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Carole Croella

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Can exceptions to copyright benefit journalists?

Can exceptions to copyright benefit journalists?


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  • 1. Authors’ Rights in the Digital Age A Fair Deal for Journalists Can exceptions to copyright benefit journalists ? WIPO, Thessaloniki, Greece 11-12th December 2010 Carole Croella , WIPO Copyright Law Division
  • 2. The Copyright Agenda
      • The SCCR agenda
        • Exceptions and limitations
        • Protection of audiovisual performances
        • Protection of broadcasting organizations
      • The Development Agenda Dimension
      • Supporting Creative industries
  • 3. Copyright flexibilities
    • Limits to the scope of copyright protection: ideas, theories, simple data
    • Limits to the duration of protection
    • Exclusion of some categories of works
    • Permitted uses without authorization and remuneration: fair use or fair dealing
    • Permitted uses by law with remuneration: mandatory or compulsory licensing system
    • Legislative options for Member States.
    • Flexibility for journalists
  • 4. Berne Convention
    • Journalists have benefitted from existing legal framework
    • Explicit and implicit exceptions
    • General exception: Article 9(2), specific exceptions
    • Exceptions with relation to one or more exploitation rights
    • Multiple reasons: information (10 bis ), education (10(2)), public access (11 bis (2)), protection of certain industries (namely, recording industry (13(1)), protection of cultural goods (11 bis (3))
  • 5. Internet Treaties
    • WCT
    • Article 1 to 21 Berne Convention. Article 1(4) and agreed statement
    • General exception: 3-step test. Article 10(1)
      • Existing exceptions can be kept or extended to the digital environment. New exceptions can be devised
    • WPPT
    • Exceptions to the rights granted under WPPT
    • Any other copyright exception. Article 16(1)
    • General exception: 3-step test. Article 16(2)
  • 6. Analog different from digital?
    • Whether new exceptions are needed in the digital environment
    • Whether existing exceptions from the analog environment remain appropriate in the digital environment, or need to be restricted in some way in that environment
    • A fair deal for journalists
  • 7. The 3-step test
    • Article 9(2) Berne Convention, Article 13 TRIPS Agreement, Articles 10(2) WCT and 16(2) WPPT
      • certain special cases
      • do not conflict with normal exploitation
      • do not prejudice the legitimate interests of rightholders
    • WTO Panel Decision, June 2000 (EU v. US)
      • playing of radio or television broadcasts of musical works in certain bars, restaurants and other retail establishments
  • 8. Existing exceptions: appropriate or need to be restricted?
    • News reporting, criticism
    • Libraries and teaching purposes: reproduction of material and communication to the public and making available under certain circumstances
    • Private copying: quality of copies and possibility of dissemination
    • Temporary electronic copies which occur as part of the technical process of making Internet transmission: ISP liability
    • Caching and browsing: temporary reproduction which occurs at the point of reception to enable the view of the accessed material
  • 9. WIPO’s work
    • Studies and meetings
      • Studies: Ricketson, Garnett, Sullivan, Crews, Fometeu, Monroy, Nabhan, Seng and Xalabarder (9)
      • Information meetings
    • Technical legal assistance to developing countries
      • needs of countries / implementation of treaties
      • model law on copyright and related rights
    • SCCR most discussed issue
  • 10. VIP Initiative
    • SCCR agenda: Limitations and exceptions to copyright and related rights
    • Decision SCCR/17: Blind, visually impaired or persons with print disabilities persons as priority
    • Stakeholders’ platform
  • 11. The facts
    • More than 314 million blind or visually impaired persons around the world
    • 90% of VIPs are resident in low-income developing countries
    • Shortage of books, newspapers, magazines, sheet music and information materials in accessible formats (< 5%)
  • 12.  
  • 13. The aim
    • Facilitating access to copyright works for visually impaired persons (VIP)
    • The stakeholders platfform
    • Balanced copyright protection
      • Content creators and publishers as rightholders
      • Visually impaired persons as content users
      • TIGAR - the trusted intermediary global accessible resources project
  • 14. The issues
    • Enabling legal regime
    • Trusted intermediaries
    • Technological tools, standards and interoperability
    • Development dimension
    • Information materials and training
    • Concerns of the digital environment
    • Best “practical practices ”
  • 15. International instrument
    • International enabling legal regime: limitations and exceptions for the blind visually impaired and other people with print disabilities
      • Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico and Paraguay
      • United States of America
      • African Group : holistic approach
      • European Union
    • Complementarity of the initiatives: platform put into place operational and practical arrangements within the context of an enabling legal regime
  • 16. Development Agenda Projects (Copyright) A- Intellectual Property and the Public Domain B- Registration and Documentation Systems C- Copyright and Competition: meeting on global licensing practices in November 2010 D- Copyright, Access to Knowledge and Digital Divide
  • 17. Thank you http:// www.wipo.int /copyright/ http:// www.visionip.org