Basics of Information ModelingModels, LanguagesandMethods<br />
Agenda<br />Languages<br />Models<br />Techniques and Method(ologie)s<br />
Language<br />Languages<br />Languages are human communication instruments for the understanding of items (linguistic defi...
Classification of Languages<br />Natural Languages<br />systems of signs that have originated in an evolutionary way<br />...
Natural Languages<br />Universal Languages<br />Are able to express „almost everything“ (Morris)<br />Are not assigned to ...
Natural Languages<br />Terminology<br />Subset of universal language<br />Is assigned to a particular domain<br />Scientif...
Terms as Sings of Natural Languages<br />The Term „Term“<br />A termis a linguisticsignthatconsistsofthefollowingcomponent...
Intension and Extension<br />Examples<br />Different name, different intension, different extension<br />Different name, d...
Intension and Extension<br />Examples<br />Different name, same intension, same extension<br />Same name, different intens...
Classification of Languages<br />Formal Language<br />A system of signs that is based on a calculus<br />calculus: Methodo...
Classification of Languages<br />Semi-formal Languages<br />Visual, diagram-based languages that contain textual elements ...
Formal andnaturallanguageaspectsof semi-formal languages<br />Example: EPC<br />Natural language aspects<br />A document i...
Specification of Languages<br />Possibilities to avoid problems of natural languages<br />Technical term models<br />Gloss...
Examples of Languages<br />
Examples of Languages<br />
Examples of Languages<br />
Agenda<br />Languages<br />Models<br />TechniquesandMethod(ologie)s<br />
Model Theroy<br />Characteristics of Models (Stachowiak 1973):<br />Mapping: a model is always related to an original that...
Model Theroy<br />Relationship between model and original<br />Original<br />Model<br />Mapping<br />AdditonalAspects<br /...
Mapping<br />mapping-orienteddefinitionofmodels (Kosiol 1968)<br />Structuralandbehaviouralequivalenceof original and mode...
Construction<br />Modelling is a process <br />A person…<br />constructs a representation of a (real or mental) issue…<br ...
Construction<br />Consequences that arise from the construction-oriented model definition<br />Models are not objectively ...
Construction of Information Models<br />
Definition of the Term Model in Information Systems<br />A model is an abstract representation of a business issue (the or...
Definition of the Term Information Model<br />An information model is an abstractrepresentationof a businessissue (the ori...
Agenda<br />Languages<br />Models<br />TechniquesandMethod(ologie)s<br />
Modelling Technique<br />Operationalised approach for model construction<br />2 Aspects:<br />Modelling language: Elements...
Aspectsof Modelling Languages<br />ConceptualAspectofthe Language<br />Language elementsandtheirsyntacticalrelationships<b...
Aspectsof Modelling Languages<br />Representational Aspect<br />Representation of language elements and their relationship...
Aspectsof Modelling Languages<br />A modellinglanguagecansupport different representations<br />A newrepresentationdoes no...
Instructions<br />… describe how to construct a model with a modelling language<br />… are therefore derived from the mode...
Modelling Languagesand Modelling Techniques<br />Modelling<br />Technique<br />Basic Aspect<br />DerivedAspect<br />Instru...
Modelling Method(ology)<br />Defines the essential tasks of one or more model development phase(s)<br />Modelling techniqu...
Modelling Method(ology)<br />Method(ology)<br />1:n<br />Modelling<br />Technique<br />Basic Aspect<br />DerivedAspect<br ...
