Workflow ManagementBasics of Workflow Managementand Workflow Modeling Languages<br />
Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectso...
Workflow Managementis the automatedCoordination  and Control    of    Business Processes<br />[Joosten 97]<br />z. B. clai...
Workflow Management – Terms andDefinitions<br />A Workflowis a businessprocess, whose<br />actitivytransitionsarecontrolle...
Workflow Types<br />Ad Hoc:  <br />Goal: Quick reaction to simple but unforeseen situations (e.g. “FYI”-E-Mail)<br />Simpl...
Production<br />Collaborative<br />LoanApproval,<br />Claim Settlement<br />Documentation,<br />SoftwareEngineering<br />A...
Workflow Instances – Build Time vs. Run Time<br />Build time<br />Modelling of Workflows<br />Run time<br />Execution of W...
Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectso...
Software Architectures – Monolithic Application Systems<br />Monolithic<br />Application Systems<br />
Software Architectures – DBMS based Application Systems<br />Applicationand<br />ProcessLogic<br />Data Management<br />DB...
Application<br />Logic<br />Software Architectures – WfMS based Application Systems<br />ProcessLogic<br />Data Management...
Software Architectures – Component based Application Systems<br />ProcessLogic<br />Compo-nentC<br />Enter-<br />prise<br ...
Application Systems TypesfortheImplementationof different Workflow Types<br />WfMS<br />ProjectManagement<br />Groupware/<...
Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectso...
Benefits of Workflow Management It’s done by the best user!<br />Every taskisassignedautomatically<br />Profile of each us...
Benefits of Workflow Management All necessary tasks are performed<br />Case consists of multiple activities<br />Invokes p...
Benefits of Workflow Management Information is easily accessible<br />Invoke applications<br />Terminal emulation (screen ...
Benefits of Workflow ManagementInterface to data systems<br />No interface – used side by side<br />Minimal interface <br ...
Benefits of Workflow ManagementLogging and tracking<br />Typical systems provide<br />Automatic processing history <br />D...
Benefits of Workflow Management Automated monitoring<br />Reporting and analysis<br />Work accomplished<br />Total volume<...
Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectso...
Different TypesofProcess Models<br />Process Model<br />Workflow Process Model<br />Business Process Model<br />Workflow M...
Separation Criteriafor Business Process Model Activities<br />Separation ofactivities, whenever<br />thereis a changeofthe...
Separation Criteriafor Workflow Process Model Activities<br />Separation ofactivities, whenever<br />thereis a changeofthe...
Customer<br />oder<br />arrives<br />Process<br />customer<br />order<br />Transformation of Business Process Models to Wo...
Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectso...
AllocationofAppropriateParticipantsto Workflow Activities<br />Employeewhoexecutes a workflowactivity,<br />hastobequalifi...
Allocation of Workflow Participants to ActivitiesDirect Allocation<br />A participant is allocated directly to an activity...
Allocation of Workflow Participants to ActivitiesRole-based Allocation<br />Role: Set of qualifications and competencies<b...
Allocation of Workflow Participants to ActivitiesAllocation with Formal Expressions<br />Allocation interpreting a formal ...
Object Types in Resource Models (1/2)<br />Employee<br />Human resource that is able to execute activities<br />Organisati...
Object Types in Resource Models (2/2)<br />Organisational unit<br />Cluster of positions<br />Temporary or permanent<br />...
Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspects ...
Digression:Meta Modeling<br />
Language Design<br />Languagescanbethesubjectofscientificanalysis<br />Theoryoflogiclanguagelayers<br />Objectlanguage: su...
Language Layers<br />
Language Oriented Meta-ization<br />Languages<br />… defineconceptsthatcanbeusedtobuildmodels<br />… canbe, in turn, repre...
Model Layersof Language Oriented Meta-ization<br />
ProcessOriented Meta-ization<br />Instructions<br />… determinetheprocessofmodelling in a particularmodellinglanguage<br /...
Model LayersofProcessOriented Meta-ization<br />
ExemplaryLanguagesfor Language OrientedMetaModelling<br />Language OrientedMetaModelling:<br />Languagesthatareabletorepre...
Example: The ERM Meta Model in ERM Notation<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
ExemplaryLanguagesforProcessOrientedMetaModelling<br />ProcessOrientedMetaModelling:<br />Languagesthatareabletorepresenta...
