />What has to be done?<br />How is it to do?<br />Which items are to be dealt with?<br />Resp...
Interview<br />The interviewer (analyst) leads the interrogation<br />Different forms of interviews<br />Standardised inte...
Questionnaire<br />The questions are written down and then sent to the recipients<br />Particularly with regard to a bigge...
Observation<br />Observation of the activities<br />Different forms of observations<br />Structured observation<br />The o...
Activity Sampling<br />Objective of an activity sampling is to conclude based on a small number of cases (the sample) the ...
Activity Sampling<br />Definition of the objective<br />Definition of the observing characteristics<br />Definition of the...
Interviews as one Instrument to Capture Processes<br />Interview are THE instrument to gather knowledge about processes<br...
Efforts of an Interview<br /> The methodis fast evenwhendonemanually<br />
Interviews as one Instrument to Capture Processes<br />Alternative 1 – Interview and process modelling at the same time; a...
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Negotiation – Attitudes<br />Attitudes<br />Interest and curiosity: explore subjective perception<br />Respondents as expe...
Negotiation – Handy Rules<br />Beginning: achieve good atmosphere (friendly, open, relaxed)<br />Listen carefully: listen ...
Negotiation – Handy Rules<br />Green questions: let the respondent explain special notions, activities and situations! Eve...
Practice<br />Choose interviewees (key persons)<br />First contact: pre meeting, precise arrangements<br />Clarify objecti...
Possible Problems<br />Objective unclear<br />Expectations not ratified<br />External annoyances<br />Lack of confidence <...
Next Steps<br />Protocol (same day)general conditions; conversation; informal conversation (without recordings); abnormali...
The electronic interview guideline<br />
Modeling Project Management<br />AnalysingtheProcessLandscape<br />
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
As-Is Analysis ofProcessesofthe Public BodyAnalysis ofthe Models<br />Evaluation of the as-is models on the basis of prede...
Elimination <br />Parallelisation<br />Avoidanceofrebounds<br />Simplification<br />Standardisation<br />Acceleration<br /...
To-Be Model andProcessOptimisationforthe Public BodyPossibleModifications<br />
Experiences out of Past Modelling Projects<br />Similar weak points can be found in all processes in all public bodies<br ...
Repeating Samples of Problems<br />Processes are intransparent<br />Ambiguity of dependences and coherences may lead to fa...
Examples of Overall EnhancementsOrganisational<br />Setup of a central HR changemanagement<br />Thereexistmanyprocessescon...
Examples of Overall EnhancementsTechnical<br />Adoption of a fax solution for the whole public body<br />Many possibilitie...
Modeling Project Management<br />ChangingtheProcessLandscape<br />
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Change:<br />need<br />Necessity<br />As-isanalysis<br />-<br />Application<br />/ <br />Observation<br />Target definitio...
Reorganisation Causes Changes<br />Changes cause<br />Uncertainty<br />Tensions <br />Disavowals<br />Conflicts<br />The s...
Resistances in Reorganisational Projects<br />Why is resistance a topic of change?<br />What is resistance and how is it e...
The Part of the Psychological Dimension<br />Estimated 2/3 of planned changes do not reach their aim or fail.<br />Reasons...
The Part of the Psychological Dimension<br />Formal organisation<br />Informal organisation<br />
Resistance Against the Changes in Organisations<br />Resistance is a force, that aims to keep or to recover the status quo...
Different Occurrences of Resistance<br />Nonverbal (attitude)<br />Verbal (speak)<br />Discomposure,<br />concerns, argume...
Reactance<br />Strong external impact and basic reorganisations are perceived as threats of freedom and self-determination...
Establishment of Acceptance 1/2<br />Human being are experts on their own problems<br />The quality of own solutions is hi...
Establishment of AcceptanceConcepts of Quality Development and Mediation<br />Modification instead of insistence<br />Proc...
Establishment of acceptanceApproaches of the PICTURE method<br />Integration of employees:The consistent and simple descri...
Establishment of AcceptanceApproaches of the PICTURE Method<br />Transparent process landscape:The standardised descriptio...