Basics of Information ModelingModels, LanguagesandMethods<br />
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02 information models

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02 information models

  1. 1. Basics of Information ModelingModels, LanguagesandMethods<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Languages<br />Models<br />Techniques and Method(ologie)s<br />
  3. 3. Language<br />Languages<br />Languages are human communication instruments for the understanding of items (linguistic definition)<br />Languages are the basis of any scientific discourse<br />Languages are systems of signs (semiotic definition)<br />Linguistic signs are arbitrary and conventional<br />Arbitrarity:The choice and construction of signs is arbitrary, i.e. there is no direct connection between the sign and the singified item (i.e., e.g. a „customer“ is not necessarily represented as a picture of a customer)<br />Conventionality:The semantics of the signs is result of a convention – a consensus of the speech community (e.g. scientists, modelers)<br />
  4. 4. Classification of Languages<br />Natural Languages<br />systems of signs that have originated in an evolutionary way<br />no complete definition of syntax and semantics<br />natural languages evolve naturally (e.g. slang, dialects etc.)<br />extremely expressive<br />extremely redundant, potentially fuzzy and inconsistent<br />Statements of natural languages can be interpreted in different ways<br />Communication in natural language is not only dependent on the signs (gestures, intonation)<br />
  5. 5. Natural Languages<br />Universal Languages<br />Are able to express „almost everything“ (Morris)<br />Are not assigned to specific domains<br />No dedicated application area<br />Huge speech community<br />Dynamic vocabular that is not defined clearly<br />Examples: English, Russian, German, …<br />Do not distinguish between language and meta language<br />
  6. 6. Natural Languages<br />Terminology<br />Subset of universal language<br />Is assigned to a particular domain<br />Scientific disciplines<br />Industry sector<br />Business class<br />Company<br />…<br />Application-driven, serving task fulfillment<br />Are the basis of organizational action<br />Comprise a finite set of terms and application rules<br />e.g.: legal texts (juristic language), „officialese“<br />
  7. 7. Terms as Sings of Natural Languages<br />The Term „Term“<br />A termis a linguisticsignthatconsistsofthefollowingcomponents<br />Word (name): sequenceoflettersas medium ofthesign<br />Intension: „idea“ oftheterm, itssemanticsandcharacteristics<br />Extension:setofobjectsthatarenamedbytheterm<br />
  8. 8. Intension and Extension<br />Examples<br />Different name, different intension, different extension<br />Different name, different intension, same extension<br />Customer<br />Product<br />Debitor<br />Customer<br />
  9. 9. Intension and Extension<br />Examples<br />Different name, same intension, same extension<br />Same name, different intension, different extension<br />Invoice<br />Bill<br /> Synonyms!<br />Party<br />Party<br /> Homonyms!<br />(politicalincorporation)<br />(celebrationevent)<br />
  10. 10. Classification of Languages<br />Formal Language<br />A system of signs that is based on a calculus<br />calculus: Methodology that is used to construct figures out of a set of basic signs (alphabet) following particular rules<br />formal definition of syntax and semantics<br />Semantics are classified as „defined formally“ if the definition of the sementics is based on mathematical rules (Sommerville 2001)<br />Advantages<br />Clarity<br />Consistency<br />Redundancy-free<br />
  11. 11. Classification of Languages<br />Semi-formal Languages<br />Visual, diagram-based languages that contain textual elements (Remme 1997)<br />Syntax is defined formally, definition of semantics is missing<br />Signs of semi-formal languages consist of graphical elements and textual signifier (i.e. a node in a graph-based process modelling language „check invoice“)<br />Semi-formal languages encounter some probolems that result from the application of natural languages<br />Redundancy<br />Fuzziness<br />Inconsistency<br />Resolution approaches: Standards, ontology<br />
  12. 12. Formal andnaturallanguageaspectsof semi-formal languages<br />Example: EPC<br />Natural language aspects<br />A document is relevant for a business transaction<br />„Process“ is a task that transforms an object (the document)<br />A document has to arrive prior to ist processing<br />…<br />Formal languages aspects<br />Defined symbols<br />Graph is directed<br />Functions are followed by events<br />Events do not follow events<br />…<br />Documenthasarrived<br />Process<br />document<br />Document<br />processed<br />
  13. 13. Specification of Languages<br />Possibilities to avoid problems of natural languages<br />Technical term models<br />Glossaries<br />Term relationship models<br />Ontologies<br />Language standardisation<br />Formal definition of the natural language‘s syntax and semantics <br />Language application conventions<br />Domain-specific languages (e.g. PICTURE)<br />
  14. 14. Examples of Languages<br />
  15. 15. Examples of Languages<br />
  16. 16. Examples of Languages<br />
  17. 17. Agenda<br />Languages<br />Models<br />TechniquesandMethod(ologie)s<br />
