High Performance Building Design Workshop

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Half-day workshop on high-performance green building design for USGBC Nevada chapter, Las Vegas, 1/8/13, using case studies from Jerry Yudelson's new book, The World's Greenest Buildings: Promise vs Performance in Sustainable Design, published January 2013.

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  • 2000 workers in bldg.; 700,000 sq.ft.Difficult climate:-35C to +35C (-31F – 95F)22-story solar chimney Passive solar designUrban regenerationGreen roofsPassive moisture control111 kWh/sqm/year;35,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • 800 workers in bldg.; 360,000 sq.ft.Design/build; $254/sq.ft.Cold, dry climate - Passive solar design1600-kW Solar PVLabyrinth thermal massDaylighting designControl plug loads111 kWh/sqm/year;35,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • Integrated Design Process Critical to SuccessStarted with the Procurement ProcessSet BSAGs – Big, Scary, Audacious Goals
  • 200,000-sq.ft., commercial officeVedic architectural designLEED-CS/CILong axis north/south, to maximize morning sunHVAC: Enthalpy wheel, frictionless chillerSpace H/C only 13% 41% less water use182 kWh/sq.m./year;58,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • 56,000 sq.ft. academic building; narrow floorplateCold winters, humid summers100-KW BIPV system; 16% of annual electricity4 solar DHW collectorsGeothermal wells; four at 400’ deepRainwater harvesting91 kWh/sq.m./year; 29,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • 130,000-sq.ft., 2-story academic buildingSF Bay Area; mild climate35,000-sq.ft. BIPV system; 450 kW (peak)PV >50% of energy use26 miles of horizontal geothermal tubingTwo 16-ft dia., enthalpy (heat recovery) wheels102 kWh/sq.m./year;32,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • Double LEED Platinum, CS/CIFour stories commercial office, with17 stories rental apartmentsUnderfloor air w/chilled beamsDesigned to meet 2030 Challenge targets for 20104 turbines produce 1% of demandSolar water heaters provide 24%Operable windowsHarvested rainwater; 6500 sq.ft. green roofEnergy: 138 kWh/sq.m./year; 44,000 Btu/sq.ft.
  • Project Team?
  • SETTING PROJECT GOALS
  • Project Goals
  • GREEN-STAR/LEED GOALS?
  • High Performance Building Design Workshop

    1. 1. Master Class: High-Performance Building DesignJerry Yudelson, PE, LEED FellowYudelson Associates
    2. 2. Take-Aways Green buildings are important for controlling CO2 emissions High-performance buildings are feasible today No new technologies; just new Integrated Design Process Energy use metrics well established at 100-150 kWh/sqm/year
    3. 3. IEA Global Warming StudyIEA estimates that meeting a ≤2 C target would require $5 trillion in global energyinvestments between now and 2020. Source: IEA, “Tracking Clean Energy Progress.”
    4. 4. Agenda• LEED Platinum Case Studies – High-Performance Buildings• Designing for High-Performance – Integrated Design Process• Exercise• Case Study: NREL Research Support Facility, USA• Discussion
    5. 5. Manitoba Hydro Place LEED PlatinumWinnipeg, Canada
    6. 6. Manitoba Hydro PlaceLEED Platinum
    7. 7. 2000 Tower Oaks Rockville, MD
    8. 8. 2000 Tower Oaks
    9. 9. Kroon Hall Yale University
    10. 10. Kroon Hall
    11. 11. Ohlone College Newark, CA
    12. 12. Visible Enthalpy Wheel Rooftop PV System Ohlone College Center For Health Sciences & Technology
    13. 13. Twelve WestDouble LEEDPlatinumPortland, OR
    14. 14. Twelve West
    15. 15. Annual Energy Use —Americas
    16. 16. Annual Energy Use —Europe
    17. 17. Annual Energy Use — Asia Pacific
    18. 18. ISSUES? • First-cost concerns • Demonstrate financial cost-effectiveness – ROI – Increase in building value – Risk mitigation – Intangibles • Concern over actual building performance – Projects need continuous commissioning – Renewables have to work as planned – Behavioral issues & plug loads must be managed