Process-Oriented ReorganisationIntroduction of the Processes<br />The introduction of new structures is beside their desig...
Process-Oriented ReorganisationIntroduction of the Processes – Project Marketing<br />Establish acceptance<br />Constant c...
Modeling Project Management<br />Continuous process management<br />
Recommendation to Install a Continuous Process Management<br />Necessity of a continuous process management<br />Dynamic d...
Process-Oriented OrganisationContinuous Process Management<br />After the process oriented reorganisation: continuous proc...
Recommendation to Install a Continuous Process Management<br />Introduction of new roles<br />Process responsible<br />Sec...
Process-Oriented OrganisationContinuous Process Management – Process Model<br />Implementation of the processes and contin...
Process-Oriented OrganisationContinuous Process Management – Process Model<br />Redefinition of objectives<br />Analysis m...
·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projecto...
Questions that You Are Able to Answer<br />Which processes exist in our organisation?<br />Common process register<br />Ho...
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  1. 1. Process Management ImplementationProcedure model and Resistance to Change<br />
  2. 2. Adaption Efficiency<br />Resource Efficiency<br />Functional<br />Organisational Structure<br />Process<br />Efficiency<br />Motivation<br />Efficiency<br />Delegation Efficiency<br />Market Efficiency<br />Design ofOrganisationsClassic: Functional Organisation<br />
  3. 3. Management<br />Central departments<br />Controlling<br />IT<br />Personnel<br />Finances<br />Division C<br />(Non-foodmarkets)<br />Division B<br />(Supermarkets)<br />Division A<br />(Warehousing)<br />Dispo-sition<br />Sorti-ments<br />Adver-tising<br />Dispo-sition<br />Sorti-ments<br />Adver-tising<br />Sorti-ments<br />Dispo-sition<br />Adver-tising<br />Design of OrganisationsClassic: Divisional Organisation<br />Organisational units are formed by the needs of external clients<br />
  4. 4. Adaption Efficiency<br />Resource Efficiency<br />Divisional Organisation Structure<br />Motivation<br />Efficiency<br />Process<br />Efficiency<br />Market Efficiency<br />Delegation Efficiency<br />Design of OrganisationsClassic: Divisional Organisation<br />
  5. 5. Sales/ <br />Stores<br />Procurement<br />Logistics<br />Topic A:<br />Seniors<br />Topic B:<br />WeeklyActivities<br />Topic C:<br />Double earner<br />Design of OrganisationsModern: Process-Oriented Organisation<br />Organisational units are formed on the basis of business objects<br />Allocation of former splitted functions to organisational units on the basis of objects, definition of process owners<br />
  6. 6. Design of OrganisationsModern: Process-Oriented Organisation<br />Organisational units are formed on the basis of business objects<br />Allocation of former splitted functions to organisational units on the basis of objects, definition of process owners<br />
  7. 7. Resource Efficiency<br />Adaption Efficiency<br />Functional<br />Organisational Structure<br />Divisional<br />Organisational Structure<br />Motivation<br />Efficiency<br />Process<br />Efficiency<br />Process-Oriented<br />Organisational Structure<br />Process-Oriented<br />Organisational Structure<br />Market Efficiency<br />Delegation Efficiency<br />Design of OrganisationsModern: Process-Oriented Organisation<br />
  8. 8. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodellingresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Procedure Model for Process Management with PICTURE<br />
  9. 9. Modeling Project Management<br />Procedure Model<br />
  10. 10. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodellingresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Project Management<br />
  11. 11. Project ManagementObjectives<br />Objectives are the fundamental basis for planning, controlling and supervising activities<br />Objectives<br />Benefit objectives = intention of the project(e.g. forming of an efficient flow organisation and an efficient organisational structure)‘ Basis for later definitions of modelling intentions<br />Formal objective = further constraints<br />Costs  expenditure on material and human resources<br />Times  schedule<br />End of project<br />Milestones<br />
  12. 12. Steering committee<br />Decision maker and surveying unit of the project<br />Leader<br />Coordination of the project team<br />Team<br />Methodical anddepartment experts<br />Example:<br />Project ManagementOrganisation oftheproject<br />