  18. 18. Model Theroy<br />Characteristics of Models (Stachowiak 1973):<br />Mapping: a model is always related to an original that is being mapped<br />The original consists either of a natural object or a mental construct<br />Reduction:a model does not describe the orininal in total<br />Non-relevant aspects are left out<br />Important aspects are emphasized<br />The model may contain additional aspects that do not exist in the original<br />Pragmatics: a model has a particular purpose that is valid for a certain time and for a set of users<br />
  19. 19. Model Theroy<br />Relationship between model and original<br />Original<br />Model<br />Mapping<br />AdditonalAspects<br />Reduction<br />Cf. Stachowiak(1973)<br />
  20. 20. Mapping<br />mapping-orienteddefinitionofmodels (Kosiol 1968)<br />Structuralandbehaviouralequivalenceof original and model<br />Structuralequivalence (isomorphism)<br />Structuralequivalenceisrestrictedtothe model apsectsthatare relevant forthe model purpose structuralsimilarity (homomorphism)<br />Criticism<br />Itisassumedthatthemodellerisabletorecognisethe original completely (i.e. in total andobjectively)<br />But: everymodellerissubjective constructionorienteddefinitionofmodels<br />
  21. 21. Construction<br />Modelling is a process <br />A person…<br />constructs a representation of a (real or mental) issue…<br />On the basis of her/his perception<br />Modelling is purpose-driven<br />The purpose is defined by the modeller<br />Model components have to be considered relevant by the modeller<br />Models are represented with artificial, (semi-)formal languages<br />
  22. 22. Construction<br />Consequences that arise from the construction-oriented model definition<br />Models are not objectively true or false<br />Models are more or less purposeful at most<br />The choice of a particular model out of a set of possible models is exclusively dependent on decisions of a modeller<br />In order to guarantee usefulness of a model: consensus of modellers and users<br />
  23. 23. Construction of Information Models<br />
  24. 24. Definition of the Term Model in Information Systems<br />A model is an abstract representation of a business issue (the original) for subjective purposes<br />It is the result of the construction of a person that defines a representation of an original at a certain time for a certain group of recipients using a particular artificial language.<br />
  25. 25. Definition of the Term Information Model<br />An information model is an abstractrepresentationof a businessissue (the original) forthepurposeofapplicationsystemsand organisational design<br />Itistheresultoftheconstructionof a personthatdefines a representationof an original at a certaintime forapplicationsystemsand organisational designersusing a modellinglanguage.<br />
  26. 26. Agenda<br />Languages<br />Models<br />TechniquesandMethod(ologie)s<br />
  27. 27. Modelling Technique<br />Operationalised approach for model construction<br />2 Aspects:<br />Modelling language: Elements to build a model<br />Instructions for the use of the language<br />Modelling<br />Technique<br />Basic Aspect<br />DerivedAspect<br />Instructions<br />Modelling<br />Language<br />Basis for<br />
  28. 28. Aspectsof Modelling Languages<br />ConceptualAspectofthe Language<br />Language elementsandtheirsyntacticalrelationships<br />Abstract syntax<br />In addition: semanticsoflanguageelementsandtheirrelationships (description in naturallanguage)<br />Example: EPC:<br />An EPC is a bipartite, directedgraphfortherepresentationofbusinessprocesses<br />Modelling elementsarefunctionsandeventsthatareconnectedbycontrolflows<br />Functionsrepresentbusinesstasksandare time-consuming<br />Events representstates<br />…<br />
  29. 29. Aspectsof Modelling Languages<br />Representational Aspect<br />Representation of language elements and their relationships<br />Particular syntax<br />Example EPC:<br />Functions are represented by rounded, green coloured rectangles<br />Events are represented by flattened, red coloured hexagons<br />Control flows are represented by directed edges. The direction is indicated by an arrow<br />
  30. 30. Aspectsof Modelling Languages<br />A modellinglanguagecansupport different representations<br />A newrepresentationdoes notimply a newlanguage!<br />Example EPC:Representationoflanguageelementsthroughicons<br />Function: workingemployee<br />Event: explosion<br />Representationofthecontrolflowthrough „fancy“ Edges<br />
  31. 31. Instructions<br />… describe how to construct a model with a modelling language<br />… are therefore derived from the modelling language<br />Example EPC:<br />The tasks that are performed in a business process have to be identified and subsumed as functions<br />Triggering or resulting states have to be identified and subsumed as events<br />The temporal and logic order of functions and events has to be represented as control flow<br />The model elements and relationships have to be represented with symbols<br />
  32. 32. Modelling Languagesand Modelling Techniques<br />Modelling<br />Technique<br />Basic Aspect<br />DerivedAspect<br />Instructions<br />Modelling<br />Language<br />Basis for<br />1:n<br />1:1<br />ConceptualAspect<br />Representational<br />Aspect<br />
  33. 33. Modelling Method(ology)<br />Defines the essential tasks of one or more model development phase(s)<br />Modelling techniques as constitutional elements<br />Modelling views (cf. ARIS)<br />Development layers (cf. ARIS)<br />
  34. 34. Modelling Method(ology)<br />Method(ology)<br />1:n<br />Modelling<br />Technique<br />Basic Aspect<br />DerivedAspect<br />Instructions<br />Modelling<br />Language<br />Basis for<br />1:n<br />1:1<br />ConceptualAspect<br />Representational<br />Aspect<br />
  35. 35. Basics of Information ModelingModels, LanguagesandMethods<br />

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