Thankyou<br />
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08 worlflow management

  1. 1. Workflow ManagementBasics of Workflow Managementand Workflow Modeling Languages<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectsof Workflow ModellingLanguages<br />Workflow Process<br />Workflow Participants<br />Designing Workflow Process Modelling Languages<br />
  3. 3. Workflow Managementis the automatedCoordination and Control of Business Processes<br />[Joosten 97]<br />z. B. claim settlement,<br />loan approval,<br />stock transaction,<br />order management<br />e.g. delegation,<br />initiation of activities,<br />reminder, <br />monitoring,<br />role resolution<br />z. B. property rights,escalation,deadlines<br />Workflow Management – Terms andDefinitions<br />
  4. 4. Workflow Management – Terms andDefinitions<br />A Workflowis a businessprocess, whose<br />actitivytransitionsarecontrolledby an<br />applicationsystem.<br />A Workflow Management Systemis an application system, with that workflows can be defined, administrated and executed. The order of execution is determined by a formal representation of the process logic within the application system.<br />
  5. 5. Workflow Types<br />Ad Hoc: <br />Goal: Quick reaction to simple but unforeseen situations (e.g. “FYI”-E-Mail)<br />Simple process that can be defined within 5 minutes to one hour<br />Collaborative:<br />Goal: Improvement of collaborative work<br />Integration of multiple teams<br />Unique, creative process (e.g. software engineering)<br />Administrative:<br />Goal: administrative cost savings<br />Formal process, medium amount of instances (e.g. accounting)<br />Production:<br />Goal: Increase of productivity and quality in high-load processes<br />Formal process, high amount of instances, response time < sec., secure processes (e.g. loan approval, claim settlement)<br />
  6. 6. Production<br />Collaborative<br />LoanApproval,<br />Claim Settlement<br />Documentation,<br />SoftwareEngineering<br />Administrative<br />AdHoc<br />Travel ExpenseReimbursement,Request for<br />Leave<br />FYI Mail,<br />Ad-hoc<br />Delegation<br />Workflow Types<br />Value Creation<br />Repetitive<br />Process<br />Unique<br />Process<br />Cf. „Selectinga Workflow Product“, BIS<br />
  7. 7. Workflow Instances – Build Time vs. Run Time<br />Build time<br />Modelling of Workflows<br />Run time<br />Execution of Workflows<br />
  8. 8. Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectsof Workflow ModellingLanguages<br />Workflow Process<br />Workflow Participants<br />Designing Workflow Process Modelling Languages<br />
  9. 9. Software Architectures – Monolithic Application Systems<br />Monolithic<br />Application Systems<br />
  10. 10. Software Architectures – DBMS based Application Systems<br />Applicationand<br />ProcessLogic<br />Data Management<br />DBMS<br />
  11. 11. Application<br />Logic<br />Software Architectures – WfMS based Application Systems<br />ProcessLogic<br />Data Management<br />WFMS<br />DBMS<br />
  12. 12. Software Architectures – Component based Application Systems<br />ProcessLogic<br />Compo-nentC<br />Enter-<br />prise<br />Service<br />Compo-nentB<br />ERPModule<br />Compo-nentA<br />Data Management<br />Office<br />Package<br />WFMS<br />DBMS<br />
  13. 13. Application Systems TypesfortheImplementationof different Workflow Types<br />WfMS<br />ProjectManagement<br />Groupware/<br />Mail<br />Ad Hoc<br />Collaborative<br />Administrative<br />Production<br />
  14. 14. Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectsof Workflow ModellingLanguages<br />Workflow Process<br />Workflow Participants<br />Designing Workflow Process Modelling Languages<br />
  15. 15. Benefits of Workflow Management It’s done by the best user!<br />Every taskisassignedautomatically<br />Profile of each user (qualifications)<br />Prioritization by age, type of work<br />Multi-step routing, including parallel paths, rendezvous<br />Task-Distribution<br />Push (send work)<br />Pull (user selects)<br />Time<br />Participant can be a person or “robot” <br />
  16. 16. Benefits of Workflow Management All necessary tasks are performed<br />Case consists of multiple activities<br />Invokes programs or program pieces<br />Manual processing steps<br />Completion<br />Status change controls flow (approved, reject)<br />Hold for later processing<br />Change flow for exceptions<br />
