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  1. 1. Intentional Fallacy – signifies what is claimed to be the error of interpreting and evaluating a literary work by reference to evidence, outside the text itself for the intention---the design purposes of it’s author.
  2. 2. Interpretation and Hermeneutics <ul><li>Interpretation – focuses on especially obscure, ambiguous, or figurative passages. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>In the narrow sense, to interpret a work of literature is to specify the meanings of it’s language by analysis, paraphrase and commentary </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hermeneutics </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designated the formulation of principles of interpretation that apply specifically to the Bible; the principles incorporated both the rules governing a valid reading of the biblical text, and exegesis, or commentary on the application of the meanings expressed in the text. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interpretation: Typological & Allegorical <ul><li>Typological – In typological theory, that is, the key persons, actions, and events in the Old testament are view as “figurae” which are historically real themselves, but also “prefigure” those actions, persons, and events that are similar to them in some aspect, function, or relationship. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Allegorical interpretation of the bible had it’s roots in Greek and Roman thinkers who treated classical myths as allegorical representations of abstract cosmological, philosophical, or moral truths. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Invective - Speech or writing that abuses, denounces, or attacks. It can be directed against a person, cause, idea, or system. It employs a heavy use of negative emotive language. ; vehement or violent denunciation, censure, or  reproach. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth. --Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Irony – A mode of expression, through words (verbal irony) or events (irony of situation), conveying a reality different from and usually opposite to appearance or expectation. A writer may say the opposite of what he means, create a reversal between expectation and its fulfillment, or give the audience knowledge that a character lacks, making the character's words have meaning to the audience not perceived by the character. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Lai - a name originally applied to a variety of poems by medieval French writers in the latter twelfth and the thirteenth centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Some lais were lyric, but most of them were short narratives written in octosyllabic couplets. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Light Verse - is a term applied to a great variety of poems that use an ordinary speaking voice and relaxed manner to treat their subjects gaily, or playfully, or wittily, or with good-natured satire. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Linguistics - is the systematic study of the elements of language and the principles governing their combination and organization. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Local Color - the detailed representation in prose fiction of the setting, dialect, customs, dress, and ways of thinking and feeling which are distinctive of a particular region, such as Thomas Hardy’s “Wessex” or Rudyard Kipling’s India. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Lyric - is any fairly short poem, consisting of the utterance by a single speaker, who expresses a state of mind or a process of perception, thought and feeling </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln’s “O Captain, My Captain,” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Among the lyrics in a more private mode, some are simply a brief, intense expression of a mood or state of feeling; </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Emily Dickinson’s “Wild Nights, Wild Nights,” </li></ul>