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07   integrated process modelling 07 integrated process modelling Presentation Transcript

  • Integrated Process
    Modelling
  • Goals
    Complexityof Information Systems Engineering
    Views of Information Systems Engineering
    Levels of Information Systems Engineering
    SCHEER‘S ARIS Model
  • Exampleforcomplexity
    An Information System supportingthe order acceptanceofyourbusinessshallbeintroduced.
    Describethe relevant issuesconcerningtherealizationof a systemwithaccordingrepresentationfunctions.
  • Need for an architecture
    - as an orientationalandstructuralframework
    - as a process model
    - for a unifieddeploymentofmethods
    Problem ofcomplexity
    Corporate environment constitutes need for a flexible and transparent corporate structure
    There is a problem of complexity due to
    the size of the (corporate) reality partition
    the multiplicity of elements to be considered(data, functions, resources, ...)
    the multiplicity of available modelling methods
  • Views
    OrganizationalviewWhattypesoforganizationaldevicesexist? (e. g. purchase, distribution, accountancy)
    Data viewWhattypesofinformationare relevant? (e. g. customers, suppliers, article, listofmaterials)
    FunctionalviewWhattypesoffunctionsaretobeexecuted? (e. g. createenquiries, verifyaccounts)
    ControlviewCoherencyofdata, functionsandorganizationaldevices
  • Waterfall Model of Software Engineering
  • Operational reality
    • professional languagesemi-formal descriptionmethods
    • Assignment to concrete IT components
    Implementationconcept
    Description levels
    Requirements Definition
    -1- organizationalview
    (“whodoeswhat in which order”)
    -2- detaileddescriptionoftasks
    • Model-like mapping of the operational reality in consideration of a formalized description method
    • Inclusion of IT specifics
    Design specification
    Information
    technology
  • Description levels
    A requirements definition is necessary
    to document experiences
    because business knowledge changes slowly
    to „sort“ new requirements correctly
    because otherwise problems will be solved in an unstructured way, and insular solutions are developed
    to keep the focus
  • Description levels
    A design specification is necessary
    because models cannot be transscripted directly into program code
    to undertake refinements
    because the requirements definition cannot cover everything
    to assure that changes of technology respectively implementation cannot affect the requirements definition directly
    • the design specification works as an intermediary between the other levels
  • Description level
    Implementation is necessary
    because otherwise no software could be generated
  • Combinationofviewsandlevels
    The engineering of complex systems is divided in separate divisions
    On the one hand: views(data, functions, processes and organization)
    On the other hand: levels(requirements definition, design specification,
    implementation)
  • House of ARIS
    SCHEER‘S House of ARIS
  • ARIS
    What is ARIS ?
    ARIS= Architecture of integrated Information Systems
    A method-oriented architecture
    A program to support the modelling process
    differentiation:
    House of ARIS (the “idea“)
    ARIS Toolset (the “program“)
  • Results
    Complexityof Information Systems Engineering (unstructuredproceedingendangersthelongtermsuccess)
    Views of Information Systems Engineering (organization, data, functions, processes)
    Levels of Information Systems Engineering (requirementsdefinition, design specification, implementation)
    SCHEER‘S ARIS Model (House of ARIS)
  • Information Systems Engineering Methods
  • organigram
    Organization
    networktopology
    networkdiagram
    functiontree
    eERM
    Information flowdiagram
    Y-
    diagram
    eERM-attribute-
    valuechaindiagram
    goaldiagram
    assignmentdiagram
    eEPC, ACD
    relationdiagram
    applicationsystem
    accessdiagram
    attributeassignment
    type diagram
    diagram
    applicationsystem
    tablediagram
    accessdiagram (phys.)