  17. 17. Benefits of Workflow Management Information is easily accessible<br />Invoke applications<br />Terminal emulation (screen scraping)<br />Direct interface<br />Move data with workflow<br />Images<br />Documents<br />Multi-Media<br />Links<br />Integration in the sense of EAI only via Data!<br />
  18. 18. Benefits of Workflow ManagementInterface to data systems<br />No interface – used side by side<br />Minimal interface <br />Move key identification (e.g. contract number) from workflow to existing screens (HLLAPI)<br />Popular with users, low cost<br />Workflow invokes legacy systems<br />Autonomous workflow drives the application<br />Legacy systems invoke workflow<br />Embedded workflow in the applications<br />
  19. 19. Benefits of Workflow ManagementLogging and tracking<br />Typical systems provide<br />Automatic processing history <br />Date<br />Time<br />Person<br />disposition for each step<br />User comments<br />Explanation of variance<br />special circumstances<br />Search for work in process<br />Determine status of work<br />If qualified, “select” and process work <br />
  20. 20. Benefits of Workflow Management Automated monitoring<br />Reporting and analysis<br />Work accomplished<br />Total volume<br />Turn-around time<br />Productivity of individuals, teams, groups<br />Errors and error rates<br />User controlled alarms<br />
  21. 21. Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectsof Workflow ModellingLanguages<br />Workflow Process<br />Workflow Participants<br />Designing Workflow ProcessModellingLanguages<br />The Infinity Workflow ProcessModelling Language<br />Designing Workflow ResourceModellingLanguages<br />The Infinity Workflow ResourceModelling Language<br />
  22. 22. Different TypesofProcess Models<br />Process Model<br />Workflow Process Model<br />Business Process Model<br />Workflow Management,<br />Process Automation<br />Organisational Design, BusinesProcessReengineering, etc.<br />
  23. 23. Separation Criteriafor Business Process Model Activities<br />Separation ofactivities, whenever<br />thereis a changeoftheexecutingprocessparticipant<br />thereis a changeoftheresponsibleprocessparticipant<br />thereis a changeoftheprocessobject (e.g. invoice, account etc.)<br />Modellingofvalueaddingactivities(searchorcoordinationareusually not partof a businessprocess model)<br />Modellingofapplications on activitybasis(coarsegranularity)<br />Categorisedmodellingof organisational structures<br />Execution<br />Responsibility<br />Information demand („hastobeinformed“)<br />…<br />
  24. 24. Separation Criteriafor Workflow Process Model Activities<br />Separation ofactivities, whenever<br />thereis a changeoftheexecutingprocessparticipant<br />thereis a changeoftheinvokedapplication<br />thereis a changeofworkflowdata<br />Explicit modellingofcoordinationanddecisionaspects(fine granular!)<br />Modellingofapplications on interfacebasis(granularityofexecutiondeterminesgranularityofactivities!)<br />Categorisedmodellingof organisational structures<br />Execution<br />Processandactivityresponsibility(Exception Handling)<br />Substitution anddelegationmechanisms<br />
  25. 25. Customer<br />oder<br />arrives<br />Process<br />customer<br />order<br />Transformation of Business Process Models to Workflow Models<br />Workflow<br />Modelling<br />Business ProcessModelling<br />X<br />Level of Detail<br />AtomicActivity<br />
  26. 26. Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspectsof Workflow ModellingLanguages<br />Workflow Process<br />Workflow Participants<br />Designing Workflow Process Modelling Languages<br />
  27. 27. AllocationofAppropriateParticipantsto Workflow Activities<br />Employeewhoexecutes a workflowactivity,<br />hastobequalifiedappropriately<br />hastohavetheauthorisationtoexecute an activity<br />hastohavetheauthorisationtoexecutetheaccordingapplications<br />hastohavetheauthorisationtousetheworkflowdata<br />Different strategiestoassignemployeestoworkflows<br />
  28. 28. Allocation of Workflow Participants to ActivitiesDirect Allocation<br />A participant is allocated directly to an activity<br />E.g.: Employee “XY2034 Accounting”executes activity “enter invoice”<br />Pro:<br />Easy to specify and to implement<br />Contra:<br />Maintenance costly, whenever the organisation changes  inflexible<br />Workflow and organisation are not independent<br />