  13. 13. Tasks<br />Surveying and steering<br />Ensure the predefined objectives<br />Methods of the project controlling<br />Match of: project results – the management – strategic objectives of the administration<br />Balancing as-is and to-be variables<br />Use of project management software – methodical patency (e.g. use process models for project planning)<br />Adjustment of capacities<br />Prioritisation of critical activities<br />Permanent check of efficiency<br />...<br />Project ManagementControlling<br />
  14. 14. Create readiness of change<br />Involve employees in the brainstorming of potential solutions<br />Ensure the commitment of the executives<br />Precise differentiation of different project tasks<br />Precise milestones and deadlines<br />Free capacities of the affected employees<br />Motivate the team members<br />Increase implementation competences<br />Project ManagementCritical SuccessFactors<br />
  15. 15. Modeling Project Management<br />Goal definition<br />
  16. 16. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Need of Goal Oriented Modelling<br />„The one without any objective won‘t find the right way“<br />The objectives have to be predefined at the beginning of the modelling job<br />
  17. 17. Sample Modelling Objectives<br />Organisational<br />Information Systems<br />Engineering<br />Engineering<br />Documentationof the Organisation<br />Selection of<br />(ERP)<br />Software<br />Ereignis A<br />Model-based<br />Process-oriented <br />Customising<br />Reorganisation <br />Funktion A<br />XOR<br />Ereignis B<br />Ereignis C<br />Continuous Business Process <br />Software<br />development<br />Funktion A<br />Funktion C<br />Management <br />Ereignis D<br />Ereignis E<br />XOR<br />Workflow<br />Benchmarking<br />XOR<br />Management<br />Folgeprozess<br />Folgeprozess<br />Knowledge<br />Simulation<br />Management<br />Rosemann (2003):<br />Prozessmanagement, p. 58.<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Target Fields of Process Modelling<br />
  20. 20. Priorities of Target Fields<br />very important<br />important<br />neutral<br />less important<br />unimportant<br />
  21. 21. Project Example<br />
  22. 22. Modellingwith PICTURE<br />Scope Definition<br />
  23. 23. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Identify Scope of Activity<br />The analysis is focused on the scope of activity<br />It should be outlined precisely<br />
  24. 24. Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyFunctions of a Regulation Framework<br />Control the complexity of a huge amount of networked processes<br />Need of a superior model which demonstrate the coherency of the processes and facilitates the navigation through different models<br /> model with a high degree of abstraction <br />Definition:A regulation framework structures relevant elements of a master as well as their relations amongst each other in a highly abstract way. The choice of structure and of the used language is free. The intention of a regulation framework is to convey an overview of the master and to point out the relations between elements and relations of different levels of abstraction.[Meise (2001), S.62]<br />
  25. 25. Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyFunctions of a Regulation Framework<br />Fundamental focus: Revelation of superior relations<br />Forming of a consistent set of synonyms and notions<br />Representation of the new organisational structure<br />Logo<br />Static frameworks are not suitable for a dynamic atmosphere<br />Use of traditional and old notions does not create any awareness of new structures<br />There is no need of a defined modelling language<br />
  26. 26. Regulation Frameworks ofthe Public BodyConstructionProcessof a Regulation Framework<br />Take two important aspects into account:<br />Strategic component<br />Development of a structure for the new organisational design on the basis of strategic considerations<br />Graphical component<br />Translation of the structure in a graphical representation with the objectives<br />overview<br />Collocation<br />Communication platform<br />
  27. 27. Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyStrategic Component<br />Definition of the objectives of the process management project<br />Content<br />Dimension<br />Timeline<br />Define macro structure<br />Market-based, external view – 80s<br />Resource-based, internal view) – 90s<br />Combined strategy - today<br />Identification of core-, coordination- and support-processes<br />General identification of processes; e.g. on the basis of reference models (deductive method)<br />Individual identification of processes (inductive method)<br />
