Carole Croella


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Can exceptions to copyright benefit journalists?

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Carole Croella

  1. 1. Authors’ Rights in the Digital Age A Fair Deal for Journalists Can exceptions to copyright benefit journalists ? WIPO, Thessaloniki, Greece 11-12th December 2010 Carole Croella , WIPO Copyright Law Division
  2. 2. The Copyright Agenda <ul><ul><li>The SCCR agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions and limitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of audiovisual performances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of broadcasting organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Development Agenda Dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Creative industries </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Copyright flexibilities <ul><li>Limits to the scope of copyright protection: ideas, theories, simple data </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to the duration of protection </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of some categories of works </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted uses without authorization and remuneration: fair use or fair dealing </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted uses by law with remuneration: mandatory or compulsory licensing system </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative options for Member States. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility for journalists </li></ul>
  4. 4. Berne Convention <ul><li>Journalists have benefitted from existing legal framework </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit and implicit exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>General exception: Article 9(2), specific exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions with relation to one or more exploitation rights </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple reasons: information (10 bis ), education (10(2)), public access (11 bis (2)), protection of certain industries (namely, recording industry (13(1)), protection of cultural goods (11 bis (3)) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Internet Treaties <ul><li>WCT </li></ul><ul><li>Article 1 to 21 Berne Convention. Article 1(4) and agreed statement </li></ul><ul><li>General exception: 3-step test. Article 10(1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing exceptions can be kept or extended to the digital environment. New exceptions can be devised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WPPT </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the rights granted under WPPT </li></ul><ul><li>Any other copyright exception. Article 16(1) </li></ul><ul><li>General exception: 3-step test. Article 16(2) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analog different from digital? <ul><li>Whether new exceptions are needed in the digital environment </li></ul><ul><li>Whether existing exceptions from the analog environment remain appropriate in the digital environment, or need to be restricted in some way in that environment </li></ul><ul><li>A fair deal for journalists </li></ul>
  7. 7. The 3-step test <ul><li>Article 9(2) Berne Convention, Article 13 TRIPS Agreement, Articles 10(2) WCT and 16(2) WPPT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>certain special cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not conflict with normal exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not prejudice the legitimate interests of rightholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WTO Panel Decision, June 2000 (EU v. US) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>playing of radio or television broadcasts of musical works in certain bars, restaurants and other retail establishments </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Existing exceptions: appropriate or need to be restricted? <ul><li>News reporting, criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries and teaching purposes: reproduction of material and communication to the public and making available under certain circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Private copying: quality of copies and possibility of dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary electronic copies which occur as part of the technical process of making Internet transmission: ISP liability </li></ul><ul><li>Caching and browsing: temporary reproduction which occurs at the point of reception to enable the view of the accessed material </li></ul>
  9. 9. WIPO’s work <ul><li>Studies and meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies: Ricketson, Garnett, Sullivan, Crews, Fometeu, Monroy, Nabhan, Seng and Xalabarder (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical legal assistance to developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needs of countries / implementation of treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>model law on copyright and related rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCCR most discussed issue </li></ul>
  10. 10. VIP Initiative <ul><li>SCCR agenda: Limitations and exceptions to copyright and related rights </li></ul><ul><li>Decision SCCR/17: Blind, visually impaired or persons with print disabilities persons as priority </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders’ platform </li></ul>
  11. 11. The facts <ul><li>More than 314 million blind or visually impaired persons around the world </li></ul><ul><li>90% of VIPs are resident in low-income developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of books, newspapers, magazines, sheet music and information materials in accessible formats (< 5%) </li></ul>
  12. 13. The aim <ul><li>Facilitating access to copyright works for visually impaired persons (VIP) </li></ul><ul><li>The stakeholders platfform </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced copyright protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content creators and publishers as rightholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visually impaired persons as content users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TIGAR - the trusted intermediary global accessible resources project </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The issues <ul><li>Enabling legal regime </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Technological tools, standards and interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Development dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Information materials and training </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns of the digital environment </li></ul><ul><li>Best “practical practices ” </li></ul>
  14. 15. International instrument <ul><li>International enabling legal regime: limitations and exceptions for the blind visually impaired and other people with print disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico and Paraguay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States of America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Group : holistic approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Union </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complementarity of the initiatives: platform put into place operational and practical arrangements within the context of an enabling legal regime </li></ul>
  15. 16. Development Agenda Projects (Copyright) A- Intellectual Property and the Public Domain B- Registration and Documentation Systems C- Copyright and Competition: meeting on global licensing practices in November 2010 D- Copyright, Access to Knowledge and Digital Divide
  16. 17. Thank you http:// /copyright/ http://