  29. 29. Allocation of Workflow Participants to ActivitiesRole-based Allocation<br />Role: Set of qualifications and competencies<br />Qualification: capability (education, physical ability)<br />Competence: authorisation,responsibility<br />Role: Synonym for one or more workflow participants<br />E.g.: EmployeesofroleZ800 areabletoperformactivity WF134 „enter invoice“<br />Pro:<br />Flexible<br />Workflow and organisation are independent<br />Indirect load sharing<br />Contra:<br />Increased complexity of resource model<br />Exception handling necessary<br />
  30. 30. Allocation of Workflow Participants to ActivitiesAllocation with Formal Expressions<br />Allocation interpreting a formal expressionE.g.: Superior(Resource(Activity(x)))<br />Preconditions:<br />Workflow modeller has to be familiar with the structure of the resource model<br />Exception handling necessary<br />Pro & contra: cf. role-based allocation<br />
  31. 31. Object Types in Resource Models (1/2)<br />Employee<br />Human resource that is able to execute activities<br />Organisational position<br />Job (e.g. “clerk damage adjustment m-z”)<br />A job can be assigned with one ore more persons<br />Position type (“little” Role)<br />Categories of similar positions<br />
  32. 32. Object Types in Resource Models (2/2)<br />Organisational unit<br />Cluster of positions<br />Temporary or permanent<br />Qualification<br />Capability of a person that was acquired by the person him/herself and that cannot be withdrawn<br />“Measurement“ e.g. through certificates <br />Competence<br />Resposibilities and authorizations that can be assigned to or withdrawn from a person <br />Qualification + Competence = Role<br />
  33. 33. Agenda<br />Whatis Workflow Management?<br />Workflow Management Systems<br />Benefitsof Workflow Management<br />Aspects of Workflow Modelling Languages<br />Workflow Process<br />Workflow Participants<br />Designing Workflow Process Modelling Languages<br />
  34. 34. Digression:Meta Modeling<br />
  35. 35. Language Design<br />Languagescanbethesubjectofscientificanalysis<br />Theoryoflogiclanguagelayers<br />Objectlanguage: subjectoftheanalysis<br />Metalanguage: Language thatisusedtoperformtheanalysis<br />Relative languagelayers<br />
  36. 36. Language Layers<br />
  37. 37. Language Oriented Meta-ization<br />Languages<br />… defineconceptsthatcanbeusedtobuildmodels<br />… canbe, in turn, representedbymodels<br />Models tobuildlanguagesallowlanguageoriented meta-ization<br />Example: Model M1 isbuiltwithlanguage S1<br />Language S1 isrepresented in model M2<br />Then M2 iscalledlanguageorientedmetamodel,relatedtotheissuemodelled in M1<br />
  38. 38. Model Layersof Language Oriented Meta-ization<br />
  39. 39. ProcessOriented Meta-ization<br />Instructions<br />… determinetheprocessofmodelling in a particularmodellinglanguage<br />…canbe, in turn, representedbymodels<br />Models to represent instructions allowprocessoriented meta-ization<br />Example: Model M3 isbuiltwithlanguage S2<br />Models builtwith S2 arebuiltaccordingtoprocess P1<br />Process P1 isrepresentedthrough model M4<br />Then,M4 isprocessorientedmeta model,related to the issue modelled in M3<br />
  40. 40. Model LayersofProcessOriented Meta-ization<br />
  41. 41. ExemplaryLanguagesfor Language OrientedMetaModelling<br />Language OrientedMetaModelling:<br />Languagesthatareabletorepresentobjectsandrelationships datamodellinglanguages<br />ERM<br />Class Diagram<br />MOF<br />…<br />Iftherearesyntaxrulesthataretoocomplexfordatamodellinglanguages (e.g. recursiverelationshiprules), themeta model hastobeextendedby formal grammars<br />Note: Metamodelsusuallydefineonlytheconceptualaspectofmodellinglanguages<br />
  42. 42. Example: The ERM Meta Model in ERM Notation<br />
  43. 43. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  44. 44. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  45. 45. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  46. 46. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  47. 47. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  48. 48. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  49. 49. ExemplaryInstantiationof a Meta Model as a Model<br />Model<br />Meta Model<br />
  50. 50. ExemplaryLanguagesforProcessOrientedMetaModelling<br />ProcessOrientedMetaModelling:<br />Languagesthatareabletorepresentaction<br />EPC<br />Petri Nets<br />ActivityDiagrams<br />Value Chains<br />…<br />Example: valuechainthatdescribes EPC modelling<br />
  51. 51. Thankyou<br />

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