  28. 28. Regulation Frameworks of the Public BodyGraphical Component<br />Reorganisational projects can only be successful with the support of the employees<br />Possibility to influence the point of view of the employees with the help of a regulation framework<br />Gain attention<br />Base-Rate-Fallacy<br />When estimating probabilities, agile sensations are rated higher than static ones (graphic vs. tons of numbers)<br />Perceivability Bias<br />Components that are easily perceivable are higher rated than the ones that are difficult to perceive<br />The perceivability depends on<br />The spatial alignment of the elements (hierarchies)<br />Size<br />Forms, colours, fonts<br />
  29. 29. Regulation Frameworks ofthe Public BodyReference Design<br />Basic structure of reference design “house”<br />Meise (2000)<br />
  30. 30. Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />Meise (2000)<br />
  31. 31. Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />“Retail-H”<br />
  32. 32. Mgmt<br />Controlling, Quality Management<br />Routing<br />Prozesse<br />Entitlement<br />Daten<br />Logging<br />Functions<br />Data<br />Qualifikation<br />Processes<br />EK<br />ML<br />Onsite Service<br />Order Processing<br />Support Accounting<br />CostAccounting<br />Human Resources<br />Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />Call-Center-Σ<br />
  33. 33. Samples ofregulationframeworks<br />Y-CIM-Model<br />
  34. 34. Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />House-of-Facilities<br />
  35. 35. Samples of Regulation Frameworks<br />IT-department<br />
  36. 36. Regulation Frameworks ofthe Public BodyCommune GK5<br />
  37. 37. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Capturing of Processes as a Source for the FutureAnalysis and Evaluation<br />
  38. 38. Capturing Methods<br />Interview (oral interrogation)<br />Questionnaire (written interrogation)<br />Observation<br />Activity sampling<br />Study of documentations<br />Self-logging<br />Routeing slips<br />
  39. 39. Sample Contents<br />Task<br />What has to be done?<br />How is it to do?<br />Which items are to be dealt with?<br />Responsible<br />Who is responsible for the process?<br />Which qualifications are required?<br />Resources<br />Which resources are needed?<br />Which performance features should they have?<br />Information<br />Which information is available / needed and requested?<br />
  40. 40. Interview<br />The interviewer (analyst) leads the interrogation<br />Different forms of interviews<br />Standardised interviews based on a questionnaire<br />Half-standardised interviews with a predefined block of content as well as a flexible scheme of questions on the basis of a structured interviewing guideline.<br />Non-standardised interviews based on an open guideline.<br />
  41. 41. Questionnaire<br />The questions are written down and then sent to the recipients<br />Particularly with regard to a bigger number of respondents (10-20 employees or more)<br />Questions that do not need any further explanations<br />To capture quantitative data (counting, measuring)<br />Similar respondents<br />
  42. 42. Observation<br />Observation of the activities<br />Different forms of observations<br />Structured observation<br />The observer documents his observations in predefined categories (e.g. Activity sampling)<br />Unstructured observation<br />Only rough main categories as kind of a framework (e.g. permanent observation)<br />
  43. 43. Activity Sampling<br />Objective of an activity sampling is to conclude based on a small number of cases (the sample) the entire set of possible events<br />Observation of the interesting issue multiple times<br />Forms of activity sampling<br />Counting of frequencies<br />Measurement of durations<br />
  44. 44. Activity Sampling<br />Definition of the objective<br />Definition of the observing characteristics<br />Definition of the number of observations ( determine the accuracy)<br />Definition of the number of tours<br />Definition of the start time of the tours<br />Consider work time and flexitime<br />Definition of the routes<br />Design observation form<br />Observation<br />Evaluation<br />
  45. 45. Interviews as one Instrument to Capture Processes<br />Interview are THE instrument to gather knowledge about processes<br />Basic idea: bottom-up approach with functional focus<br />Possibility to immediately develop enhancement proposals of the employees<br />High acceptance of the employees (small expenditure of time)<br />Multilevel approach<br />Alternative 1Interview and process modelling at the same time; affirmation through the employee afterwards<br />Alternative 2Interview based on electronic guidelines; later modelling of processes; affirmation through the employee at the end<br />