    19. 19. TRENDS? • Widespread low-energy design know-how – Cost premium for good design getting smaller • More stringent energy codes (US, EU, AUS) – Reduces first-cost premium for net-zero – Better products at conventional costs • Solar power cost reductions/efficiency gains • Increases in conventional energy costs – Shorter payback for savings • Carbon reduction goals by increased perceived/actual value of green or net-zero buildings
    20. 20. High Performance Design Approach
    21. 21. High Performance Buildings• Site selection & orientation• Passive solar design• Building envelope design & construction• Integration of low-energy building systems• Controlling lighting/plug loads• Occupant engagement• Renewable energy systems
    22. 22. Three Phases & Five Steps To Net-Zero Emissions BuildingPHASE I: Pre-designStep #1— Organize for zero carbon emissions: Develop plan for learning and approachesStep #2—Accept design conditions: Define environmental, occupant comfort and project financial goals before beginning design.PHASE II: Design and constructionStep #3—Resolve the macro-scale: Develop site and architectural strategies that reduce energy needs and optimize energy generation.Step #4—Develop integrated solutions: Define whole building systems to “tunnel through cost barriers.”PHASE III: Stewardship Net Zero Building, SingaporeStep #5—Maintain zero: Provide a plan to operate building with Net-zero emissions.(HOK and The Weidt Group, www.netzerocourt.com, 2010)
    23. 23. Key Elements Of Integrated Design• Reduce loads – Orientation & massing – Envelope & daylighting• Take advantage of climate• Choose efficient & integrated systems• Reduce “safety factors” in engineering design – “belt and suspenders” approach outmoded• Use modeling effectively• Renewables: a last resort!
    24. 24. Key Elements Of Integrated Design• Reduce loads (>50% of total load) – Lighting – Plug loads – Process loads – Elevators/escalators• Integrate systems – Garage ventilation vs. smoke exhaust – BIPV as sunshades
    25. 25. Key Elements Of Integrated Design– Take advantage of climate • Eastgate Centre, Harare– Free energy • Sun, wind, water, vegetation, topography, fog, etc. • Daylighting & natural ventilation/economizer cycle • Ground-coupled heat pumps/geo-exchange • Night-flush ventilation– Adaptive thermal comfort • Radiant vs. Convective
    26. 26. Integrated Design Process
    27. 27. Cost Transfer • Total cost same • Engineering costs lower • Invest more in Architecture • Active to passive systems • Fragile to resilient • Longer life • Less cost over life-cycle • Simpler design
    28. 28. WHY IDP• Collaboration • Develop synergies• Team-building/trust • Systems integration• Goal-setting • Clearer direction• Blue-sky ideas • Reduced design time• Better design • Transparency of decisions design decisions• Improved overall • Higher-performance decision-making
    29. 29. HOW IDP• Commit to process • Eco-charrette(s)• Change procurement • Team-building activity methods • Collaborative team• Broaden the team meetings• Set specific • Contractor(s) on board performance goals early• Expect greater time • Stay within budget & in early design construction• Early-stage modeling capabilities • Iterative design vs. goals
    30. 30. WHEN?
    31. 31. STARTING EARLY• Identify potential partners/collaborations• Set clear goals and metrics• Establish “must have’s” in design• Don’t re-design at DD/CD phase• Reduce/eliminate “value engineering”• Provide a basis for evaluating design strategies• Initiate a multidisciplinary design approach• Induce creativity from team members
    32. 32. STARTING EARLY• Ask the right question at the right time! – Do we need this building at all?  – How big does it need to be? Now? In 10 years? – Can we design it for alternative uses in the future? – How does carpet & desk color influence lighting design? – What “free energy” can we take advantage of? – How much money is available outside the building budget? – What do the future occupants value most? – What controls can future operators manage? – How will we know if we’re successful?