    diagram
    Control
    Functions
    Data
    Overviewofmethods
  • Containment of model types
    organizationalview
    • Organigram
    • enhancedevent-drivenprocesschain (eEPK)
    • technicalterm model
    • Entity-Relationship model(ERM)
    • functiontree
    dataview
    processview
    functionview
  • Functiontree
    stock masterdatacare
    stock
    rearrangement
    and
    rebooking
    stock-taking stock
    stocktaking
    Stock-takingagency
    ctock
    control
  • accountancy
    external
    accountancy
    Impersonal
    account
    accountant
    personal
    accountant
    Organigram
    Organizationaldevice:taskbearerfor a certaintaskclass
    job:smallestorganizationaldevice (competencyarea)
    job
    allocation
    person
    Mr. Miller
    Ms. Scott
    [Becker/Schütte (1996)]
  • Technical term model
    The technical term model is a structured description of the “technical reality“ of the observed area
    serves for term harmonization
    supports process modelling by clearly defining and structuring the input and output objects
    starting basis of data modelling based on technical definitions of data objects and data groups
  • Technical term
    FB
    Technical term model
    objects:
    A technicaltermrepresents Input and Output objects,dataobjects, documents etc. withintheobservedarea
    relations:
    Bymodellingrelationsbetweentechnicalterms, semanticrelationsaremapped
    • “relatesto”
    • “is synonym of
    • “is a copyof”
    • “classifies”
    • “is a characteristicof”
    • “comprises”
  • mill
    FB
    miller
    FB
    watermill
    FB
    spicemill
    FB
    peppermill
    FB
    Technical term model
    relatesto
    is a copyof
    millattherustlingbrook
    FB
    mill type,
    energyoriented
    classifies
    FB
    is a
    is a
    is a
  • EntityRelationship Model (ERM)
    sourceofsupply
    article
    supplier
    ANR,
    ANR
    name
    LNR
    name
    price
    LNR
    entity
    type
    key
    attribute
    relationship type
    attribute
  • orderaccepted
    verify
    order
    order is
    verified
    dispose
    order
    Event-drivenProcess Chain
    orderacceptance
  • customer
    contact
    admitted
    customer
    FB
    customeradress
    searchcustomer
    FB
    listof
    iustomers
    isshown
    Call-Center
    xor
    customer
    not
    existent
    customer
    identified
    enhanced Event-drivenProcess Chain (eEPC)
    Maps the coherencies that have been lost due to the creation of views in an appropriate diagram without redundancies
    The coactions of the deceased components is depicted by process modelling
    SAP SP
    Identify
    customerfromlist
  • application
    system
    type
    Technical term
    FB
    Technical term
    FB
    function
    Technical term
    FB
    Technical term
    FB
    enhanced Event-drivenProcess Chain (eEPC)
    Conventionsforthealignmentofsymbols
    Input objects
    organizational
    device
    job
    person
    ext.
    Output objects
  • Customer
    FB
    searchcustomer
    xor
    enhanced Event-drivenProcess Chain (eEPC)
    customercontactadmitted
    functions
    data
    Customer Address
    SAP SP
    FB
    resources
    listofcustomers
    isshown
    organization
    identifycustomerfromlist
    Call
    Center
    customernotexistent
    customeridentified
  • Results
    relevance of methods (in this case: level of requirements definition)
    methods of the functional view (function tree)
    methods of the organizational view (organigram)
    methods of the data view (technical term model, Entity Relationship Model (ERM))
    methods of the process view (Event-driven Process Chain (EPC), eEPC, combination of views)
  • Process Modeling withEvent-Driven Process Chains (EPC)
  • Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC)
    Name
    Originally introduced as EPC(principally only functions and events)
    By degrees enrichment with symbols and semantics
    De facto: concept “EPC“ synonym to “eEPC“
    Content
    Depiction of process structure of companies as a sequence of functions and events
    Depiction of connections between objects of data, functional and organizational view
    Starting and ending events can be denounced for every function
    Events are triggers and results of functions
  • Function
    Time-consumptive element
    Active component with “decision-making authority “
    Symbol:
    name: „active denotation“
    examples
    acquire bill of delivery
    execute loading of THM
    ....
    Function
  • Event
    Incidence of a state of the information system that determines the further procedure
    - point of time-related issue
    Passive component
    Without “decision-making authority“
    Symbol:
    Differentiation between allocation and releasing event
    Event
  • starting
    event
    execute
    xyz
    Simplestrule-
    conforming EPC:
    ending
    event
    AssignmentFunction-Event
    axiomatic: strongly alternating procedure of functions and events
    every EPC starts with an event.
    every EPC ends with an event
  • orderisaccepted
    verify
    order
    order
    isverified
    dispose
    order
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) – Example
    orderacceptance
    ...
  • EPC – ConventionsfortheAssignmentFunctions-Events
    An event-drivenprocesschainalwaysstartswith a startingeventandalwaysendswith an endingevent.
    optional: trivial in-betweeneventswithinthe EPC maybeleft out
    Events trigger
    functions
    Starting
    event
    Starting
    event
    function
    function
    Trivial in-betweeneventsmaybeleft out
    event
    function
    function
    Completedfunctions
    createevents
    Ending
    event
    Ending
    event
  • Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) – Basic Elements
  • Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) – Additional Elements
  • Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC)Modelling Conventions
    Linkage of several functions and events
    Problem:
    If several fuctions and events have to be connected, the path that is executed within the process is not visible anymore
    Solution:
    Relief is prduced by connection rules that are represented by the already shown connectors.
  • xor
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC)Modelling Conventions
    Connection of several occuring events:
    F
    F
    F
    E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    After executionofthefunction ...
    After execution of the function ...
    After execution of the function ...
    ... eacheventoccurs.
    ... at least oneeventoccurs.
    ... exactlyoneeventoccurs.
  • xor
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) Modelling Conventions
    Connection of several triggering events:
    E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    F
    F
    F
    The functionisexecutedif ...
    The functionisexecutedif ...
    The functionisexecutedif ...
    ... eacheventhasoccured.
    ... at least oneeventhasoccured.
    ... exactlyoneeventhasoccured
  • xor
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) Modelling Conventions
    Connection of several executed functions:
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    E
    E
    E
    The eventoccursif ...
    The eventoccursif ...
    The eventoccursif ...
    ... eachfunctionhasbeenexecuted.
    ... at least onefunctionhasbeenexecuted.
    ... exactlyonefunctionhasbeenexecuted.
