Edition-total copies of a book that are printed from a single setting of type or other mode of reproduction
Editionvariorum edition (cum notis variorum:"with the annotations of various persons)• an edition of a text that includes a selection of annotations and commentaries on the text by previous editors and criticsincunabula (the singular is "incunabulum")• all books that were produced in the infancy of printing
Elegy-any poem written in elegiac meter (alternatinghexameter and pentameter line)-subject matter :change and lossexpressed complaints about lovee.g.medieval poem The Pearl and ChaucersBook of the Duchess (elegies in the mode ofdream allegory)
Elegydirge• a versified expression of grief on the occasion of a particular persons death• less formal, and is usually represented as a text to be sungE.g. Shakespeares "Full Fathom Five Thy Father Lies" and William Collins "A Song from Shakespeares Cymbeline" (174pastoral elegy• subtype of the elegy . Represents both the poet and the one he mourns, who is usually also a poet, as shepherds (the Latin word for shepherd is "pastor")e.g. Spensers "Astrophel," on the death of Sir Philip Sidney, (1595), Miltons "Lycidas" (1638)
Empathy and Sympathy "Einfühlung"("feeling into")-"an involuntary projection of ourselves into anobject“-"empathic"- a passage which evokes from thereader this sense of participation with the pose,movements, and physical sensations of theobject that the passage describes
• An example is Shakespeares description, in his narrative poem Venus and Adonis (1593), ofthe snail, whose tender horns being hit, Shrinks backward in his shelly cave with pain.
• Sympathy - fellow-feeling; feeling-along-with the mental state and emotions, of another human being• Empathy- feeling-into the physical state and sensations
Enlightenment-an intellectual movement and cultural ambiance- "the liberation of mankind from his self-caused stateof minority” and the achievement of a state of maturitywhich is exemplified in his "determination and courageto use [his understanding] without the assistance ofanother.“ (Kants famous essay "What IsEnlightenment?" written in 1784 )
Epic (heroic poem) -it is a long verse narrative on a serioussubject, told in a formal and elevated style -centered on a heroic figure on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, anation, or (in the instance of John Miltons Paradise Lost) the human race
Traditional epics (also called "folk epics" or "primary epics")• versions of what had originally been oral poems about a tribal or national hero during a warlike age (the Iliad and Odyssey, the Anglo- Saxon Beowulf)
Literary epics• were composed by individual poetic craftsmen in deliberate imitation of the traditional form• narratives which differ in many respects from this model but manifest the epic spirit and grandeur in the scale, the scope, and the profound human importance of their subjects
Literary epicsfeatures:• The hero is a figure of great national or even cosmic importance• The setting of the poem is ample in scale, and may be worldwide, or even larger• The action involves superhuman deeds in battle, such as Achilles feats in the Trojan War• the gods and other supernatural beings take an interest or an active part—the Olympian gods in Homer• a ceremonial performance, and is narrated in a ceremonial style
Epigram-a statement, whether in verse orprose, which is terse, pointed, and witty
• In the same century, when the exiled Stuarts were still pretenders to the English throne, John Byrom proposed this epigrammatic toast:God bless the King—I mean the Faithsdefender!God bless (no harm in blessing) the Pretender!But who pretender is or who is king—God bless us all! thats quite another thing.
• apothegm- neat and witty statements in prose as well as verse; an alternative name for the prose epigram• aphorism- a pithy and pointed statement of a serious maxim, opinion, or general truth• One of the best known of aphorisms is also one of the shortest:• ars longa, vita brevis est—"art is long, life is short
Epiphany• means "a manifestation," or "showing forth,”• sudden flare into revelation of an ordinary object or scene.• short poems which represent a moment of revelation. (Wordsworths "The Two April Mornings" and "The Solitary Reaper”)
Epithalamion -a poem written to celebrate a marriage -The term in Greek means "at the bridal chamber," since the verses were originallywritten to be sung outside the bedroom of a newly married couple
Epithet-an adjective or adjectival phrase used todefine a distinctive quality of a person orthing-an example is: John Keats, "silver snarlingtrumpets" in The Eve of St. Agnes
Homeric epithets• adjectival terms—usually a compound of two words—like those which Homer in his epic poems used as recurrent formulas in referring to a distinctive feature of someone or something: "fleet-footed Achilles,"
Essay -Short composition in prose that undertakes to discuss a matter, express a point ofview, persuade us to accept a thesis on any subject, or simply entertain
Euphemism -inoffensive expression used in place of a blunt one that is felt to be disagreeable or embarrassing-("to sleep with" instead of "to have sexual intercourse with”)("comfort station" instead of "toilet")
Euphonyterm applied to language which strikes the ear as smooth, pleasant, and musical
• as in these lines from John Keats, The Eve of St Agnes (1820),And lucent syrops, tinct with cinnamon;Manna and dates, in argosy transferredFrom Fez; and spicèd dainties, every one,From silken Samarcand to cedard Lebanon.
cacophony, or dissonance—language which is perceived as harsh, rough, and unmusical—• the discordancy is the effect not only of the sound of the words, but also of their significance, conjoined with the difficulty of enunciating the sequence of the speech- sounds
• for humor, as in Robert Brownings "Pied Piper" (1842),Rats!They fought the dogs and killed the cats...Split open the kegs of salted sprats,Made nests inside mens Sunday hats
Euphuism-conspicuously formal and elaborate prose style-style: sententious (that is, full of moral maxims)reinforces: structural parallels by heavy and elaboratepatterns of alliteration and assonance,exploits: rhetorical questionaddicted to: long simileslearned : allusions which are often drawn frommythology and the habits of legendary animals
-EuphuesI see now that as the fish Scholopidus in the floodAraris at the waxing ofthe Moon is as white as the driven snow, and at thewaning as black asthe burnt coal, so Euphues, which at the firstencreasing of our familiarity,was very zealous, is now at the last cast becomemost faithless
Expressionism -A German movement in literature and the other arts (especially the visual arts) -never a concerted or well-defined movement-its central feature is a revolt against the artistic and literary tradition of realism, both in subject matter and in style
• Drama was a prominent and widely influential form of expressionist writing.• Among the better-known German playwrights were Georg Kaiser (Gas,From Morn to Midnight)
Fabliau-a short comic or satiric tale in verse dealingrealistically with middle-class or lower-class characters and delighting in the ribald; itsfavorite theme is the cuckolding of a stupid husband -e.g. "The Pardoners Tale,“ “The Miller’s Tale”
Fancy and Imagination• the fancy is a mechanical process which receives the elementary images—the "fixities and definite" which come to it ready-made from the senses• The imagination, however, which produces a much higher kind of poetry, dissolves, diffuses, dissipates, in order to re-create... It is essentially vital, even as all objects (as objects) are essentially fixed and dead.
• Imagination- to "create" rather than merely reassemble, by dissolving the fixities and definites^-the mental pictures, or images, received from the senses—and unifying them into a new whole• fancy- simply the faculty that produces a lesser, lighter, or humorous kind of poetry, and to make imagination the faculty that produces a higher, more serious, and more passionate poetry.