    33. 33. USE MODELING EFFECTIVELY• Pre-design: climate analysis/infrastructure issues• Design charrette (goal setting, site design)• Schematic design (shape, massing, daylighting, envelope, HVAC options, base case for energy)• Design development (systems optimization, Green Star progress vs. goals)• Construction documents (value engineering, final energy model, document for Green Star)• Commissioning/M&V (calibrate model, troubleshoot)
    34. 34. Setting Project Goals
    35. 35. IDP TOOLKIT• Collaborative team • Evaluation & feedback meetings tools & processes• Problem-solving • Expert facilitation workshops • Modeling tools• Specific goals/targets • Green Star/LEED checklist• Tracking tools • Establish Owner’s Project• Clear communication Requirements (OPR) channels • Basis of design document• Team-building activities (BOD)
    36. 36. IDP OUTCOMES• Clarity in overall project goals & measurements• Clear sustainability goals of owner and project team• Buy-in from all stakeholders• Assess entire building life-cycle – vs. just construction costs• Identify roles and responsibilities early on• Introduce Green Star/LEED & set certification goals
    37. 37. Exercise• Develop design issues and possible solutions for a building in Cape Town, using integrated design and high- performance goals – Office – Secondary School – University Classroom – Retail store of 50,000 sq.ft.
    38. 38. Case Study: NREL — Golden, CO, USAPhase I: 20,446 sq.m.; Phase II: 12,825 sq.m. (occupied 18 months later)
    39. 39. US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy LabResearch Support Facility (RSF)
    40. 40. Project Procurement• Design/Build • 3 finalists from RFQ process • Design to 10% level to confirm cost• $63 million fixed budget• Government projects• Outside “process” consultant• “Fixed-price, variable-scope” approach
    41. 41. Project Objectives 1. Mission Critical (3) • Safety • LEED Platinum • Energy Star (US)
    42. 42. Project Objectives 2. Highly Desirable (15)• 800 staff capacity • Flexible workspace• 25,000 BTU/sq.ft./year • Support future technologies• Architectural integrity • “How to” manual for occupants• Support future staff needs • “Real-time PR” campaign• Meet ASHRAE 90.1-2007 • Secure collaboration with• Support culture and outsiders amenities • Building information modeling• Expandable building • Substantial completion by• Ergonomics 2010 (24 months)
    43. 43. Project Objectives 3. If Possible (8)• Net-zero design approach• Most energy-efficient building in the world• LEED Platinum “Plus”• ASHRAE 90.1-2007 + 50%• Visual displays of current energy efficiency• Support public tours• National and global recognition and awards• Support reduced personnel turnover
    44. 44. High-Performance Design Process
    45. 45. NREL Integrated Design Process Multiday Eco-Charrette • Kick off competition phase of the project • Include all disciplines in design-build team • Set low-energy goal • Determine ZONE and LEED Platinum/6-Star Green Star best practices and strategies • Develop section first • Explore relationship of site, program, plan, roof and section for low-energy strategies • Begin building simulations early in process.
    46. 46. Low-Energy Strategies
    47. 47. The Section 60’PV SystemNaturalVentilation Radiant CoolingThermal Mass Radiant HeatingTranspired WorkplaceCollectors UFADDaylighting Labyrinth
    48. 48. Orientation & Massing
    49. 49. East + West Orientations
    50. 50. Pre-Design Analysis • Shading Studies • Energy Demand • Natural Ventilation • Wall Sections • Window / Wall Ratios • Roof / Floor Ratios • PV Energy Supply
    51. 51. DOMEST HOT NREL RSF VENT FANS WATER EXT USAGE• Energy Demand 7% 0% LIGHTS 0% PUMPS & AUX 11% LIG 1% TASK LIGHTS TA• Transpired Collectors SPACE COOLING 8% 1% SE SE SE• Thermal Labyrinth SPACE HEATING MI SP 15%• Double-Skin Design SERVER ELEC SP 32% PU VE• Data Center Heat Recovery DO MISC 24% EX SERVER COOL• Data Center Cooling 0% SERVER RM FAN 1%• Natural Ventilation• Daylighting Design Simulations
    52. 52. LEED Platinum
    53. 53. Meets Site Energy, Source Energy,Energy Emissions and Energy Costdefinitions of ZONE with only theroof and parkingPV systems. RSF ROOF 787 KW 3544 MBTU/YRZONE- Renewable Energy RSF PARKING 540 KW 2432 MBTU/YR
    54. 54. Beauty in the Numbers Zero
    55. 55. Take-Aways Green buildings are important for controlling CO2 emissions High-performance buildings are feasible today No new technologies; just new Integrated Design Process Energy use metrics well established at 100-150 kWh/sqm/year
    56. 56. High-Performance. . .Just Do It!
    57. 57. Discussion

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