  • xor
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC)Modelling Conventions
    Connection of several functions to be executed:
    E
    E
    E
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    Not allowed !!!
    Not allowed !!!
    After occurrenceoftheevent…
    Events are passiveelementsandare notabletodecide.
    Events are passiveelementsandare notabletodecide.
    ... eachfunctionistriggered.
  • E 2
    E 1
    E 3
    F 2
    F 1
    F 3
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC)Modelling Conventions
    Example for combined connection rules:
    Ifat least oneeventhas
    occurred, ...
    ... eachfunctionisexecuted
  • Order has
    been
    received
    Check
    order
    Order has
    been
    received
    Order
    ischecked
    Process
    order
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) Modelling Conventions
    Horizontal segmentation of EPC:
    Process model
    order processing
    Order receipt
    Process model
    order receipt
    Orderhasarrived
    Receive
    order
    Processinterface
    Order
    processing
    Hint: The firstandsecond model arelocated on the same detailinglevel
  • Order has
    been
    received
    Check
    order
    Process order
    Order has
    been
    checked
    Dispose
    order
    Order is
    processed
    Order is
    processed
    Event-DrivenProcess Chain (EPC) Modelling Conventions
    Hieraching / Refinement of EPC:
    Order has
    been
    received
    Hint: The second model islocated on a higherlevelofdetailingthanthefirstone
  • eEPC
    Organigram
    ERM
    FunctionTree
    EPC
  • Application
    System
    Technical Term
    FB
    Technical Term
    FB
    Function
    Job
    Technical Term
    FB
    Technical Term
    FB
    eEPC – Modelling Conventions
    Conventionsforthealignmentofsymbols:
    Input objects
    Organizational
    Device
    Person
    ext.
    Output objects
  • Swim-Lane Notation ofthe EPCMotivation
    Demand of practioners
    Clear consideration of
    Organizational devices
    Application systems
    Desire of process shortenig
    Direct connection of functions
    EPC not longer compulsorily drawn as bipartite graph
    Loss of methodical funding
  • Swim-Lane Notation ofthe EPC - Modelling Conventions
    Development ofnewmodellingrules:
    0. Onlyoneorganizationaldevice / applicationsystem per lane
    1. Processeshavetostartand end withevents
    2. After OR or XOR eventshavetofollow
    3. Processinterfacesatthe end of a processhavetobeprecededbyevents
    4. Events shouldbelocatedbeforeand after refinedfunctions
    Drawing arrows
    Within an org. device: bottomto top
    Accross org. devicesa) sidetosideb) bottomtosidec) bottomto top
    Omissions:
    Trivial events
    Events thatfollow AND-connectors
  • Org. device A
    Org. device B
    within an org. device:
    „bottom“
    „to top“
    Accross org. devices:„side“
    „toside“
    Drawing Arrows in EPC(Swim-Lane Notation)
  • Org. device A
    Org. device B
    Org. device C
    Drawing Arrows in EPC(Swim-Lane Notation)
    Accross org. devices:„bottom“
    „toside“
  • Examplefor an EPC in Swim-Lane Notation
    .
  • More Model Types
    Hierarching EPCs („bottom-up“): Value Chains Diagrams

  • Value Chain Diagram (VCD)
    Classic Value Chain
    Depictionofthesequenceoffunctionsthatcontributetothevaluecreationof a product (Idea „Value Cain“ by M. E. Porter: Competitive Advantage, 1985)
    Functionsarearranged in a processorientedway
    VCD in ARIS
    Methodicalextensionofthe classic valuechain
    Provides an abstractdepictionofhighlyaggregatedprocesses / functions
    Not suitabletodisplaydetailedorcomplexprocesslogics due tomissingcontrolconnectors
  • Value Chain Diagram (VCD)Modelling Conventions
    VCD element
    “ispredecessorof”
    Startfunktion
    Folgefunktion
    Implicitlogical
    “AND”
    “isprocess-orientedsuperior”
    Refinedby a
    detailed model
    Sequential
    processes
    Parallel
    processes
  • Interrelation VCD - EPC
    Layer 1: Value Chain Diagrams (VCD)
    Function A
    Function B
    Function C
    Function 1
    Function 2
    Function 3
    Refinementof a VCD
    Functionbyanother
    VCD
    Function 1
    Function 2
    Function 3
    Refinementof a VCD
    functionby an EPC
    Layer 2: Event-DrivenProcess Chains (EPC)
    Process A
    Process B
    Event 1
    Predecessor /
    Successor
    process
    Function 10
    Event 4
    Event 5
    Function 12
    Function 13
    Event2
    Event 3
    Event 3
    Event 5
    Event 6
    Function 11
    Function 11a
    Process C
    Event 4
    Event 4
    Refinementof an EPC
    functionby an EPC
    Process B
  • Alternatives of VCDOrganizational Frameworks andFunctionTrees
  • Alternatives of VCDOrganizational Frameworks andFunctionTrees
  • Alternatives of VCDOrganizational Frameworks andFunctionTrees
  • Integrated Process
    Modelling