  46. 46. Efforts of an Interview<br /> The methodis fast evenwhendonemanually<br />
  47. 47. Interviews as one Instrument to Capture Processes<br />Alternative 1 – Interview and process modelling at the same time; affirmation through the employee afterwards<br />+ faster description of the processes within the software<br />+ possibility to affirm the contents with the software<br />- Not possible with all kinds of processes<br />- Information is lost because of the strong focus on software<br />Alternative 2 – Interview based on electronic guidelines; later modelling of processes; affirmation through the employee at the end<br />+ open negotiation<br />+ focus on respondent and on the subject, not on a tool<br />- later description in the software tool<br />
  48. 48. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Need of Targeted Modelling<br />„The onewithoutanyobjectivewon‘t find therightway“<br />The Objectiveshavetobepredefinedatthebeginningofthemodellingjob<br />
  49. 49. Negotiation – Attitudes<br />Attitudes<br />Interest and curiosity: explore subjective perception<br />Respondents as experts: the respondent are always right – the major aspect is the subjective point of view; even contradiction may be right<br />Empathy: try to think the way the respondent does<br />Conscious naivety: methodically controlled ignorance<br />
  50. 50. Negotiation – Handy Rules<br />Beginning: achieve good atmosphere (friendly, open, relaxed)<br />Listen carefully: listen exactly and ask precise questions; do not interrupt<br />Signalise respect, interest and attentiveness: eye contact<br />Affirm (mhm); take the respondent serious<br />Do not show your own point of view<br />No scepticism (“really?”) or disagreement (“I can’t believe it”)<br />No agreement (“same here”)<br />No astonishment (“Seriously?!”)<br />No ingratiation (“Good job man”)<br />
  51. 51. Negotiation – Handy Rules<br />Green questions: let the respondent explain special notions, activities and situations! Even aspects that seem to be self-evident!<br />No overhasty judgements: it is better to ask again than to agree to fast<br />Short, comprehensive questions: not to complex, difficult…<br />No theoretical notions (identity, professionalism, socialisation) except with experts<br />Endure silence<br />Possible functions: structure thoughts, dramaturgical<br />If bewilderment: ask again<br />Do not preserve the opposite: endure difficult subjects and ask difficult questions but do not insist!<br />
  52. 52. Practice<br />Choose interviewees (key persons)<br />First contact: pre meeting, precise arrangements<br />Clarify objectives and the process (subjects; time, place, attendants)<br />Record: sometimes reasonable (ask in advance)<br />Handling of the data: affirm anonymity and clarify use<br />Accomplishment: Known place and enough time<br />Finish: express gratitude; if necessary arrange further contacts<br />
  53. 53. Possible Problems<br />Objective unclear<br />Expectations not ratified<br />External annoyances<br />Lack of confidence <br />Person<br />Interviewer<br />Subject too difficult, awkward<br />
  54. 54. Next Steps<br />Protocol (same day)general conditions; conversation; informal conversation (without recordings); abnormalities; first thesis/presumptions<br />Affirmation of the results<br />Evaluation<br />
  55. 55. The electronic interview guideline<br />
  56. 56. Modeling Project Management<br />AnalysingtheProcessLandscape<br />
  57. 57. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />Where We Are<br />Workshop<br />Deducedemandofinformationandconfiguremethod<br />Identifyandmatchprocessesandcreateregisterofprocesses<br />As-Is Analysis on thebasisofmanagedinterviewsandelectr. guidelines<br />Transfer results in thetoolas well as in reportsandproposals<br />
  58. 58. As-Is Analysis ofProcessesofthe Public BodyAnalysis ofthe Models<br />Evaluation of the as-is models on the basis of predefined objectives of the public body<br />Economics (e.g. cost savings)<br />Service and quality (e.g. acceleration of processes)<br />Organisation (e.g. documentation of the organisation)<br />IT (e.g. realisation of online applications)<br />Operationalisation Identification of weak points, particularly in<br />IT-support of processes<br />Organisational structure and flow-orientation<br />Use of reference models and benchmarks as a basis of comparison for the identification of weak points <br />
  59. 59. Elimination <br />Parallelisation<br />Avoidanceofrebounds<br />Simplification<br />Standardisation<br />Acceleration<br />Modificationsof IT-support<br />To-Be Model andProcessOptimisationforthe Public BodyPossibleModifications<br />
  60. 60. To-Be Model andProcessOptimisationforthe Public BodyPossibleModifications<br />
  61. 61. Experiences out of Past Modelling Projects<br />Similar weak points can be found in all processes in all public bodies<br />No professional justification<br />Reason lies in the general characteristic of the administration of documents and the processing of business transactions<br />Several processes only include small reorganisational potential which can be immediately made available<br />The reorganisational activities which promise to have the best potential enhancements include overlapping activities rather than cross-sectional technologies and are only profitable when embracing many processes<br /> Present approaches are just suitable for small reorganisational modifications<br />
  62. 62. Repeating Samples of Problems<br />Processes are intransparent<br />Ambiguity of dependences and coherences may lead to failures<br />Delegation cause problems<br />Distribution of tasks cause problems (everyone is doing everything)<br />Processes are undefined<br />Many contact persons<br />Many contact channels<br />Difficult coordination without control<br />Communication is inconsistent<br />Informal in the front-office vs. formal in the back-office<br />SG A to SG B – unbureaucratic / SG B to SG A - bureaucratic<br />
  63. 63. Examples of Overall EnhancementsOrganisational<br />Setup of a central HR changemanagement<br />Thereexistmanyprocessesconcerning HR<br />Problem: Nooronlywidespreadresponsibilites, lowtransparency<br />Adoption ofconsistentrulestooptimisethewayofpaperbasedcommunicationwithinthedepartments<br />Long processing time causedbytheinternalpaperbasedcommunications<br />Adoption of a process-basedrisk-, quality-, andcomplaint-management<br />High estimatednumberofunreportedcasesofcomplaints<br />Objective: Establishment ofpossibilitiestoenhancethequalityandtopreventcrises<br />
  64. 64. Examples of Overall EnhancementsTechnical<br />Adoption of a fax solution for the whole public body<br />Many possibilities to replace letters by fax or e-mail<br />E.g. changes in timetables:<br />40 cases p.a.<br />Documents of 5-20 pages, sent to up-to 15 persons per case<br />Print, copy, mailing<br />Many advantages through e-fax or e-mail<br />Media disruption caused by fax (print, fax, scan)<br />Allocation problems caused by a single fax of a department<br />Unification and standardisation of fax and e-mail channels<br />There already exist IT-approaches, but they are not implemented yet because of lacking demand!<br />Displacement of paper-based laws by online solutions<br />
  65. 65. Modeling Project Management<br />ChangingtheProcessLandscape<br />
  66. 66. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />The Following Steps<br />Presentation in front oftheconcernedemployees<br />Makethecontentavailableto all employeesconcerned so far.<br />Implementationofthe shownproposals<br />Institutionalisationoftheprocessmanagement<br />
  67. 67. Change:<br />need<br />Necessity<br />As-isanalysis<br />-<br />Application<br />/ <br />Observation<br />Target definition<br />Circle of Quality in a <br />Concept<br />Testing<br />/<br />Learning Organisation<br />Evaluation<br />Measure<br />Realisation<br />/ <br />planning<br />Introduction<br />Project planning<br />Circle of Quality<br />
  68. 68. Reorganisation Causes Changes<br />Changes cause<br />Uncertainty<br />Tensions <br />Disavowals<br />Conflicts<br />The strength of the reactions depends on<br />the historical organisation<br />the culture of the organisation<br />Conflicts<br />Cause costs<br />Lead to a high expenditure of time <br />Damage the agency (e.g. with judicial actions)<br />Influence the working atmosphere <br />
  69. 69. Resistances in Reorganisational Projects<br />Why is resistance a topic of change?<br />What is resistance and how is it expressed?<br />What are reasons of resistance?<br />How does resistance appear? Why does change seems to be that hard?<br />What can be done?<br />
  70. 70. The Part of the Psychological Dimension<br />Estimated 2/3 of planned changes do not reach their aim or fail.<br />Reasons: interdependence between many different causes, e.g. a wrong idea of the organisation or of the human factor.<br />Organisations are no machines; human beings are no small wheels in a gear, that can be changed by a small adjustment of rules<br />It is essential to gain the employees actively for the upcoming changes!<br />
  71. 71. The Part of the Psychological Dimension<br />Formal organisation<br />Informal organisation<br />
  72. 72. Resistance Against the Changes in Organisations<br />Resistance is a force, that aims to keep or to recover the status quo and that tries to prevent or to stop the change.<br />In contrast, acceptance is only reached, if there exist a positive readiness to act. (z.n. Taut, 2001)<br />
  73. 73. Different Occurrences of Resistance<br />Nonverbal (attitude)<br />Verbal (speak)<br />Discomposure,<br />concerns, arguments, rumours, forming of cliques, etc.<br />Disagreement<br />contradiction, criticism, threats, polemic, tenacious formalism, etc.<br />Active (attack)<br />Passive (escape)<br />Avoidance<br />silence, to daff, to trivialise, to mock, to debate unimportant things, etc.<br />Inactivity,<br />inattention, tiredness, absence, emigration, etc. <br />
  74. 74. Reactance<br />Strong external impact and basic reorganisations are perceived as threats of freedom and self-determination and can breed reactance.<br />The extend of reactance depends on the importance of the threatened freedom and the strength of planned constraints.<br />
  75. 75. Establishment of Acceptance 1/2<br />Human being are experts on their own problems<br />The quality of own solutions is higher than external proposals<br />Concerned persons tend to implement their own solutions more consequently<br /> Concerned persons should get involved ones<br />
  76. 76. Establishment of AcceptanceConcepts of Quality Development and Mediation<br />Modification instead of insistence<br />Process as a methodical basis<br />Lead of the process by professional third parties<br />Diagnosis of the As-is state<br />Development of visions instead of permanent disasters<br />Mediation of solutions<br />Mediation of agreements<br />Start of visionary activities<br />Implementation and evaluation of made agreements<br />Social approach: participation<br />Valuation of the concerned persons<br />
  77. 77. Establishment of acceptanceApproaches of the PICTURE method<br />Integration of employees:The consistent and simple description of the processes by using the PICTURE components allows employees and executive positions to document their processes by themselves. This leads to an integration of the employees into the modernisation project and establishes acceptance from the beginning. Moreover the knowledge about the processes is recorded exactly where it exists.<br />How to apply the PICTURE method:The PICTURE method consists of a process-oriented guideline that is fitted to the public sector. It can be used for precise project definitions, for the planning of individual steps of a procedure and for role allocations.<br />
  78. 78. Establishment of AcceptanceApproaches of the PICTURE Method<br />Transparent process landscape:The standardised description and the work-sharing documentation of the processes by the integration of employees allows that almost the whole process landscape can be captured and not only single and regional constricted processes.<br />
  79. 79. Process-Oriented ReorganisationIntroduction of the Processes<br />The introduction of new structures is beside their design an essential part of process management<br />Strategies<br />Pilot<br />Introduction of new processes in one location and in one functional area<br />Step-by-Step<br />Introduction of new processes in one location or in one functional area<br />Big-Bang<br />Introduction of new processes in all locations and in all functional areas<br />
  80. 80. Process-Oriented ReorganisationIntroduction of the Processes – Project Marketing<br />Establish acceptance<br />Constant communication of objectives<br />Communicate awareness of problems<br />Influence by executives<br />Think of incentives<br />Early trainings<br />Strengthen exchange of experiences and information<br />Manage transparency by documentation<br />Concept of communication<br />Road shows<br />Personal meetings<br />Internal and external publications<br />Multimedia presentations<br />Training concept<br />Differentiated trainings for executives, middle management, referees and process managers<br />Trainings of expertise and methodology<br />
  81. 81. Modeling Project Management<br />Continuous process management<br />
  82. 82. Recommendation to Install a Continuous Process Management<br />Necessity of a continuous process management<br />Dynamic determining factors:<br />Evolutionary implementation of reorganisation activities<br />Changing objectives in the process design<br />
  83. 83. Process-Oriented OrganisationContinuous Process Management<br />After the process oriented reorganisation: continuous process management<br />Incremental, consistent improvements of the flow orientation<br />The role of continuous process management<br />Answer to a changing environment<br />Continuous management of interfaces especially concerning unclear and wider design problems<br />Continuous check of the achievement of predefined aims in process and resource efficiency as well as target costs  basis for new enhancements<br />Continuous attendance of the implementation and the associated modifications of the underlying process model<br />Consecutive communication and advancement of the “thinking in processes”<br />Implementation of process oriented controling instruments (e.g. workflow management)<br />
  84. 84. Recommendation to Install a Continuous Process Management<br />Introduction of new roles<br />Process responsible<br />Secondary permanent job<br />Responsible for efficiency and effectiveness of the assigned processes<br />Responsible for the application of the reorganisation activities<br />Executive of the leading organisational unit<br />Process manager<br />Bundling of activities of internal project managers and external method experts<br />Methodical support of the process responsible<br />Accomplishment of trainings<br />
  85. 85. Process-Oriented OrganisationContinuous Process Management – Process Model<br />Implementation of the processes and continuous process management<br />Runtime<br />Roll-out of the new processes<br />Monitoring, capturing of process data (instance- and exception-data)<br />Analysis<br />Collection and presentation of process data<br />Concentration of process data, aggregation to performance indicators<br />Evaluation of the performance indicators and comparison with to-be values<br />
  86. 86. Process-Oriented OrganisationContinuous Process Management – Process Model<br />Redefinition of objectives<br />Analysis may lead to a redefinition of original objectives<br />Reasons:<br />Changed environment<br />Inefficiencies of processes caused by erroneous implementation or modeling<br />Modelling and implementation<br />Determination of the need for changes<br />Apply modifications<br />Smaller modifications: complementation of the concerned documents<br />Broad modifications: if necessary remodelling<br />Establish modifications<br /> New cycle of the continuous process management<br />
  87. 87. ·<br />Defineobjectives<br />·<br />Defineaffectedenvironment<br />·<br />Create projectplanning<br />·<br />Form projectorganisation<br />·<br />Form projectcontrolling<br />Project<br />·<br />Take factorsofsuccessintoaccount<br />Management<br />·<br />Defineinformationneeds<br />·<br />Configuremethod<br />·<br />Informemployees<br />Preparationof<br />processmodelling<br />·<br />Identifyprocesses<br />·<br />Choosecapturingscenarios<br />·<br />Increasemethodicalexpertise<br />·<br />Capture processes<br />Modelling of<br />processlandscape<br />·<br />Consolidateprocesses<br />-<br />·<br />Prepareprocessmodels<br />·<br />Anayseandevaluate<br />Useof<br />processlandcape<br />Processmodels<br />-<br />·<br />Design processlandscape<br />·<br />Definemodelinglresponsible<br />-<br />·<br />Create maintenanceguidelines<br />Continuousprocess<br />management<br />·<br />Organisational establishmentof<br />processresponsibilities<br />
  88. 88. Questions that You Are Able to Answer<br />Which processes exist in our organisation?<br />Common process register<br />How does the processes run?<br />Simple and reproducible documentation of the processes with responsibilities, documents and associations to organisational units and products<br />Which potential enhancement is possible in the processes?<br />Enhancements focused on specific processes as well as across multiple processes<br />Qualitative and quantitative conclusions<br />Is the adoption of a specific software profitable for us?<br />Quantified potential of software (e.g. DMS-Systems)<br />What are the demands on new IT methods?<br />Process oriented analysis and identification of demands on IT by involving the user<br />How can a continuous process management be installed?<br />Nomination of process responsibilities<br />Nomination and introduction of a process manager<br />

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